Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Chief of Urology, VA Palo Alto Health Care System (2006 - Present)
  • Co-Director, Section of Laparoscopic and Minimally Invasive Urologic Surgery (2006 - Present)
  • Standing Member, NIH Study Section - Instrumentation and Systems Development (ISD) (2013 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Scholar, AUA/CUA International Exchange Program (2012)
  • Invited Speaker, Gordon Research Conferences - Bioanalytical Sensors (2010)
  • First Place, AUA Foundation Young Investigator Research Forum (2009)
  • Faculty Fellows Leadership Program, Stanford (2008)
  • Translational Science Award, Stanford Comprehensive Cancer Center (2007)
  • Diversity Faculty Research Award, Stanford (2007)
  • Research Scholar, American Foundation for Urologic Disease (2003-05)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification, American Board of Urology (2008)
  • Fellowship, University of California, Los Angeles, Endourology / Minimally Invasive Surgery (2006)
  • Residency, University of California, Los Angeles, Urology (2003)
  • Internship, University of California, Los Angeles, Surgery (1998)
  • M.D., Stanford, Medicine (1997)
  • A.B., Harvard, Biology (1993)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Urologic Oncology
Minimally Invasive Surgery (Endoscopic, Laparoscopic, and Robotic-Assisted)
Optical Imaging
Image-Guided Surgery
Molecular Imaging
Urinary Tract Infections
Molecular Diagnostics
Biosensors
Lab-on-a-chip
Nanotechnology

Clinical Trials


  • A Comprehensive Study to Isolate Tumor-initiating Cells From Human Epithelial Malignancies Not Recruiting

    We hypothesize that all human malignancies harbour a subpopulation of tumor initiating cells/cancer stem cells (CSCs) that drives tumor development and potentially recurrence or metastasis of the disease. The primary aim of this study is to develop strategies for prospective isolation/enrichment of CSCs from human tumors of different tissue origins. In addition, we will characterize the signaling pathways and/or tumor specific antigens that are specific for CSCs, in order to specifically target these CSCs as the endpoint of this study.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Linda Quinn, 650-723-6520.

    View full details

2013-14 Courses


Postdoctoral Advisees


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Journal Articles


  • Intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation during urologic surgery. Current opinion in urology Hsu, M., Gupta, M., Su, L., Liao, J. C. 2014; 24 (1): 66-74

    Abstract

    To review optical imaging technologies in urologic surgery aimed to facilitate intraoperative imaging and tissue interrogation.Emerging new optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open surgery. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization.Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery were reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000010

    View details for PubMedID 24240512

  • An AC electrokinetics facilitated biosensor cassette for rapid pathogen identification ANALYST Ouyang, M., Mohan, R., Lu, Y., Liu, T., Mach, K. E., Sin, M. L., McComb, M., Joshi, J., Gau, V., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C. 2013; 138 (13): 3660-3666

    Abstract

    To develop a portable point-of-care system based on biosensors for common infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, the sensing process needs to be implemented within an enclosed fluidic system. On chip sample preparation of clinical samples remains a significant obstacle to achieving robust sensor performance. Herein AC electrokinetics is applied in an electrochemical biosensor cassette to enhance molecular convection and hybridization efficiency through electrokinetics induced fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation. Using E. coli as an exemplary pathogen, we determined the optimal electrokinetic parameters for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA in the biosensor cassette based on the current output, signal-to-noise ratio, and limit of detection. In addition, a panel of six probe sets targeting common uropathogenic bacteria was demonstrated. The optimized parameters were also validated using patient-derived clinical urine samples. The effectiveness of electrokinetics for on chip sample preparation will facilitate the implementation of point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3an00259d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319876800012

    View details for PubMedID 23626988

  • New Optical Imaging Technologies for Bladder Cancer: Considerations and Perspectives JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Liu, J., Droller, M. J., Liao, J. C. 2012; 188 (2): 361-368

    Abstract

    Bladder cancer presents as a spectrum of different diatheses. Accurate assessment for individualized treatment depends on initial diagnostic accuracy. Detection relies on white light cystoscopy accuracy and comprehensiveness. Aside from invasiveness and potential risks, white light cystoscopy shortcomings include difficult flat lesion detection, precise tumor delineation to enable complete resection, inflammation and malignancy differentiation, and grade and stage determination. Each shortcoming depends on surgeon ability and experience with the technology available for visualization and resection. Fluorescence cystoscopy/photodynamic diagnosis, narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography address the limitations and have in vivo feasibility. They detect suspicious lesions (photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging) and further characterize lesions (optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy). We analyzed the added value of each technology beyond white light cystoscopy and evaluated their maturity to alter the cancer course.Detailed PubMed® searches were done using the terms "fluorescence cystoscopy," "photodynamic diagnosis," "narrow band imaging," "optical coherence tomography" and "confocal laser endomicroscopy" with "optical imaging," "bladder cancer" and "urothelial carcinoma." Diagnostic accuracy reports and all prospective studies were selected for analysis. We explored technological principles, preclinical and clinical evidence supporting nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer detection and characterization, and whether improved sensitivity vs specificity translates into improved correlation of diagnostic accuracy with recurrence and progression. Emerging preclinical technologies with potential application were reviewed.Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging improve nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer detection, including carcinoma in situ. Photodynamic diagnosis identifies more papillary lesions than white light cystoscopy, enabling more complete resection and fewer residual tumors. Despite improved treatment current data on photodynamic diagnosis do not support improved high risk diathetic detection and characterization or correlation with disease progression. Prospective recurrence data are lacking on narrow band imaging. Confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography potentially grade and stage lesions but data are lacking on diagnostic accuracy. Several emerging preclinical technologies may enhance the diagnostic capability of endoscopic imaging.New optical imaging technologies may improve bladder cancer detection and characterization, and transurethral resection quality. While data on photodynamic diagnosis are strongest, the clinical effectiveness of these technologies is not proven. Prospective studies are needed, particularly of narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography. As each technology matures and new ones emerge, cost-effectiveness analysis must be addressed in the context of the various bladder cancer types.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2012.03.127

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306270600006

    View details for PubMedID 22698620

  • Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Bercovici, M., Han, C. M., Liao, J. C., Santiago, J. G. 2012; 109 (28): 11127-11132

    Abstract

    We use isotachophoresis (ITP) to control and increase the rate of nucleic acid hybridization reactions in free solution. We present a new physical model, validation experiments, and demonstrations of this assay. We studied the coupled physicochemical processes of preconcentration, mixing, and chemical reaction kinetics under ITP. Our experimentally validated model enables a closed form solution for ITP-aided reaction kinetics, and reveals a new characteristic time scale which correctly predicts order 10,000-fold speed-up of chemical reaction rate for order 100 pM reactants, and greater enhancement at lower concentrations. At 500 pM concentration, we measured a reaction time which is 14,000-fold lower than that predicted for standard second-order hybridization. The model and method are generally applicable to acceleration of reactions involving nucleic acids, and may be applicable to a wide range of reactions involving ionic reactants.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1205004109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306642100027

    View details for PubMedID 22733732

  • Biosensor diagnosis of urinary tract infections: a path to better treatment? TRENDS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES Mach, K. E., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C. 2011; 32 (6): 330-336

    Abstract

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most common bacterial infections and poses a significant healthcare burden. The standard culture-based diagnosis of UTI has a typical delay of two to three days. In the absence of definitive microbiological diagnosis at the point of care, physicians frequently initiate empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, and this has contributed to the emergence of resistant pathogens. Biosensors are emerging as a powerful diagnostic platform for infectious diseases. Paralleling how blood glucose sensors revolutionized the management of diabetes, and how pregnancy tests are now conducted in the home, biosensors are poised to improve UTI diagnosis significantly. Biosensors are amenable to integration with microfluidic technology for point-of-care (POC) applications. This review focuses on promising biosensor technology for UTI diagnosis, including pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and hurdles to be surpassed in the translation of biosensor technology from bench to bedside.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tips.2011.03.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291843800002

    View details for PubMedID 21458868

  • Advances and challenges in biosensor-based diagnosis of infectious diseases. Expert review of molecular diagnostics Sin, M. L., Mach, K. E., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C. 2014; 14 (2): 225-244

    Abstract

    Rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases and timely initiation of appropriate treatment are critical determinants that promote optimal clinical outcomes and general public health. Conventional in vitro diagnostics for infectious diseases are time-consuming and require centralized laboratories, experienced personnel and bulky equipment. Recent advances in biosensor technologies have potential to deliver point-of-care diagnostics that match or surpass conventional standards in regards to time, accuracy and cost. Broadly classified as either label-free or labeled, modern biosensors exploit micro- and nanofabrication technologies and diverse sensing strategies including optical, electrical and mechanical transducers. Despite clinical need, translation of biosensors from research laboratories to clinical applications has remained limited to a few notable examples, such as the glucose sensor. Challenges to be overcome include sample preparation, matrix effects and system integration. We review the advances of biosensors for infectious disease diagnostics and discuss the critical challenges that need to be overcome in order to implement integrated diagnostic biosensors in real world settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1586/14737159.2014.888313

