Rank Equity Index: Measuring Parity in the Advancement of Underrepresented Populations in Academic Medicine.
Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
As educators, researchers, clinicians, and administrators, faculty serve pivotal roles in academic medical centers (AMCs). Thus, the quality of faculty members' experiences is inseparable from an AMC's success. In seeking new methods to assess equity in advancement in academic medicine, the authors developed the Rank Equity Index (REI)-adapted from the Executive Parity Index, a scale previously implemented within the business sector-to examine national data on gender and racial/ethnic equity across faculty ranks. The REI was employed on self-reported demographic data, collected by the Association of American Medical Colleges, from U.S. medical school faculty in 2017, to make pairwise rank comparisons of the professoriate by demographic characteristics and department. Overall results indicated that women did not attain parity at any pairwise rank comparison, while men were above parity at all ranks. Similar results were observed across all departments surveyed: women in the basic sciences had REIs closest to parity, women in pediatrics had the highest representation but had REIs that were further from parity than the REIs in the basic sciences, and women in surgery demonstrated the lowest REIs. Nationally, REIs were below 1.00 for all racial/ethnic group rank comparisons except for White and, in one case, multiple race non-Hispanic/Latinx. Across all analyzed departments, Black/African American, Asian, Hispanic/Latinx, and multiple race Hispanic/Latinx faculty had REIs below parity at all ranks except in two cases. In a comparison of 2017 and 2007 data, REIs across both race/ethnicity and gender were lower in 2007 for nearly all groups. REI analyses can highlight inequities in faculty rank that may be masked when using aggregate faculty proportions, which do not account for rank. The REI provides AMCs with a new tool to better analyze institutional data to inform efforts to increase parity across all faculty ranks.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000003720
View details for PubMedID 32889948
The association between Asian patient race/ethnicity and lower satisfaction scores.
BMC health services research
2020; 20 (1): 678
BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is increasingly being used to assess, and financially reward, provider performance. Previous studies suggest that race/ethnicity (R/E) may impact satisfaction, yet few practices adjust for patient R/E. The objective of this study is to examine R/E differences in patient satisfaction ratings and how these differences impact provider rankings.METHODS: Patient satisfaction survey data linked to electronic health records from two large outpatient centers in northern California - a non-profit organization of community-based clinics (Site A) and an academic medical center (Site B) - was collected and analyzed. Participants consisted of adult patients who received outpatient care at Site A from December 2010 to November 2014 and Site B from March 2013 to August 2014, and completed Press-Ganey Medical Practice Survey questionnaires (N=216,392 (Site A) and 30,690 (Site B)). Self-reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Black, Latino, and Asian patients were studied. For six questions each representing a survey subdomain, favorable ratings were defined as top-box ("very good") compared to all other categories ("very poor," "poor," "fair," and "good"). Using multivariable logistic regression with provider random effects, we assessed whether the likelihood of giving favorable ratings differed by patient R/E, adjusting for patient age and sex.RESULTS: Asian, younger and female patients provided less favorable ratings than other R/E, older and male patients. After adjustment, Asian patients were less likely than NHW patients to provide top-box ratings to the overall assessment question "likelihood of recommending this practice to others" (Site A: Asian predicted probability (PP) 0.680, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.675-0.685 compared to NHW PP 0.820, 95% CI: 0.818-0.822; Site B: Asian PP 0.734, 95% CI: 0.733-0.736 compared to NHW PP 0.859, 95% CI: 0.859-0.859). The effect sizes for Asian R/E were greater than the effect sizes for older age and female sex. An absolute 3% decrease in mean composite score between providers serving different percentages of Asian patients translated to an absolute 40% drop in national ranking.CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction scores may need to be adjusted for patient R/E, particularly for providers caring for high panel percentages of Asian patients.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12913-020-05534-6
View details for PubMedID 32698825
- Assessment of Sensitivity and Specificity of Patient-Collected Lower Nasal Specimens for Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Testing. JAMA network open 2020; 3 (6): e2012005
Gender Differences in Patient Perceptions of Physicians' Communal Traits and the Impact on Physician Evaluations.
Journal of women's health (2002)
Background: Communal traits, such as empathy, warmth, and consensus-building, are not highly valued in the medical hierarchy. Devaluing communal traits is potentially harmful for two reasons. First, data suggest that patients may prefer when physicians show communal traits. Second, if female physicians are more likely to be perceived as communal, devaluing communal traits may increase the gender inequity already prevalent in medicine. We test for both these effects. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed 22,431 Press Ganey outpatient surveys assessing 480 physicians collected from 2016 to 2017 at a large tertiary hospital. The surveys asked patients to provide qualitative comments and quantitative Likert-scale ratings assessing physician effectiveness. We coded whether patients described physicians with "communal" language using a validated word scale derived from previous work. We used multivariate logistic regressions to assess whether (1) patients were more likely to describe female physicians using communal language and (2) patients gave higher quantitative ratings to physicians they described with communal language, when controlling for physician, patient, and comment characteristics. Results: Female physicians had higher odds of being described with communal language than male physicians (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.40, p < 0.001). In addition, patients gave higher quantitative ratings to physicians they described with communal language. These results were robust to inclusion of controls. Conclusions: Female physicians are more likely to be perceived as communal. Being perceived as communal is associated with higher quantitative ratings, including likelihood to recommend. Our study indicates a need to reevaluate what types of behaviors academic hospitals reward in their physicians.
