Honors & Awards
International Postdoc Grant (2017-0034, Spring 2017), Swedish Research Council (June 2017)
PhD thesis of the year 2016 for Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden (May 2017)
Assar Gabrielssons Best PhD Thesis Award 2017 in Experimental Research, Stiftelsen Assar Gabrielssons Fond, Sweden (May 2017)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
My long-term goal is to generate whole human organs in large research animals, which will be universally immune compatible and ready for human transplantation.
Streamlined and quantitative detection of chimerism using digital PCR.
2022; 12 (1): 10223
Animal chimeras are widely used for biomedical discoveries, from developmental biology to cancer research. However, the accurate quantitation of mixed cell types in chimeric and mosaic tissues is complicated by sample preparation bias, transgenic silencing, phenotypic similarity, and low-throughput analytical pipelines. Here, we have developed and characterized a droplet digital PCR single-nucleotide discrimination assay to detect chimerism among common albino and non-albino mouse strains. In addition, we validated that this assay is compatible with crude lysate from all solid organs, drastically streamlining sample preparation. This chimerism detection assay has many additional advantages over existing methods including its robust nature, minimal technical bias, and ability to report the total number of cells in a prepared sample. Moreover, the concepts discussed here are readily adapted to other genomic loci to accurately measure mixed cell populations in any tissue.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-14467-5
View details for PubMedID 35715477
Generating human artery and vein cells from pluripotent stem cells highlights the arterial tropism of Nipah and Hendra viruses.
Stem cell research endeavors to generate specific subtypes of classically defined "cell types." Here, we generate >90% pure human artery or vein endothelial cells from pluripotent stem cells within 3-4 days. We specified artery cells by inhibiting vein-specifying signals and vice versa. These cells modeled viral infection of human vasculature by Nipah and Hendra viruses, which are extraordinarily deadly (∼57%-59% fatality rate) and require biosafety-level-4 containment. Generating pure populations of artery and vein cells highlighted that Nipah and Hendra viruses preferentially infected arteries; arteries expressed higher levels of their viral-entry receptor. Virally infected artery cells fused into syncytia containing up to 23 nuclei, which rapidly died. Despite infecting arteries and occupying ∼6%-17% of their transcriptome, Nipah and Hendra largely eluded innate immune detection, minimally eliciting interferon signaling. We thus efficiently generate artery and vein cells, introduce stem-cell-based toolkits for biosafety-level-4 virology, and explore the arterial tropism and cellular effects of Nipah and Hendra viruses.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2022.05.024
View details for PubMedID 35738284
Generation of Functional Organs Using a Cell-Competitive Niche in Intra- and Inter-species Rodent Chimeras.
Cell stem cell
Interspecies organ generation via blastocyst complementation has succeeded in rodents, but not yet in evolutionally more distant species. Early developmental arrest hinders the formation of highly chimeric fetuses. We demonstrate that the deletion of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r) in mouse embryos creates a permissive "cell-competitive niche" in several organs, significantly augmenting both mouse intraspecies and mouse/rat interspecies donor chimerism that continuously increases from embryonic day 11 onward, sometimes even taking over entire organs within intraspecies chimeras. Since Igf1r deletion allows the evasion of early developmental arrest, interspecies fetuses with high levels of organ chimerism can be generated via blastocyst complementation. This observation should facilitate donor cell contribution to host tissues, resulting in whole-organ generation via blastocyst complementation across wide evolutionary distances.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2020.11.019
View details for PubMedID 33373620
Activated HoxB4-induced Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells via Long-Term Programming.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent cells that form the entire blood system and have the potential to cure several pathogenic conditions directly or indirectly arising from defects within the HSC compartment. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can give rise to all embryonic cell types, however, efficient in vitro differentiation of HSCs from PSCs remains challenging. HoxB4 is a key regulator orchestrating the differentiation of PSCs into all cells type across the mesodermal lineage, including HSCs. Moreover, the ectopic expression of HoxB4 enhances the in vitro generation and expansion of HSCs. However, several aspects of HoxB4 biology including its regulatory functions are not fully understood. Here, we describe the role of HoxB4 in indirectly inhibiting the emergence of mature CD45+ HSCs from iPSCs in vitro. Forced activation of HoxB4 permitted long-term maintenance of functional hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which efficiently reconstituted hematopoiesis upon transplantation. Our method enables an easy and scalable in vitro platform for the generation of HSCs from iPSCs, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of HSC biology and facilitate in preparing the roadmap for producing an unrestricted supply of HSCs for several curative therapies.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exphem.2020.08.003
View details for PubMedID 32795499
BET bromodomain inhibitors synergize with ATR inhibitors in melanoma in melanoma.