    View details for PubMedID 24524681

  • Electrokinetic stringency control in self-assembled monolayer-based biosensors for multiplex urinary tract infection diagnosis NANOMEDICINE-NANOTECHNOLOGY BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE Liu, T., Sin, M. L., Pyne, J. D., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2014; 10 (1): 159-166

    Abstract

    Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is critical toward judicious management of infectious diseases. Herein, we demonstrate an in situ electrokinetic stringency control approach for a self-assembled monolayer-based electrochemical biosensor toward urinary tract infection diagnosis. The in situ electrokinetic stringency control technique generates Joule heating induced temperature rise and electrothermal fluid motion directly on the sensor to improve its performance for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA, a phylogenetic biomarker. The dependence of the hybridization efficiency reveals that in situ electrokinetic stringency control is capable of discriminating single-base mismatches. With electrokinetic stringency control, the background noise due to the matrix effects of clinical urine samples can be reduced by 60%. The applicability of the system is demonstrated by multiplex detection of three uropathogenic clinical isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences. The results demonstrate that electrokinetic stringency control can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the biosensor for multiplex urinary tract infection diagnosis.Urinary tract infections remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity as secondary conditions often related to chronic diseases or to immunosuppression. Rapid and sensitive identification of the causative organisms is critical in the appropriate management of this condition. These investigators demonstrate an in situ electrokinetic stringency control approach for a self-assembled monolayer-based electrochemical biosensor toward urinary tract infection diagnosis, establishing that such an approach significantly improves the biosensor's signal-to-noise ratio.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nano.2013.07.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329103500017

    View details for PubMedID 23891989

  • A Universal Electrode Approach for Automated Electrochemical Molecular Analyses JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Sin, M. L., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2013; 22 (5): 1126-1132
  • Real time diagnosis of bladder cancer with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy Proc. SPIE 7902, 79021V (2011); doi:10.1117/12.874243 Liu J-J, Wu K, Adams W, Hsiao ST, Mach KE, Beck AH, Jensen KC, Liao JC
  • Hybrid electrokinetic manipulation in high-conductivity media Lab Chip (DOI: 10.1039/C1LC20054B) Gao J, Sin MLY, Liu T, Gau V, Liao JC, Wong PK
  • Interobserver agreement of confocal laser endomicroscopy for bladder cancer. Journal of endourology Chang, T. C., Liu, J., Hsiao, S. T., Pan, Y., Mach, K. E., Leppert, J. T., McKenney, J. K., Rouse, R. V., Liao, J. C. 2013; 27 (5): 598-603

    Abstract

    Emerging optical imaging technologies such as confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) hold promise in improving bladder cancer diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the interobserver agreement of image interpretation using CLE for bladder cancer.Experienced CLE urologists (n=2), novice CLE urologists (n=6), pathologists (n=4), and nonclinical researchers (n=5) were recruited to participate in a 2-hour computer-based training consisting of a teaching and validation set of intraoperative white light cystoscopy (WLC) and CLE video sequences from patients undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Interobserver agreement was determined using the ? statistic.Of the 31 bladder regions analyzed, 19 were cancer and 12 were benign. For cancer diagnosis, experienced CLE urologists had substantial agreement for both CLE and WLC+CLE (90%, ? 0.80) compared with moderate agreement for WLC alone (74%, ? 0.46), while novice CLE urologists had moderate agreement for CLE (77%, ? 0.55), WLC (78%, ? 0.54), and WLC+CLE (80%, ? 0.59). Pathologists had substantial agreement for CLE (81%, ? 0.61), and nonclinical researchers had moderate agreement (77%, ? 0.49) in cancer diagnosis. For cancer grading, experienced CLE urologists had fair to moderate agreement for CLE (68%, ? 0.64), WLC (74%, ? 0.67), and WLC+CLE (53%, ? 0.33), as did novice CLE urologists for CLE (53%, ? 0.39), WLC (66%, ? 0.50), and WLC+CLE (61%, ? 0.49). Pathologists (65%, ? 0.55) and nonclinical researchers (61%, ? 0.56) both had moderate agreement for CLE in cancer grading.CLE is an adoptable technology for cancer diagnosis in novice CLE observers after a short training with moderate interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy similar to WLC alone. Experienced CLE observers may be capable of achieving substantial levels of agreement for cancer diagnosis that is higher than with WLC alone.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/end.2012.0549

    View details for PubMedID 23072435

  • Single Cell Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing by Confined Microchannels and Electrokinetic Loading ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Lu, Y., Gao, J., Zhang, D. D., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2013; 85 (8): 3971-3976

    Abstract

    Multidrug-resistant pathogens are an emerging global health problem. In addition to the need of developing new antibiotics in the pipeline, the ability to rapidly determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria represents one of the most crucial steps toward the management of infectious diseases and the prevention of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here, we report a single cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) approach for rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens. By confining individual bacteria in gas permeable microchannels with dimensions comparable to a single bacterium, the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria can be monitored in real-time at the single cell level. To facilitate the dynamic loading of the bacteria into the confined microchannels for observation, AC electrokinetics is demonstrated for capturing bacteria to defined locations in high-conductivity AST buffer. The electrokinetic technique achieves a loading efficiency of about 75% with a negligible effect on the bacterial growth rate. To optimize the protocol for single cell AST, the bacterial growth rate of individual bacteria under different antibiotic conditions has been determined systematically. The applicability of single cell AST is demonstrated by the rapid determination of the antimicrobial resistant profiles of uropathogenic clinical isolates in Mueller-Hinton media and in urine. The antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria can be determined in less than 1 h compared to days in standard culture-based AST techniques.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac4004248

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317794800027

    View details for PubMedID 23445209

  • Turning on the Lights: New Technologies in Optical Diagnostics and Therapeutics. The Journal of urology Liao, J. C., Leppert, J. T. 2013

    View details for PubMedID 23688641

  • Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the urinary tract: the technique. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Chang, T. C., Liu, J., Liao, J. C. 2013: e4409-?

    Abstract

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an emerging optical imaging technology that enables real-time in vivo microscopy of mucosal surfaces during standard endoscopy. With applications currently in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, CLE has also been explored in the urinary tract for bladder cancer diagnosis. Cellular morphology and tissue microarchitecture can be resolved with micron scale resolution in real time, in addition to dynamic imaging of the normal and pathological vasculature. The probe-based CLE system (Cellvizio, Mauna Kea Technologies, France) consists of a reusable fiberoptic imaging probe coupled to a 488 nm laser scanning unit. The imaging probe is inserted in the working channels of standard flexible and rigid endoscopes. An endoscope-based CLE system (Optiscan, Australia), in which the confocal endomicroscopy functionality is integrated onto the endoscope, is also used in the gastrointestinal tract. Given the larger scope diameter, however, application in the urinary tract is currently limited to ex vivo use. Confocal image acquisition is done through direct contact of the imaging probe with the target tissue and recorded as video sequences. As in the gastrointestinal tract, endomicroscopy of the urinary tract requires an exogenenous contrast agent-most commonly fluorescein, which can be administered intravenously or intravesically. Intravesical administration is a well-established method to introduce pharmacological agents locally with minimal systemic toxicity that is unique to the urinary tract. Fluorescein rapidly stains the extracellular matrix and has an established safety profile. Imaging probes of various diameters enable compatibility with different caliber endoscopes. To date, 1.4 and 2.6 mm probes have been evaluated with flexible and rigid cystoscopy. Recent availability of a < 1 mm imaging probe opens up the possibility of CLE in the upper urinary tract during ureteroscopy. Fluorescence cystoscopy (i.e. photodynamic diagnosis) and narrow band imaging are additional endoscope-based optical imaging modalities that can be combined with CLE to achieve multimodal imaging of the urinary tract. In the future, CLE may be coupled with molecular contrast agents such as fluorescently labeled peptides and antibodies for endoscopic imaging of disease processes with molecular specificity.

    View details for DOI 10.3791/4409

    View details for PubMedID 23354133

  • A Cell Phone-Based Microphotometric System for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Journal of laboratory automation Kadlec, M. W., You, D., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2013

    Abstract

    This study demonstrates a low-cost, portable diagnostic system for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing in resource-limited settings. To determine the antimicrobial resistance phenotypically, the growth of pathogens in microwell arrays is detected under different antibiotic conditions. The use of a colorimetric cell viability reagent is shown to significantly improve the sensitivity of the assay compared with standard absorbance spectroscopy. Gas-permeable microwell arrays are incorporated for facilitating rapid bacterial growth and eliminating the requirement of bulky supporting equipment. Antibiotics can also be precoated in the microwell array to simplify the assay protocol toward point-of-care applications. Furthermore, a low-cost cell phone-based microphotometric system is developed for detecting the bacterial growth in the microwell array. By optimizing the operating conditions, the system allows antimicrobial susceptibility testing for samples with initial concentrations from 10(1) to 10(6) cfu/mL. Using urinary tract infection as the model system, we demonstrate rapid antimicrobial resistance profiling for uropathogens in both culture media and urine. With its simplicity and cost-effectiveness, the cell phone-based microphotometric system is anticipated to have broad applicability in resource-limited settings toward the management of infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

