Human DNA Repair Genes Possess Potential G-Quadruplex Sequences in Their Promoters and 5'-Untranslated Regions.
2018; 57 (6): 991–1002
The cellular response to oxidative stress includes transcriptional changes, particularly for genes involved in DNA repair. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that oxidation of 2'-deoxyguanosine (G) to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) in G-rich potential G-quadruplex sequences (PQSs) in gene promoters impacts the level of gene expression up or down depending on the position of the PQS in the promoter. In the present report, bioinformatic analysis found that the 390 human DNA repair genes in the genome ontology initiative harbor 2936 PQSs in their promoters and 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs). The average density of PQSs in human DNA repair genes was found to be nearly 2-fold greater than the average density of PQSs in all coding and noncoding human genes (7.5 vs 4.3 per gene). The distribution of the PQSs in the DNA repair genes on the nontranscribed (coding) vs transcribed strands reflects that of PQSs in all human genes. Next, literature data were interrogated to select 30 PQSs to catalog their ability to adopt G-quadruplex (G4) folds in vitro using five different experimental tests. The G4 characterization experiments concluded that 26 of the 30 sequences could adopt G4 topologies in solution. Last, four PQSs were synthesized into the promoter of a luciferase plasmid and cotransfected with the G4-specific ligands pyridostatin, Phen-DC3, or BRACO-19 in human cells to determine whether the PQSs could adopt G4 folds. The cell studies identified changes in luciferase expression when the G4 ligands were present, and the magnitude of the expression changes dependent on the PQS and the coding vs template strand on which the sequence resided. Our studies demonstrate PQSs exist at a high density in human DNA repair gene promoters and a subset of the identified sequences may fold in vitro and in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b01172
View details for PubMedID 29320161
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5851598