Cell death & disease
2017; 8 (8): e2982
Metastatic malignant melanoma continues to be a challenging disease despite clinical translation of the comprehensive understanding of driver mutations and how melanoma cells evade immune attack. In Myc-driven lymphoma, efficacy of epigenetic inhibitors of the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family of bromodomain proteins can be enhanced by combination therapy with inhibitors of the DNA damage response kinase ATR. Whether this combination is active in solid malignancies like melanoma, and how it relates to immune therapy, has not previously investigated. To test efficacy and molecular consequences of combination therapies cultured melanoma cells were used. To assess tumor responses to therapies in vivo we use patient-derived xenografts and B6 mice transplanted with B16F10 melanoma cells. Concomitant inhibition of BET proteins and ATR of cultured melanoma cells resulted in similar effects as recently shown in lymphoma, such as induction of apoptosis and p62, implicated in autophagy, senescence-associated secretory pathway and ER stress. In vivo, apoptosis and suppression of subcutaneous growth of patient-derived melanoma and B16F10 cells were observed. Our data suggest that ATRI/BETI combination therapies are effective in melanoma.
View details for DOI 10.1038/cddis.2017.383
View details for PubMedID 28796244
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5596569
Global analysis of somatic structural genomic alterations and their impact on gene expression in diverse human cancers
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2016; 113 (48): 13768-13773
Tumor genomes are mosaics of somatic structural variants (SVs) that may contribute to the activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressors, for example, by altering gene copy number amplitude. However, there are multiple other ways in which SVs can modulate transcription, but the general impact of such events on tumor transcriptional output has not been systematically determined. Here we use whole-genome sequencing data to map SVs across 600 tumors and 18 cancers, and investigate the relationship between SVs, copy number alterations (CNAs), and mRNA expression. We find that 34% of CNA breakpoints can be clarified structurally and that most amplifications are due to tandem duplications. We observe frequent swapping of strong and weak promoters in the context of gene fusions, and find that this has a measurable global impact on mRNA levels. Interestingly, several long noncoding RNAs were strongly activated by this mechanism. Additionally, SVs were confirmed in telomere reverse transcriptase (TERT) upstream regions in several cancers, associated with elevated TERT mRNA levels. We also highlight high-confidence gene fusions supported by both genomic and transcriptomic evidence, including a previously undescribed paired box 8 (PAX8)-nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2) fusion in thyroid carcinoma. In summary, we combine SV, CNA, and expression data to provide insights into the structural basis of CNAs as well as the impact of SVs on gene expression in tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1606220113
View details for Web of Science ID 000388835700070
View details for PubMedID 27856756
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5137778
- BET and HDAC inhibitors induce similar genes and biological effects and synergize to kill in Myc-induced murine lymphoma AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2016
BET bromodomain inhibitors synergize with ATR inhibitors to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, senescence-associated secretory pathway and ER stress in Myc-induced lymphoma cells
2016; 35 (36): 4689-4697
Inhibiting the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) domain family of epigenetic reader proteins has been shown to have potent anti-tumoral activity, which is commonly attributed to suppression of transcription. In this study, we show that two structurally distinct BET inhibitors (BETi) interfere with replication and cell cycle progression of murine Myc-induced lymphoma cells at sub-lethal concentrations when the transcriptome remains largely unaltered. This inhibition of replication coincides with a DNA-damage response and enhanced sensitivity to inhibitors of the upstream replication stress sensor ATR in vitro and in mouse models of B-cell lymphoma. Mechanistically, ATR and BETi combination therapy cause robust transcriptional changes of genes involved in cell death, senescence-associated secretory pathway, NFkB signaling and ER stress. Our data reveal that BETi can potentiate the cell stress and death caused by ATR inhibitors. This suggests that ATRi can be used in combination therapies of lymphomas without the use of genotoxic drugs.
View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2015.521
View details for Web of Science ID 000383324700002
View details for PubMedID 26804177
Hypoxia-regulated gene expression explains differences between melanoma cell line-derived xenografts and patient-derived xenografts
2016; 7 (17): 23801-23811
Cell line-derived xenografts (CDXs) are an integral part of drug efficacy testing during development of new pharmaceuticals against cancer but their accuracy in predicting clinical responses in patients have been debated. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are thought to be more useful for predictive biomarker identification for targeted therapies, including in metastatic melanoma, due to their similarities to human disease. Here, tumor biopsies from fifteen patients and ten widely-used melanoma cell lines were transplanted into immunocompromised mice to generate PDXs and CDXs, respectively. Gene expression profiles generated from the tumors of these PDXs and CDXs clustered into distinct groups, despite similar mutational signatures. Hypoxia-induced gene signatures and overexpression of the hypoxia-regulated miRNA hsa-miR-210 characterized CDXs. Inhibition of hsa-miR-210 with decoys had little phenotypic effect in vitro but reduced sensitivity to MEK1/2 inhibition in vivo, suggesting down-regulation of this miRNA could result in development of resistance to MEK inhibitors.