    View details for PubMedID 23697894

  • Endoscopic imaging of Cerenkov luminescence BIOMEDICAL OPTICS EXPRESS Kothapalli, S., Liu, H., Liao, J. C., Cheng, Z., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 3 (6): 1215-1225

    Abstract

    We demonstrate feasibility of endoscopic imaging of Cerenkov light originated when charged nuclear particles, emitted from radionuclides, travel through a biological tissue of living subjects at superluminal velocity. The endoscopy imaging system consists of conventional optical fiber bundle/ clinical endoscopes, an optical imaging lens system, and a sensitive low-noise charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Our systematic studies using phantom samples show that Cerenkov light from as low as 1 µCi of radioactivity emitted from (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can be coupled and transmitted through conventional optical fibers and endoscopes. In vivo imaging experiments with tumor bearing mice, intravenously administered with (18)F-FDG, further demonstrated that Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy is a promising new tool in the field of endoscopic molecular imaging.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304965700007

    View details for PubMedID 22741069

  • Seeing it through: translational validation of new medical imaging modalities BIOMEDICAL OPTICS EXPRESS Aldrich, M. B., Marshall, M. V., Sevick-Muraca, E. M., Lanza, G., Kotyk, J., Culver, J., Wang, L. V., Uddin, J., Crews, B. C., Marnett, L. J., Liao, J. C., Contag, C., Crawford, J. M., Wang, K., Reisdorph, B., Appelman, H., Turgeon, D. K., Meyer, C., Wang, T. 2012; 3 (4): 764-776

    Abstract

    Medical imaging is an invaluable tool for diagnosis, surgical guidance, and assessment of treatment efficacy. The Network for Translational Research (NTR) for Optical Imaging consists of four research groups working to "bridge the gap" between lab discovery and clinical use of fluorescence- and photoacoustic-based imaging devices used with imaging biomarkers. While the groups are using different modalities, all the groups face similar challenges when attempting to validate these systems for FDA approval and, ultimately, clinical use. Validation steps taken, as well as future needs, are described here. The group hopes to provide translational validation guidance for itself, as well as other researchers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302788200009

    View details for PubMedID 22574264

  • In Situ Electrokinetic Enhancement for Self-Assembled-Monolayer-Based Electrochemical Biosensing ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Sin, M. L., Liu, T., Pyne, J. D., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2012; 84 (6): 2702-2707

    Abstract

    This study reports a multifunctional electrode approach which directly implements electrokinetic enhancement on a self-assembled-monolayer-based electrochemical sensor for point-of-care diagnostics. Using urinary tract infections as a model system, we demonstrate that electrokinetic enhancement, which involves in situ stirring and heating, can enhance the sensitivity of the strain specific 16S rRNA hybridization assay for 1 order of magnitude and accelerate the time-limiting incubation step with a 6-fold reduction in the incubation time. Since the same electrode platform is used for both electrochemical signal enhancement and electrochemical sensing, the multifunctional electrode approach provides a highly effective strategy toward fully integrated lab-on-a-chip systems for various biomedical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac203245j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301634500013

    View details for PubMedID 22397486

  • Next generation of optical diagnostics for bladder cancer using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy PHOTONIC THERAPEUTICS AND DIAGNOSTICS VIII, PTS 1 AND 2 Liu, J., Chang, T. C., Pan, Y., Hsiao, S. T., Mach, K. E., Jensen, K. C., Liao, J. C. 2012; 8207

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.907623

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302580900030

  • Clinical Validation of Integrated Nucleic Acid and Protein Detection on an Electrochemical Biosensor Array for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis PLOS ONE Mohan, R., Mach, K. E., Bercovici, M., Pan, Y., Dhulipala, L., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C. 2011; 6 (10)

    Abstract

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection that poses a substantial healthcare burden, yet its definitive diagnosis can be challenging. There is a need for a rapid, sensitive and reliable analytical method that could allow early detection of UTI and reduce unnecessary antibiotics. Pathogen identification along with quantitative detection of lactoferrin, a measure of pyuria, may provide useful information towards the overall diagnosis of UTI. Here, we report an integrated biosensor platform capable of simultaneous pathogen identification and detection of urinary biomarker that could aid the effectiveness of the treatment and clinical management.The integrated pathogen 16S rRNA and host lactoferrin detection using the biosensor array was performed on 113 clinical urine samples collected from patients at risk for complicated UTI. For pathogen detection, the biosensor used sandwich hybridization of capture and detector oligonucleotides to the target analyte, bacterial 16S rRNA. For detection of the protein biomarker, the biosensor used an analogous electrochemical sandwich assay based on capture and detector antibodies. For this assay, a set of oligonucleotide probes optimized for hybridization at 37°C to facilitate integration with the immunoassay was developed. This probe set targeted common uropathogens including E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. as well as less common uropathogens including Serratia, Providencia, Morganella and Staphylococcus spp. The biosensor assay for pathogen detection had a specificity of 97% and a sensitivity of 89%. A significant correlation was found between LTF concentration measured by the biosensor and WBC and leukocyte esterase (p<0.001 for both).We successfully demonstrate simultaneous detection of nucleic acid and host immune marker on a single biosensor array in clinical samples. This platform can be used for multiplexed detection of nucleic acid and protein as the next generation of urinary tract infection diagnostics.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0026846

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296916000027

    View details for PubMedID 22066011

  • Molecular Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Using Microparticle Enhanced Double-Stranded DNA Probes ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Riahi, R., Mach, K. E., Mohan, R., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2011; 83 (16): 6349-6354

    Abstract

    Rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens is essential toward clinical management of infectious diseases. Traditional approaches for pathogen detection, however, often require time-intensive bacterial culture and amplification procedures. Herein, a microparticle enhanced double-stranded DNA probe is demonstrated for rapid species-specific detection of bacterial 16S rRNA. In this molecular assay, the binding of the target sequence to the fluorophore conjugated probe thermodynamically displaces the quencher probe and allows the fluorophore to fluoresce. By incorporation of streptavidin-coated microparticles to localize the biotinylated probes, the sensitivity of the assay can be improved by 3 orders of magnitude. The limit of detection of the assay is as few as eight bacteria without target amplification and is highly specific against other common pathogens. Its applicability toward clinical diagnostics is demonstrated by directly identifying bacterial pathogens in urine samples from patients with urinary tract infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac2012575

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293758800034

    View details for PubMedID 21718053

  • Dynamic Real-time Microscopy of the Urinary Tract Using Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy UROLOGY Wu, K., Liu, J., Adams, W., Sonn, G. A., Mach, K. E., Pan, Y., Beck, A. H., Jensen, K. C., Liao, J. C. 2011; 78 (1): 225-231

    Abstract

    To develop the diagnostic criteria for benign and neoplastic conditions of the urinary tract using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), a new technology for dynamic, in vivo imaging with micron-scale resolution. The suggested diagnostic criteria will formulate a guide for pCLE image interpretation in urology.Patients scheduled for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) or nephrectomy were recruited. After white-light cystoscopy (WLC), fluorescein was administered as contrast. Different areas of the urinary tract were imaged with pCLE via direct contact between the confocal probe and the area of interest. Confocal images were subsequently compared with standard hematoxylin and eosin analysis.pCLE images were collected from 66 participants, including 2 patients who underwent nephrectomy. We identified key features associated with different anatomic landmarks of the urinary tract, including the kidney, ureter, bladder, prostate, and urethra. In vivo pCLE of the bladder demonstrated distinct differences between normal mucosa and neoplastic tissue. Using mosaicing, a post hoc image-processing algorithm, individual image frames were juxtaposed to form wide-angle views to better evaluate tissue microarchitecture.In contrast to standard pathologic analysis of fixed tissue with hematoxylin and eosin, pCLE provides real time microscopy of the urinary tract to enable dynamic interrogation of benign and neoplastic tissues in vivo. The diagnostic criteria developed in this study will facilitate adaptation of pCLE for use in conjunction with WLC to expedite diagnosis of urinary tract pathology, particularly bladder cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2011.02.057

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292080300062

    View details for PubMedID 21601243

  • Comparison of 2.6-and 1.4-mm Imaging Probes for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy of the Urinary Tract JOURNAL OF ENDOUROLOGY Adams, W., Wu, K., Liu, J., Hsiao, S. T., Jensen, K. C., Liao, J. C. 2011; 25 (6): 917-921

    Abstract

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is an emerging technology for dynamic, in vivo imaging of the urinary tract with micron-scale resolution. We conducted a comparative analysis of pCLE with a 2.6-mm probe and a 1.4-mm probe that is compatible with flexible endoscopes.Sixty-seven patients scheduled for bladder tumor resection were recruited. pCLE imaging was performed using 2.6- and 1.4-mm probes. Image quality with the different probes was examined and further compared with standard histopathology.Images with the 2.6-mm probe have better resolution of cell morphology. The 1.4-mm probe has a wider field of view and better view of microarchitecture. While image quality with the 2.6-mm probe is superior, the 1.4-mm probe is compatible with flexible cystoscopy and maneuverability is maintained, enabling imaging of areas of the bladder that were previously challenging to access with the larger probe.The optical specifications of the 2.6-mm probe are more suitable for distinguishing urinary tract histopathology. Further design optimization to improve resolution and additional validation of the diagnostic accuracy of the smaller probe are needed to help extend application of pCLE for optical biopsy of the upper and lower urinary tract.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/end.2010.0686