View details for DOI 10.1089/jwh.2019.8233
View details for PubMedID 32857642
Achieving Speaker Gender Equity at the SIR Annual Scientific Meeting: The Effect of Female Session Coordinators.
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of targeted efforts to increase the number of female speakers at the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) Annual Scientific Meeting (ASM) by reporting gender trends for invited faculty in 2017/2018 vs2016.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Faculty rosters for the 2016, 2017, and 2018 SIR ASMs were stratified by gender to quantify female representation at plenary sessions, categorical courses, symposia, self-assessment modules, and "meet-the-expert" sessions. Keynote events, scientific abstract presentations, and award ceremonies were excluded. In 2017, the SIR Annual Meeting Committee issued requirements for coordinators to invite selected women as speakers. Session coordinators are responsible for issuing speaker invitations, and invited speakers have the option to decline.RESULTS: Years 2017 and 2018 showed increases in female speaker representation, with women delivering 13% (89 of 687) and 14% (85 of 605) of all assigned presentations, compared with 9% in 2016 (46 of 514; P= .03 and P= .01, respectively). Gender diversity correlated with the gender of the session coordinator(s). When averaged over a 3-year period, female speakers constituted 7% of the speaker roster (112 of 1,504 presentations) for sessions led by an all-male coordinator team, compared with 36% (108 of 302) for sessions led by at least 1 female coordinator (P < .0001). Results of the linear regression model confirmed the effect of coordinator team gender composition (P < .0001).CONCLUSIONS: Having a woman as a session coordinator increased female speaker participation, which suggests that the inclusion of more women as coordinators is one mechanism for achieving gender balance at scientific meetings.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2019.07.006
View details for PubMedID 31587951
- Drs. Kothary et al respond. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR 2019
- Untapped Resources: Attaining Equitable Representation for Women in IR JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY 2019; 30 (4): 579–83
- Comparison of Outpatient Satisfaction Survey Scores for Asian Physicians and Non-Hispanic White Physicians JAMA NETWORK OPEN 2019; 2 (2)
CHIKUNGUNYA AND DENGUE VIRUS SEROPREVALENCE AMONG CHILDREN IN COASTAL AND WESTERN KENYA AND RISK FACTORS FOR EXPOSURE
AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE. 2019: 243–44
View details for Web of Science ID 000507364503150
- Protocol Paper: Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Transmissibility in Communities After Cessation of Routine Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Immunization CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018; 67: S115–S120
- Pediatric HIV Infection and Decreased Prevalence of OPV Point Mutations Linked to Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018; 67: S78–S84
- Spatial Analyses of Oral Polio Vaccine Transmission in an Community Vaccinated With Inactivated Polio Vaccine CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018; 67: S18–S25
- Assessing the Risk of Vaccine-derived Outbreaks After Reintroduction of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine in Postcessation Settings CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018; 67: S26–S34
- Validation of a High-throughput, Multiplex, Real-time Qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection of Sabin Oral Polio Vaccine in Environmental Samples CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018; 67: S98–S102
- OPV Vaccination and Shedding Patterns in Mexican and US Children CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018; 67: S85–S89
- Lab Protocol Paper: Use of a High-throughput, Multiplex Reverse-transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Sabin Oral Polio Vaccine in Fecal Samples CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018; 67: S121–S126
- Characterization of Household and Community Shedding and Transmission of Oral Polio Vaccine in Mexican Communities With Varying Vaccination Coverage CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2018; 67: S4–S17
Associations between women's perceptions of gender relations and self-esteem and self-efficacy in a former conflict zone: baseline findings in South Kivu, DR Congo
ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2018: S5
View details for Web of Science ID 000437672000005
Physician Gender Is Associated with Press Ganey Patient Satisfaction Scores in Outpatient Gynecology.
Women's health issues : official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
2018; 28 (3): 281–85
Patient satisfaction is gaining increasing attention as a quality measure in health care, but the methods used to assess it may negatively impact women physicians.Our objective was to examine the relationship between physician gender and patient satisfaction with outpatient gynecology care as measured by the Press Ganey patient satisfaction survey.This cross-sectional study analyzed 909 Press Ganey patient satisfaction surveys linked to outpatient gynecology visits at a single academic institution (March 2013-August 2014), including self-reported demographics and satisfaction. Surveys are delivered in a standardized fashion electronically and by mail. Surveys were completed by 821 unique patients and 13,780 gynecology visits occurred during the study period. The primary outcome variable was likelihood to recommend (LTR) a physician. We used χ2 tests of independence to assess the effect of demographic concordance on LTR and two generalized estimating equations models were run clustered by physician, with topbox physician LTR as the outcome variable. Analysis was performed in SAS Enterprise Guide 7.1 (SAS, Inc., Cary, NC).Nine hundred nine surveys with complete demographic data were completed by women during the study period (mean age, 49.3 years). Age- and race-concordant patient-physician pairs received significantly higher proportions of top LTR score than discordant pairs (p = .014 and p < .0001, respectively). In contrast, gender-concordant pairs received a significantly lower proportion of top scores than discordant pairs (p = .027). In the generalized estimating equations model adjusting for health care environment, only gender remained statistically significant. Women physicians had significantly lower odds (47%) of receiving a top score (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.78; p = .001).Women gynecologists are 47% less likely to receive top patient satisfaction scores compared with their male counterparts owing to their gender alone, suggesting that gender bias may impact the results of patient satisfaction questionnaires. Therefore, the results of this and similar questionnaires should be interpreted with great caution until the impact on women physicians is better understood.
View details for PubMedID 29429946