View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.8181
View details for Web of Science ID 000377706200062
View details for PubMedID 27009863
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5029664
Cancer Differentiating Agent Hexamethylene Bisacetamide Inhibits BET Bromodomain Proteins
2016; 76 (8): 2376-2383
Agents that trigger cell differentiation are highly efficacious in treating certain cancers, but such approaches are not generally effective in most malignancies. Compounds such as DMSO and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) have been used to induce differentiation in experimental systems, but their mechanisms of action and potential range of uses on that basis have not been developed. Here, we show that HMBA, a compound first tested in the oncology clinic over 25 years ago, acts as a selective bromodomain inhibitor. Biochemical and structural studies revealed an affinity of HMBA for the second bromodomain of BET proteins. Accordingly, both HMBA and the prototype BET inhibitor JQ1 induced differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia cells. As expected of a BET inhibitor, HMBA displaced BET proteins from chromatin, caused massive transcriptional changes, and triggered cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in Myc-induced B-cell lymphoma cells. Furthermore, HMBA exerted anticancer effects in vivo in mouse models of Myc-driven B-cell lymphoma. This study illuminates the function of an early anticancer agent and suggests an intersection with ongoing clinical trials of BET inhibitor, with several implications for predicting patient selection and response rates to this therapy and starting points for generating BD2-selective BET inhibitors. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2376-83. ©2016 AACR.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-2721
View details for Web of Science ID 000374170700032
View details for PubMedID 26941288
Small RNA deep sequencing discriminates subsets of extracellular vesicles released by melanoma cells - Evidence of unique microRNA cargos
2015; 12 (8): 810-823
Melanoma cells release different types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the extracellular milieu that are involved with communication and signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Subsets of EVs include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies that carry protein and genetic (RNA) cargos. To define the contribution of the RNA cargo of melanoma cell derived EVs we performed small RNA sequencing to identify different small RNAs in the EV subsets. Using validated centrifugation protocols, we separated these EV subsets released by the melanoma cell line MML-1, and performed RNA sequencing with the Ion Torrent platform. Various, but different, non-coding RNAs were detected in the EV subsets, including microRNA, mitochondrial associated tRNA, small nucleolar RNA, small nuclear RNA, Ro associated Y-RNA, vault RNA and Y-RNA. We identified in total 1041 miRNAs in cells and EV subsets. Hierarchical clustering showed enrichment of specific miRNAs in exosomes, including hsa-miR-214-3p, hsa-miR-199a-3p and hsa-miR-155-5p, all being associated with melanoma progression. Comparison of exosomal miRNAs with miRNAs in clinical melanoma samples indicate that multiple miRNAs in exosomes also are expressed specifically in melanoma tissues, but not in benign naevi. This study shows for the first time the presence of distinct small RNAs in subsets of EVs released by melanoma cells, with significant similarities to clinical melanoma tissue, and provides unique insights into the contribution of EV associated extracellular RNA in cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1080/15476286.2015.1056975
View details for Web of Science ID 000359659700006
View details for PubMedID 26176991
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4615768
Melanoma patient-derived xenografts accurately model the disease and develop fast enough to guide treatment decisions
2014; 5 (20): 9609-9618
The development of novel therapies against melanoma would benefit from individualized tumor models to ensure the rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers of therapy response. Previous studies have suggested that patient-derived xenografts (PDXes) could be useful. However, the utility of PDXes in guiding real-time treatment decisions has only been reported in anecdotal forms. Here tumor biopsies from patients with stage III and IV metastatic malignant melanoma were transplanted into immunocompromised mice to generate PDXes. 23/26 melanoma biopsies generated serially transplantable PDX models, and their histology, mutation status and expression profile resembled their corresponding patient biopsy. The potential treatment for one patient was revealed by an in vitro drug screen and treating PDXes with the MEK inhibitor trametinib. In another patient, the BRAF mutation predicted the response of both the patient and its corresponding PDXes to MAPK-targeted therapy. Importantly, in this unselected group of patients, the time from biopsy for generation of PDXes until death was significantly longer than the time required to reach the treatment phase of the PDXes. Thus, it could be clinically meaningful to use this type of platform for melanoma patients as a pre-selection tool in clinical trials.
View details for Web of Science ID 000348036500007
View details for PubMedID 25228592
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4259423
Identification of tumorigenic and therapeutically actionable mutations in transplantable mouse tumor cells by exome sequencing.
Cancer development occurs in response to the successive accumulation of mutations that eventually targets key regulators of cell proliferation. As most mutations likely occur randomly, cancer driver mutations can only be found if they are recurrent. Here we use exome sequencing of the mouse cell lines Panc02, L1210 and Colon 26 to identify genetic alterations (single-nucleotide polymorphisms and small insertion and deletions) that occurred in three different strains of mice and that resulted in tumorigenesis. We identify known mutations in genes like Kras, Cdkn2a/b, Smad4 and Trp53 and a large list of genes whose causal link to cancer is unknown. Interestingly, by screening a compound library we find that the identified oncogenic Kras mutation in Colon 26 cells correlates with its sensitivity to MEK inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Our analysis of these mouse tumor exomes show that their manageable number of mutations could facilitate the identification of novel mutations or pathways driving tumor development. Furthermore, their use as tools is now enhanced as they can be used to create syngenic transplant models for utilization in drug discovery and validation. Finally, by showing that Kras mutant Colon 26 cells are sensitive to MEK inhibitors, we provide one proof-of-principle experiment that a platform containing targeted resequencing and drug screens could be a valuable addition in the clinic to devise anti-cancer drug schemes.
View details for DOI 10.1038/oncsis.2013.8
View details for PubMedID 23588493
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3641362