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291553500004

    View details for PubMedID 21568756

  • Rapid Detection of Urinary Tract Infections Using Isotachophoresis and Molecular Beacons ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Bercovici, M., Kaigala, G. V., Mach, K. E., Han, C. M., Liao, J. C., Santiago, J. G. 2011; 83 (11): 4110-4117

    Abstract

    We present a novel assay for rapid detection and identification of bacterial urinary tract infections using isotachophoresis (ITP) and molecular beacons. We applied on-chip ITP to extract and focus 16S rRNA directly from bacterial lysate and used molecular beacons to achieve detection of bacteria specific sequences. We demonstrated detection of E. coli in bacteria cultures as well as in patient urine samples in the clinically relevant range 1E6-1E8 cfu/mL. For bacterial cultures we further demonstrate quantification in this range. The assay requires minimal sample preparation (a single centrifugation and dilution), and can be completed, from beginning of lysing to detection, in under 15 min. We believe that the principles presented here can be used for design of other rapid diagnostics or detection methods for pathogenic diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac200253x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290978500022

    View details for PubMedID 21545089

  • Advances in the field of urinary tract infections European Urology Today Congress News Bjerklund Johansen TE, Liao JC 2011; 23: 27
  • A Biosensor Platform for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Directly From Clinical Samples JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Mach, K. E., Mohan, R., Baron, E. J., Shih, M., Gau, V., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C. 2011; 185 (1): 148-153

    Abstract

    A significant barrier to efficient antibiotic management of infection is that the standard diagnostic methodologies do not provide results at the point of care. The delays between sample collection and bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility reporting have led to empirical use of antibiotics, contributing to the emergence of drug resistant pathogens. As a key step toward the development of a point of care device for determining the antibiotic susceptibility of urinary tract pathogens, we report on a biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test.For assay development bacteria were cultured with or without antibiotics, and growth was quantitated by determining viable counts and electrochemical biosensor measurement of bacterial 16S rRNA. To determine antibiotic susceptibility directly from patient samples, urine was cultured on antibiotic plates for 2.5 hours and growth was determined by electrochemical measurement of bacterial 16S rRNA. For assay validation 252 urine samples were collected from patients at the Spinal Cord Injury Service at Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. The biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test was completed for samples containing gram-negative organisms. Pathogen identification and antibiotic susceptibility results were compared between our assay and standard microbiological analysis.A direct biosensor quantitation of bacterial 16S rRNA can be used to monitor bacterial growth for a biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test. Clinical validation of a biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test with patient urine samples demonstrated that this test was 94% accurate in 368 pathogen-antibiotic tests compared to standard microbiological analysis.This biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test, in concert with our previously described pathogen identification assay, can provide culture and susceptibility information directly from a urine sample within 3.5 hours.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2010.09.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285141900047

    View details for PubMedID 21074208

  • System Integration - A Major Step toward Lab on a Chip. Journal of biological engineering Sin, M. L., Gao, J., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2011; 5: 6-?

    Abstract

    Microfluidics holds great promise to revolutionize various areas of biological engineering, such as single cell analysis, environmental monitoring, regenerative medicine, and point-of-care diagnostics. Despite the fact that intensive efforts have been devoted into the field in the past decades, microfluidics has not yet been adopted widely. It is increasingly realized that an effective system integration strategy that is low cost and broadly applicable to various biological engineering situations is required to fully realize the potential of microfluidics. In this article, we review several promising system integration approaches for microfluidics and discuss their advantages, limitations, and applications. Future advancements of these microfluidic strategies will lead toward translational lab-on-a-chip systems for a wide spectrum of biological engineering applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1754-1611-5-6

    View details for PubMedID 21612614

  • Hybrid electrokinetic manipulation in high-conductivity media LAB ON A CHIP Gao, J., Sin, M. L., Liu, T., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2011; 11 (10): 1770-1775

    Abstract

    This study reports a hybrid electrokinetic technique for label-free manipulation of pathogenic bacteria in biological samples toward medical diagnostic applications. While most electrokinetic techniques only function in low-conductivity buffers, hybrid electrokinetics enables effective operation in high-conductivity samples, such as physiological fluids (?1 S m(-1)). The hybrid electrokinetic technique combines short-range electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis, and long-range AC electrothermal flow to improve its effectiveness. The major technical hurdle of electrode instability for manipulating high conductivity samples is tackled by using a Ti-Au-Ti sandwich electrode and a 3-parallel-electrode configuration is designed for continuous isolation of bacteria. The device operates directly with biological samples including urine and buffy coats. We show that pathogenic bacteria and biowarfare agents can be concentrated for over 3 orders of magnitude using hybrid electrokinetics.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c1lc20054b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289951200009

    View details for PubMedID 21487576

  • Real Time Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer with Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy IMAGING, MANIPULATION, AND ANALYSIS OF BIOMOLECULES, CELLS, AND TISSUES IX Liu, J., Wu, K., Adams, W., Hsiao, S. T., Mach, K. E., Beck, A. H., Jensen, K. C., Liao, J. C. 2011; 7902

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.874243

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297677500045

  • Statistical Metamodeling for Revealing Synergistic Antimicrobial Interactions PLOS ONE Chen, C. H., Gau, V., Zhang, D. D., Liao, J. C., Wang, F., Wong, P. K. 2010; 5 (11)

    Abstract

    Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO) scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0015472

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284087800026

    View details for PubMedID 21124958

  • Electrochemical immunosensor detection of urinary lactoferrin in clinical samples for urinary tract infection diagnosis BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS Pan, Y., Sonn, G. A., Sin, M. L., Mach, K. E., Shih, M., Gau, V., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C. 2010; 26 (2): 649-654

    Abstract

    Urine is the most abundant and easily accessible of all body fluids and provides an ideal route for non-invasive diagnosis of human diseases, particularly of the urinary tract. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for urinary diagnostics due to their excellent sensitivity, low-cost, and ability to detect a wide variety of target molecules including nucleic acids and protein biomarkers. We report the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for direct detection of the urinary tract infection (UTI) biomarker lactoferrin from infected clinical samples. An electrochemical biosensor array with alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the mixed SAM, consisted of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol. A sandwich amperometric immunoassay was developed for detection of lactoferrin from urine, with a detection limit of 145 pg/ml. We validated lactoferrin as a biomarker of pyuria (presence of white blood cells in urine), an important hallmark of UTI, in 111 patient-derived urine samples. Finally, we demonstrated multiplex detection of urinary pathogens and lactoferrin through simultaneous detection of bacterial nucleic acid (16S rRNA) and host immune response protein (lactoferrin) on a single sensor array. Our results represent first integrated sensor platform capable of quantitative pathogen identification and measurement of host immune response, potentially providing clinical diagnosis that is not only more expeditious but also more informative than the current standard.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2010.07.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283804400056

    View details for PubMedID 20667707

  • Matrix Effects-A Challenge Toward Automation of Molecular Analysis JALA Chiu, M. L., Lawi, W., Snyder, S. T., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C., Gau, V. 2010; 15 (3): 233-242
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Using High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Microchannels ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Chen, C. H., Lu, Y., Sin, M. L., Mach, K. E., Zhang, D. D., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2010; 82 (3): 1012-1019

    Abstract

    This study reports the use of microfluidics, which intrinsically has a large surface-to-volume ratio, toward rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing at the point of care. By observing the growth of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in gas permeable polymeric microchannels with different dimensions, we demonstrate that the large surface-to-volume ratio of microfluidic systems facilitates rapid growth of bacteria. For microchannels with 250 microm or less in depth, the effective oxygenation can sustain the growth of E. coli to over 10(9) cfu/mL without external agitation or oxygenation, which eliminates the requirement of bulky instrumentation and facilitates rapid bacterial growth for antimicrobial susceptibility testing at the point of care. The applicability of microfluidic rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing is demonstrated in culture media and in urine with clinical bacterial isolates that have different antimicrobial resistance profiles. The antimicrobial resistance pattern can be determined as rapidly as 2 h compared to days in standard clinical procedures facilitating diagnostics at the point of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac9022764

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273983700037

    View details for PubMedID 20055494

  • Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy in a Pelvic Ectopic Kidney: Keys to Success JSLS-JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF LAPAROENDOSCOPIC SURGEONS Chung, B. I., Liao, J. C. 2010; 14 (1): 126-129

    Abstract

    Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy of a pelvic kidney for renal cell carcinoma is a procedure with little precedent, but one that offers the advantages of the minimally invasive approach. We present our experience with this unique procedure.A 64-year-old male with a history of end-stage renal disease was diagnosed with a 2.6-cm enhancing mass in a pelvic left kidney with 2 separate sources of blood supply. He was offered either an open radical nephrectomy or a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and opted for the minimally invasive approach.The procedure was performed successfully without complications and with minimal blood loss. The case was marked both by difficulty in mobilizing the sigmoid colon and the limited working space of the pelvis, which made localization of the numerous hilar vessels challenging.Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for a pelvic ectopic kidney appears to be safe and efficacious. Success is dependent on familiarity with pelvic anatomy, optimal port placement, and preprocedure knowledge of the often-complicated vascular anatomy of the ectopic kidney. Preoperative imaging to delineate anomalous vascular anatomy is mandatory, and ureteral catheter placement is helpful for intraoperative identification purposes.

    View details for DOI 10.4293/108680810X12674612765623

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278761200023

    View details for PubMedID 20529537

  • Electrothermal Fluid Manipulation of High-Conductivity Samples for Laboratory Automation Applications Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation Sin ML, Gau V, Liao JC, Wong PK 2010; 15 (6): 426-432
  • Nanomedicine: About This Special Issue Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation Liao JC, Huang TJ 2010; 15 (2): A10
  • Matrix Effects?A Challenge Toward Automation of Molecular Analysis Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation Chiu ML, Lawi W, Snyder ST, Wong PK, Liao JC, Gau V 2010; 15 (3): 233-242
  • Multiplex Pathogen Identification for Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infections Using Biosensor Technology: A Prospective Clinical Study JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Mach, K. E., Du, C. B., Phull, H., Haake, D. A., Shih, M., Baron, E. J., Liao, J. C. 2009; 182 (6): 2735-2741

    Abstract

    Rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infection would have a significant beneficial impact on clinical management, particularly in patients with structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities who are highly susceptible to recurrent polymicrobial infections. We examined the analytical validity of an electrochemical biosensor array for rapid molecular diagnosis of urinary tract infection in a prospective clinical study in patients with neurogenic bladder.The electrochemical biosensor array was functionalized with DNA probes against 16S rRNA of the most common uropathogens. Spinal cord injured patients at a Veterans Affairs hospital were recruited into the study. Urine samples were generally tested on the biosensor within 1 to 2 hours of collection. Biosensor results were compared with those obtained using standard clinical microbiology laboratory methods.We successfully developed a 1-hour biosensor assay for multiplex identification of pathogens. From July 2007 to December 2008 we recruited 116 patients, yielding a total of 109 urine samples suitable for analysis and comparison between biosensor assay and standard urine culture. Of the samples 74% were positive, of which 42% were polymicrobial. We identified 20 organisms, of which Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus species were the most common. Biosensor assay specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Pathogen detection sensitivity was 89%, yielding a 76% negative predictive value.To our knowledge we report the first prospective clinical study to successfully identify pathogens within a point of care time frame using an electrochemical biosensor platform. Additional efforts to improve the limit of detection and probe design are needed to further enhance assay sensitivity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.08.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271668600072

    View details for PubMedID 19837423

  • A Microfluidic Cartridge System for Multiplexed Clinical Analysis JALA Lawi, W., Wiita, C., Snyder, S. T., Wei, F., Wong, D., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C., Haake, D., Gau, V. 2009; 14 (6): 407-412

    Abstract

    Cartridge-based microfluidics is a promising technology for clinical diagnostics. By miniaturizing the fluid-handling processes required for genomic and proteomic analyses, reagent and specimen volume is minimized along with the size of the system. We demonstrate an automated microfluidic system capable of performing six multiplexed genomic and proteomic analyses simultaneously, by means of an integrated electrochemical sensor and embedded controls.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jala.2009.05.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285163400011

    View details for PubMedID 20161584

  • Matrix-insensitive protein assays push the limits of biosensors in medicine NATURE MEDICINE Gaster, R. S., Hall, D. A., Nielsen, C. H., Osterfeld, S. J., Yu, H., Mach, K. E., Wilson, R. J., Murmann, B., Liao, J. C., Gambhir, S. S., Wang, S. X. 2009; 15 (11): 1327-U130

    Abstract

    Advances in biosensor technologies for in vitro diagnostics have the potential to transform the practice of medicine. Despite considerable work in the biosensor field, there is still no general sensing platform that can be ubiquitously applied to detect the constellation of biomolecules in diverse clinical samples (for example, serum, urine, cell lysates or saliva) with high sensitivity and large linear dynamic range. A major limitation confounding other technologies is signal distortion that occurs in various matrices due to heterogeneity in ionic strength, pH, temperature and autofluorescence. Here we present a magnetic nanosensor technology that is matrix insensitive yet still capable of rapid, multiplex protein detection with resolution down to attomolar concentrations and extensive linear dynamic range. The matrix insensitivity of our platform to various media demonstrates that our magnetic nanosensor technology can be directly applied to a variety of settings such as molecular biology, clinical diagnostics and biodefense.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.2032

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271543700023

    View details for PubMedID 19820717

  • Optical Biopsy of Human Bladder Neoplasia With In Vivo Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Sonn, G. A., Jones, S. E., Tarin, T. V., Du, C. B., Mach, K. E., Jensen, K. C., Liao, J. C. 2009; 182 (4): 1299-1305

    Abstract

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new endoscopic imaging technology that could complement white light cystoscopy by providing in vivo bladder histopathology. We evaluated confocal laser endomicroscopy by imaging normal, malignant appearing and indeterminate bladder mucosa in a pilot study.Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumors were recruited during a 3-month period. After standard cystoscopy fluorescein was administered intravesically and/or intravenously as a contrast dye. A 2.6 mm probe based confocal laser endomicroscope was passed through a 26 Fr resectoscope to image normal and abnormal appearing areas. The images were collected with 488 nm excitation at 8 to 12 frames per second. The endomicroscopic images were compared with standard hematoxylin and eosin analysis of transurethral resection of bladder tumor specimens.Of the 27 recruited patients 8 had no cancer, 9 had low grade tumors, 9 had high grade tumors and 1 had a low grade tumor with a high grade focus. Endomicroscopic images demonstrated clear differences between normal mucosa, and low and high grade tumors. In normal urothelium larger umbrella cells are seen most superficially followed by smaller intermediate cells and the less cellular lamina propria. In contrast, low grade papillary tumors demonstrate densely arranged but normal-shaped small cells extending outward from fibrovascular cores. High grade tumors show markedly irregular architecture and cellular pleomorphism.We report the first study to our knowledge of in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy in the urinary tract. Marked differences among normal urothelium, low grade tumors and high grade tumors were visualized. Pending further clinical investigation and technological improvement, confocal laser endomicroscopy may become a useful adjunct to conventional cystoscopy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.06.039

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269764100016

    View details for PubMedID 19683270

  • Decreasing Use of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonists in the United States is Independent of Reimbursement Changes: A Medicare and Veterans Health Administration Claims Analysis JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Chang, S. L., Liao, J. C., Shinghal, R. 2009; 182 (1): 255-260

    Abstract

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists are the most common form of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Limited data exist regarding physician decision-making in prescribing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists. We present an analysis of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist use trends based on a time matched comparison of data from Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration, a health care system unaffected by recent changes in Medicare reimbursement implemented by the Medicare Modernization Act in 2004.Medicare claims and payment data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services from 2003 to 2007 for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists and for simple orchiectomy. The Veterans Health Administration Pharmacy Benefits Management database was queried for the annual number of prescriptions for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists during the same period.After implementation of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act in 2004 the reimbursement of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in the Medicare population decreased by 54.8% and annual claims decreased by 25.1% from 2004 to 2007. During the same period luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist use decreased by 16.8% in the Veterans Health Administration population. There was no compensatory increase in the use of simple orchiectomy for androgen deprivation therapy during the study period.Use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists has decreased in the Medicare and Veterans Health Administration populations since 2004 without a compensatory increase in the use of alternative forms of androgen deprivation therapy. The shift in practice patterns is likely due to a decrease in Medicare reimbursement for these drugs, an increase in the use of intermittent therapy and increased recognition of the adverse effects associated with androgen deprivation therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.02.141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266949800108

    View details for PubMedID 19450844

  • Active Manipulation of Quantum Dots using AC Electrokinetics JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Sin, M. L., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Haake, D. A., Wong, P. K. 2009; 113 (16): 6561-6565

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp9004423

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265383300032

  • Fibered Confocal Microscopy of Bladder Tumors: An ex Vivo Study JOURNAL OF ENDOUROLOGY Sonn, G. A., Mach, K. E., Jensen, K., Hsiung, P., Jones, S., Contag, C. H., Wang, T. D., Liao, J. C. 2009; 23 (2): 197-201

    Abstract

    The inadequacy of white-light cystoscopy to detect flat bladder tumors is well recognized. Great interest exists in developing other imaging technologies to augment or supplant conventional cystoscopy. Fibered confocal microscopy offers the promise of providing in vivo histopathologic information to help distinguish malignant from benign bladder lesions. We report the initial use of this technology to visualize tumors in the human bladder.We performed ex vivo fibered confocal imaging of fresh radical cystectomy specimens using the Mauna Kea Technologies Cellvizio system. The findings were compared with results from standard histopathology.The bladders of four patients were imaged using the fibered confocal microscope. Normal and neoplastic urothelium manifested differences in cellular and vascular density.This study demonstrates the feasibility of using fibered confocal microscopy to detect histologic differences between normal and neoplastic urothelium, and establishes a foundation for the use of fiber-based confocal microscopy in clinical studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/end.2008.0524

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263355500005

    View details for PubMedID 19196063

  • Active manipulation of quantum dots using AC electrokinetics J Phys Chem C Sin MLY, Gau V, Liao JC, Haake DA, Wong PK 2009; 113 (16): 6561-6565
  • A case of prostatic adenocarcinoma recurrence presenting as ductal carcinoma of the prostate NATURE CLINICAL PRACTICE UROLOGY Tu, W. H., Jensen, K., Freiha, F., Liao, J. C. 2008; 5 (1): 55-58

    Abstract

    A 61-year-old man with a history of recurrent prostate cancer presented with obstructive urinary symptoms. He had been diagnosed with locally invasive adenocarcinoma of the prostate 10 years previously and treated with neoadjuvant hormonal and external beam radiation therapies. Because of the patient's rising PSA level, he had been started on goserelin 6 years after this diagnosis and bicalutamide 6 months before the current presentation. The patient presented to the urology clinic with worsening lower urinary tract symptoms consisting of nocturia, urgency, and weak stream.Physical examination revealed a largely normal digital rectal examination, although there was slight asymmetry. The post-void residual urine volume was approximately 200 ml. Laboratory tests showed no evidence of urinary tract infection, but confirmed a rising PSA level despite low serum testosterone levels. Cystoscopic examination revealed hypervascular, large lateral prostatic lobes obstructing the bladder neck. The bladder was normal.The patient underwent transurethral resection of the prostate. Soon after the resection started, bilateral papillary tumors arising from the stroma of both prostatic lobes were uncovered. Owing to the diffuse nature of the papillary tumors, complete resection was not possible. Pathologic analysis confirmed the presence of ductal carcinoma of the prostate.The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and reported improvement of voiding symptoms. Staging with bone scan and CT of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated multi-focal bony metastasis. The patient was started on docetaxel-based chemotherapy for hormone refractory recurrence of prostate cancer as ductal carcinoma of the prostate. He remains under close surveillance for clinical response and progression of disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncpuro0994

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252111100013

    View details for PubMedID 18185514

  • Use of haemostatic agents and glues during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: A multi-institutional survey from the United States and Europe of 1347 cases EUROPEAN UROLOGY Breda, A., Stepanian, S. V., Lam, J. S., Liao, J. C., Gill, I. S., Colombo, J. R., Guazzoni, G., Stifelman, M. D., Perry, K. T., Celia, A., Breda, G., Fornara, P., Jackman, S. V., Rosales, A., Palou, J., Grasso, M., Pansadoro, V., Disanto, V., Porpiglia, F., Milani, C., Abbou, C. C., Gaston, R., Janetschek, G., Soomro, N. A., de la Rosette, J. J., Laguna, P. M., Schulam, P. G. 2007; 52 (3): 798-803

    Abstract

    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is a technically challenging procedure for the management of renal tumours. Major complications of LPN include bleeding and urine leakage. Haemostatic agents (HAs) and/or glues may reduce haemorrhage and urine leakage. We sought to examine the current practice patterns for urologists performing LPN with regard to HA use and its relationship with bleeding and urine leakage.A survey was sent via e-mail to urologists currently performing LPN in centres in the United States and Europe. We queried the indications for HA/glue usage, type of HAs/glues used, and whether concomitant suturing/bolstering was performed. In addition, the total number of LPNs performed, laparoscopic tools used to resect the tumour, tumour size, and tumour position were queried.Surveys suitable for analysis were received from 18 centres (n=1347 cases). HAs and/or glues were used in 1042 (77.4%) cases. Mean tumour size was 2.8cm, with 79% of the tumours being defined as exophytic and 21% deep. The HAs and glues used included gelatin matrix thrombin (FloSeal), fibrin gel (Tisseel), bovine serum albumin (BioGlue), cyanoacrylate glue (Glubran), oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel), or combinations of these. Sixteen centres performed concomitant suturing/bolstering. The overall postoperative bleeding requiring transfusion and urine leakage rates were 2.7% and 1.9%, respectively.The use of HAs and/or glues is routine in most centres performing LPN. The overall haemorrhage and urine leakage rates are low following LPN. More studies are needed to assess the potential role of HAs and/or glues in LPN.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249198400028

    View details for PubMedID 17329015

  • Positive margins in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in 855 cases: A multi-institutional survey from the United States and Europe JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Breda, A., Stepanian, S. V., Liao, J., Lam, J. S., Guazzoni, G., Stifelman, M., Perry, K., Celia, A., Breda, G., Fornara, P., Jackman, S., Rosales, A., Palou, J., Grasso, M., Pansadoro, V., Disanto, V., Porpiglia, F., Milani, C., Abbou, C., Gaston, R., Janetschek, G., Soomro, N. A., De la Rosette, J., Laguna, M. P., Schulam, P. G. 2007; 178 (1): 47-50

    Abstract

    Open partial nephrectomy has emerged as the standard of care in the management of renal tumors smaller than 4 cm. While laparoscopic radical nephrectomy has been shown to be comparable to open radical nephrectomy with respect to long-term outcomes, important questions remain unanswered regarding the oncological efficacy of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. We examined the practice patterns and pathological outcomes following laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.A survey was sent to academic medical centers in the United States and in Europe performing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. The total number of laparoscopic partial nephrectomies, positive margins, indications for intraoperative frozen biopsy as well as tumor size and position were queried.Surveys suitable for analysis were received from 17 centers with a total of 855 laparoscopic partial nephrectomy cases. Mean tumor size was 2.7 cm (+/-0.6). There were 21 cases with positive margins on final pathology, giving an overall positive margin rate of 2.4%. Intraoperative frozen sections were performed selectively at 10 centers based on clinical suspicion of positive margins on excised tumor. Random biopsies were routinely performed on the resection bed at 5 centers. Frozen sections were never performed at 2 centers. Of the 21 cases with positive margins 14 underwent immediate radical nephrectomy based on the frozen section and 7 were followed expectantly.Early experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in this multicenter study demonstrates oncological efficacy comparable to that of open partial nephrectomy with respect to the incidence of positive margins. The practice of intraoperative frozen sections varied among centers and is not definitive in guiding the optimal surgical treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2007.03.045

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247197000012

    View details for PubMedID 17574057

  • Association of bowel rest and ketorolac analgesia with short hospital stay after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy UROLOGY Breda, A., Bui, M. H., Liao, J. C., Schulam, P. G. 2007; 69 (5): 828-831

    Abstract

    Because of the shortage of cadaveric kidneys for allograft transplantation, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is becoming a more feasible option. Several large published series have reported hospital stays as long as 3.3 days. We report the positive effect of preoperative bowel rest and the use of ketorolac for postoperative analgesia on reducing the hospital stay after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.From 2000 to 2005, 300 patients underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy at our institution by a single surgeon (P.G.S.). All patients underwent a bowel preparation regimen involving a clear liquid diet beginning 2 days before surgery. Furthermore, two bottles of magnesium citrate were taken orally the day before surgery, and all patients fasted after midnight before surgery. Patients self-administered one Fleets enema the evening before surgery. Postoperatively, the patients received ketorolac 30 mg intravenously every 6 hours for a maximum of 48 hours, with additional narcotics if necessary for analgesia.The mean operative time was 180 +/- 55 minutes. Typically, patients were admitted the day of surgery and discharged the next postoperative day. The mean donor hospital stay was 1.1 days (range 1 to 3) with no readmissions. More than 97% of our patients were able to tolerate a clear liquid diet, pass flatus, and ambulate the day after surgery.With implementation of a strict bowel preparation regimen and the use of ketorolac for postoperative analgesia, the donor length of stay was markedly improved from previously published results. We attribute the shorter hospital stay to the quicker return of bowel function and to less postoperative discomfort.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2007.01.083

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248119400008

    View details for PubMedID 17482915

  • Development of an advanced electrochemical DNA biosensor for bacterial pathogen detection JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS Liao, J. C., Mastali, M., Li, Y., Gau, V., Suchard, M. A., Babbitt, J., Gornbein, J., Landaw, E. M., McCabe, E. R., Churchill, B. M., Haake, D. A. 2007; 9 (2): 158-168

    Abstract

    Electrochemical sensors have the capacity for rapid and accurate detection of a wide variety of target molecules in biological fluids. We have developed an electrochemical sensor assay involving hybridization of bacterial 16S rRNA to fluorescein-modified detector probes and to biotin-modified capture probes anchored to the sensor surface. Signal is generated by an oxidation-reduction current produced by the action of horseradish peroxidase conjugated to an anti-fluorescein monoclonal Fab. A previous study found that this electrochemical sensor strategy could identify uropathogens in clinical urine specimens. To improve assay sensitivity, we examined the key steps that affect the current amplitude of the electrochemical signal. Efficient lysis and release of 16S rRNA from both gram-negative and -positive bacteria was achieved with an initial treatment with Triton X-100 and lysozyme followed by alkaline lysis, resulting in a 12-fold increase in electrochemical signal compared with alkaline lysis alone. The distance in nucleotides between the target hybridization sites of the detector and capture probes and the location of fluorescein modification on the detector probe contributed to a 23-fold change in signal intensity. These results demonstrate the importance of target-probe and probe-probe interactions in the detection of bacterial 16S rRNA using an electrochemical DNA sensor approach.

    View details for DOI 10.2353/jmoldx.2007.060052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245427600005

    View details for PubMedID 17384207

  • Complications of laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy and their management: The UCLA experience UROLOGY Breda, A., Veale, J., Liao, J., Schulam, P. G. 2007; 69 (1): 49-52

    Abstract

    Because of the shortage of cadaveric kidneys, laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN) has become a more common option for transplant recipients. The complication rate has been reported at 6.4% to 16.5%. We present the initial University of California, Los Angeles experience with the complications and their management during LLDN.From January 2000 to December 2005, a single surgeon performed 300 consecutive LLDNs at our institution. A committee of urologists, nephrologists, and support staff approved each donor before surgery. After LLDN was completed, the patients received 30 mg of ketorolac intravenously every 6 hours until discharge. We reviewed the intraoperative and postoperative complications and their management at our institution.Three patients required open conversion, for an overall conversion rate of 1%. Two of the three conversions were a result of a major vascular complication (0.6%). The first major vascular complication resulted from an endovascular stapler malfunction during transection of an accessory left renal artery. The second vascular complication was a Veress needle injury to the left common iliac artery. Three postoperative major complications (1%) occurred, including 1 case of rhabdomyolysis and 2 cases of chylous ascites. Also, 7 minor postoperative complications (2.3%) occurred. Our overall complication rate was 4%. No patients died, and the mean hospital stay was 1.1 days.Our results have shown that LLDN is a safe procedure associated with low morbidity and a quick recovery. Appropriate patient selection is essential to ensure the safety of this procedure.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2006.09.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244114600016

    View details for PubMedID 17270612

  • Laparoscopic renal surgery for benign disease. Current urology reports Liao, J. C., Breda, A., Schulam, P. G. 2007; 8 (1): 12-18

    Abstract

    Fifteen years after the first report, laparoscopic nephrectomy has demonstrated proven efficacy and safety comparable with an open approach, with a significant advantage of a faster recovery. Wide dissemination of these surgical techniques and continued improvement in instrumentation has made laparoscopy the preferred approach for treating benign pathologic conditions of the kidney. In this review, the expanding indications of laparoscopic simple nephrectomy and the outcomes of the larger clinical series are examined. We discuss the technical aspects of both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. Finally, laparoscopic cyst decortication and some of the novel applications of laparoscopic renal surgery are highlighted.

    View details for PubMedID 17239312

  • A Microfluidic System for Rapid Bacterial Pathogen Detection 2007 7TH IEEE CONFERENCE ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL 1-3 Mai, J. D., Gaster, R. S., Wu, A., Gu, W., Mach, K. E., Liao, J. C. 2007: 1341-1345
  • Incidence of ureteral strictures after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Breda, A., Bui, M. H., Liao, J. C., Gritsch, H. A., Schulam, P. G. 2006; 176 (3): 1065-1068

    Abstract

    Previous reports of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy have suggested that preservation of the gonadal vein with the specimen is important for preventing ureteral strictures. To test this hypothesis we examined our series of patients for the incidence of ureteral strictures when the gonadal vein was not preserved with the specimen during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.We reviewed the records of 300 consecutive patients at our institution who underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy between 2000 and 2005. Mean donor age was 36.7 years (range 18 to 68) in the 167 female and 133 male donors. Mean recipient age was 38.4 years. Average followup was 2 years. During ureteral dissection the gonadal vein was transected just distal to the renal vein and left in situ. The ureter was dissected and transected at the level of the common iliac vessels. Indwelling ureteral stents were used for all recipient ureteral reimplantations and left in place for 1 month. In the postoperative period transplant recipients were followed biweekly for serum creatinine function during month 1 and monthly thereafter. All patients with increased creatinine (greater than 1.3 mg/dl) or an increasing trend were evaluated with transplant renal ultrasound. Clinically significant ureteral stricture was defined as persistent hydronephrosis resulting in impaired renal function and the need for percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement or ureteroscopic management.After laparoscopic living donor transplantation without gonadal vein preservation we found no incidence of clinically significant ureteral stricture.Gonadal vein preservation with the specimen during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is not necessary. Preservation of the periureteral blood supply is sufficient to prevent ureteral strictures.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2006.04.079

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239740800054

    View details for PubMedID 16890691

  • Use of electrochemical DNA biosensors for rapid molecular identification of uropathogens in clinical urine specimens JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Liao, J. C., Mastali, M., Gau, V., Suchard, M. A., Moller, A. K., Bruckner, D. A., Babbitt, J. T., Li, Y., Gornbein, J., Landaw, E. M., McCabe, E. R., Churchill, B. M., Haake, D. A. 2006; 44 (2): 561-570

    Abstract

    We describe the first species-specific detection of bacterial pathogens in human clinical fluid samples using a microfabricated electrochemical sensor array. Each of the 16 sensors in the array consisted of three single-layer gold electrodes-working, reference, and auxiliary. Each of the working electrodes contained one representative from a library of capture probes, each specific for a clinically relevant bacterial urinary pathogen. The library included probes for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterocococcus spp., and the Klebsiella-Enterobacter group. A bacterial 16S rRNA target derived from single-step bacterial lysis was hybridized both to the biotin-modified capture probe on the sensor surface and to a second, fluorescein-modified detector probe. Detection of the target-probe hybrids was achieved through binding of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-fluorescein antibody to the detector probe. Amperometric measurement of the catalyzed HRP reaction was obtained at a fixed potential of -200 mV between the working and reference electrodes. Species-specific detection of as few as 2,600 uropathogenic bacteria in culture, inoculated urine, and clinical urine samples was achieved within 45 min from the beginning of sample processing. In a feasibility study of this amperometric detection system using blinded clinical urine specimens, the sensor array had 100% sensitivity for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria without nucleic acid purification or amplification. Identification was demonstrated for 98% of gram-negative bacteria for which species-specific probes were available. When combined with a microfluidics-based sample preparation module, the integrated system could serve as a point-of-care device for rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JCM.44.2.561-570.2006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235344200042

    View details for PubMedID 16455913

  • A point-of-care micro-laboratory for direct pathogen identification in body fluids 2006 1ST IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NANO/MICRO ENGINEERED AND MOLECULAR SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-3 Liao, J. C., Ma, Y., Gau, V., Mastali, M., Sun, C., Li, Y., McCabe, E. R., Landaw, E. M., Bruckner, D., Churchill, B. M., Haake, D. A., Ho, C. 2006: 1109-1112
  • Design of Microfluidic T-Form Mixer Utilizing Pressure Disturbances IEEE Nanotechnology Council Review on Advances of Micro, Nano, and Molecular Systems Ma Y, Fields M, Sun C-P, Zhang F, Liao JC, Li Y, Churchill BM, Ho C-M 2006; 1: 595
  • A point-of-care micro-laboratory for direct pathogen identification in body fluids IEEE Nanotechnology Council Review on Advances of Micro, Nano, and Molecular Systems Liao JC, Ma Y, Li Y, Gau V, Mastali M, Sun C-P, McCabe ERB, Landaw EM, Haake DA, Churchill BM, Ho C-M 2006; 1: 507
  • Rapid, species-specific detection of uropathogen 16S rDNA and rRNA at ambient temperature by dot-blot hybridization and an electrochemical sensor array MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM Sun, C. P., Liao, J. C., Zhang, Y. H., Gau, V., Mastali, M., Babbitt, J. T., Grundfest, W. S., Churchill, B. M., McCabe, E. R., Haake, D. A. 2005; 84 (1): 90-99

    Abstract

    Development of rapid molecular approaches for pathogen detection is key to improving treatment of infectious diseases. For this study, the kinetics and temperature-dependence of DNA probe hybridization to uropathogen species-specific sequences were examined. A set of oligonucleotide probes were designed based on variable regions of the 16S gene of the Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A universal bacterial probe and probes-specific for gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were also included. The oligonucleotide probes discriminated among 16S genes derived from 11 different species of uropathogenic bacteria applied to nylon membranes in a dot-blot format. Significant binding of oligonucleotide probes to target DNA and removal of nonspecific binding by membrane washing could both be achieved rapidly, requiring as little as 10 min. An oligonucleotide probe from the same species-specific region of the E. coli 16S gene was used as a capture probe in a novel electrochemical 16-sensor array based on microfabrication technology. Sequence-specific hybridization of target uropathogen 16S rDNA was detected through horseradish peroxidase acting as an electrochemical transducer via a second, detector probe. The sensor array demonstrated rapid, species-specific hybridization in a time course consistent with the rapid kinetics of the dot-blot hybridization studies. As in the dot-blot hybridization studies, species-specific detection of bacterial nucleic acids using the sensor array approach was demonstrated both at 65 degrees C and at room temperature. These results demonstrate that molecular hybridization approaches can be adapted to rapid, room temperature conditions ideal for an electrochemical sensor array platform.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ymgme.2004.11.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227173700012

    View details for PubMedID 15639199

  • Microelectromechanical systems in urology UROLOGY Kristo, B., Liao, J. C., Neves, H. P., Churchill, B. M., Montemagno, C. D., Schulam, P. G. 2003; 61 (5): 883-887
  • Case scenario: 26-year-old male with right scrotal pain and swelling. Reviews in urology Garraway, I., Liao, J., Rajfer, J. 2002; 4 (1): 43-?

    View details for PubMedID 16985652

  • Pediatric urine testing PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Liao, J. C., Churchill, B. M. 2001; 48 (6): 1425-?

    Abstract

    Today, urinalysis is one of the most common clinical tests ordered for adult and pediatric patients. Because urine specimens are usually readily available and are obtained noninvasively, the urine testing is well suited for children. This article discusses the most common urine tests performed in children for screening purposes and also less common tests for diagnosis of specific disorders. Special considerations regarding urine specimen collection in children are discussed. Some simple tests that are underused by clinicians are mentioned, as are some exciting new molecular applications of urine testing.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172285000005

    View details for PubMedID 11732123

  • Coccidioidomycosis presenting as testicular mass JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Liao, J. C., Reiter, R. E. 2001; 166 (4): 1396-1396

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170950100056

    View details for PubMedID 11547090

  • Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: Biologic behavior, prognosis, and response to combined surgical resection and immunotherapy JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Cangiano, T., Liao, J., Naitoh, J., Dorey, F., Figlin, R., Belldegrun, A. 1999; 17 (2): 523-528

    Abstract

    Sarcomatoid variants of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are aggressive tumors that respond poorly to immunotherapy. We report the outcomes of 31 patients with sarcomatoid RCC treated with a combination of surgical resection and immunotherapy.Patients were identified from the database of the University of California Los Angeles Kidney Cancer Program. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 31 consecutive patients in whom sarcomatoid RCC was diagnosed between 1990 and 1997. Clinical stage, sites of metastasis, pathologic stage, and type of immunotherapy were abstracted from the medical records. The primary end point analyzed was overall survival, and a multivariate analysis was performed to distinguish any factors conferring an improved survivorship.Twenty-six percent of patients were male and 74% were female, and the median age was 59 years (range, 34 to 73 years). Length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 77 months (mean, 21.4 months). Twenty-eight patients (84%) had known metastases at the time of radical nephrectomy (67% had lung metastases and 40% had bone, 21% had liver, 33% had lymphatic, and 15% had brain metastases). Twenty-five patients (81%) received immunotherapy, including low-dose interleukin (IL)-2-based therapy (five patients), tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte-based therapy plus IL-2 (nine patients), high-dose IL-2-based therapy (nine patients), dendritic cell vaccine-based therapy (one patient), and interferon alpha-based therapy alone (one patient). Two patients (6%) achieved complete responses (median duration, 46+ months) and five patients (15%) achieved partial responses (median duration, 36 months). One- and 2-year overall survival rates were 48% and 37%, respectively. Using a multivariate analysis, age, sex, and percentage of sarcomatoid tumor (< or >50%) did not significantly correlate with survival. Improved survival was found in patients receiving high-dose IL-2 therapy compared with patients treated with surgery alone or any other form of immunotherapy (P = .025). Adjusting for age, sex, and percentage of sarcomatoid tumor, the relative risk of death was 10.4 times higher in patients not receiving high-dose IL-2 therapy. Final pathologic T stage did not correlate significantly with outcome, but node-positive patients had a higher death rate per year of follow-up than did the rest of the population (1.26 v 0.76, Cox regression analysis).Surgical resection and high-dose IL-2-based immunotherapy may play a role in the treatment of sarcomatoid RCCs in select patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078384500015

    View details for PubMedID 10080595

  • Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction treated with Acucise (TM) retrograde endopyelotomy BRITISH JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Gill, H. S., Liao, J. C. 1998; 82 (1): 8-11

    Abstract

    To determine the efficacy of retrograde endopyelotomy for the treatment of pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction using the Acucise ureteric balloon cutting catheter.Between February 1995 and July 1997, 13 consecutive patients with primary PUJ obstruction underwent Acucise endopyelotomy at our institution. The mean follow-up was 17.7 months (range 7-33). The success of the procedure was based on objective patency on follow-up diuretic isotopic renography and the subjective resolution of symptoms.The treatment was successful by objective criteria in eight of 13 patients and by subjective criteria in nine. The mean operative duration was 33 min (range 25-45) and all 13 patients were discharged within 24 h of the procedure. There were no major complications, such as vascular injury requiring transfusion. There were no delayed failures, as all failures occurred within 3 months of the procedure. Of the four total failures, two patients have successfully undergone open pyeloplasty and one other was found to have a crossing vessel at the lower pole at the time of the operation.In this small series. Acucise endopyelotomy was a safe procedure that offered effective, expeditious first-line treatment for PUJ obstruction. All failures occurred soon after treatment and did not hinder subsequent open pyeloplasty. Further studies with additional patients and a longer follow-up are warranted to determine the long-term efficacy of this promising new treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074856900003

    View details for PubMedID 9698655

  • Chromophore assisted laser inactivation of cellular proteins Proc SPIE Jay DG, Wang FS, Chang HY, Sydor AM, Liao JC 1997; 2983: 30-6
  • Isolation of a cDNA encoding a UV-damaged DNA binding factor defective in xeroderma pigmentosum group E cells MUTATION RESEARCH-DNA REPAIR Hwang, B. J., Liao, J. C., Chu, G. 1996; 362 (1): 105-117

    Abstract

    XPE binding factor (XPE-BF) is deficient in a subset of patients from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E. Binding activity copurifies with a 125 kDa polypeptide (p125) that binds to DNA damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and many other agents. We isolated cDNA encoding a polypeptide with a predicted amino acid sequence that matched the sequences of eleven tryptic peptides derived from digestion of XPE-BF purified from human placenta. In vitro transcription and translation of the cDNA yielded a polypeptide of 125 kDa that bound specifically to UV-damaged DNA. Therefore the cDNA encodes either all or the major component of XPE-BF.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TP86900012

    View details for PubMedID 8538642

  • CHROMOPHORE-ASSISTED LASER INACTIVATION OF SUBUNITS OF THE T-CELL RECEPTOR IN LIVING CELLS IS SPATIALLY RESTRICTED PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOBIOLOGY Liao, J. C., Berg, L. J., Jay, D. G. 1995; 62 (5): 923-929

    Abstract

    Chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is a molecular photoablation technique that has been used to elucidate the in vivo roles of specific proteins in neural development. The interpretation of its effects on proteins in living cells relies on knowing how spatially restricted the CALI-induced damage is in vivo. To determine the spatial specificity of CALI in living cells, we have applied CALI to individual subunits of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex on the surface of 2B4 hybridoma cells in culture and have examined the consequent structural and functional integrity of the TCR-alpha, TCR-beta and CD3-epsilon. The CALI of TCR-beta resulted in the disruption of the beta subunit and also resulted in a small effect on antibody binding alone to the neighboring TCR-alpha but caused no effect on another subunit, CD3-epsilon. Reciprocal experiments directing CALI to TCR-alpha and CD3-epsilon gave consistent results. No effects other than a simple loss of function were observed for any of these CALI experiments. These data demonstrate the extent of CALI-induced damage within a multisubunit complex in living cells and provide greater confidence for the future application of this technique to understanding in vivo function of proteins during complex cellular processes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TF81400018

    View details for PubMedID 8570733

  • CHROMOPHORE-ASSISTED LASER INACTIVATION OF PROTEINS IS MEDIATED BY THE PHOTOGENERATION OF FREE-RADICALS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Liao, J. C., Roider, J., Jay, D. G. 1994; 91 (7): 2659-2663

    Abstract

    Chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is a technique that selectively inactivates proteins of interest to elucidate their in vivo functions. This method has application to a wide array of biological questions and an understanding of its mechanism is required for its judicious application. We report here that CALI is not mediated by photoinduced thermal denaturation but by photogenerated free radicals. Thermal diffusion calculations suggest that the temperature changes resulting from CALI are too small to cause thermal denaturation, and Arrhenius plots of CALI are inconsistent with a photothermal mechanism. CALI shows an energy dose reciprocity above a threshold and can be inhibited by free-radical quenchers, thus demonstrating a photochemical mechanism of protein inactivation. The type of quenchers that are effective in inhibiting CALI indicates that the active species is a hydrogen abstractor which is not derived from molecular oxygen. We suggest that the active free-radical species is the hydroxyl radical and its very short lifetime explains the spatial specificity of CALI such that half-maximal damage is effected within 15 A from the dye moiety and no significant damage occurs at 34 A. The data are consistent with free-radical formation resulting from a sequential two-photon process.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994ND60200056

    View details for PubMedID 8146171

  • SPATIAL SPECIFICITY OF CHROMOPHORE ASSISTED LASER INACTIVATION OF PROTEIN FUNCTION BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL Linden, K. G., Liao, J. C., Jay, D. G. 1992; 61 (4): 956-962

    Abstract

    Chromophore assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is a new technique that selectively inactivates proteins of interest to elucidate their in vivo functions. This method has application to a wide array of biological questions. An understanding of aspects of the mechanism of CALI is required for its judicious application. A critical concern for CALI is its spatial specificity because nonspecific inactivation of neighboring unbound proteins by CALI is a possibility. We show here that CALI is very dependent on the distance between the chromophore and the protein such that there is no significant effect beyond 60 A. CALI using antibodies can inactivate other proteins through a complex but its efficacy decreases approximately fourfold for each intervening protein. These data imply that CALI is spatially specific and damage to neighboring proteins is unlikely.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HM25900012

    View details for PubMedID 1581504