Honors & Awards
The Freidenrich BII Autoimmune Award, Translational and Clinical Innovation Award, Stanford University (2016-2017)
NIH Director's New Innovator Award, NIH (2015-2020)
Baxter Faculty Scholar Award, Baxter Foundation (2015)
Gabilan Faculty Fellow, Stanford University (2014-2017)
Pathways to Independence Award (K99/R00), NIH/NIAMS (2012-2017)
PhD Fellowship, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico. (2005-2007)
Student Fellowship, Faculty of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina (2002-2003)
Postdoctoral Associate, The Rockefeller University, New York, USA, Cellular Physiology and Immunology (2012)
Ph.D., National Autonomous University of Mexico, Immunology & Biomedical Sciences (2007)
B.S., University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Biology & Immunology (2004)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
The Idoyaga Lab is focused on the function and biology of dendritic cells, which are specialized antigen-presenting cells that initiate and modulate our body’s immune responses. Considering their importance in orchestrating the quality and quantity of immune responses, dendritic cells are an indisputable target for vaccines and therapies.
Dendritic cells are not one cell type, but a network of cells comprised of many subsets or subpopulations with distinct developmental pathways and tissue localization. It is becoming apparent that each dendritic cell subset is different in its capacity to induce and modulate specific types of immune responses; however, there is still a lack of resolution and deep understanding of dendritic cell subset functional specialization. This gap in knowledge is an impediment for the rational design of immune interventions. Our research program focuses on advancing our understanding of mouse and human dendritic cell subsets, revealing their endowed capacity to induce distinct types of immune responses, and designing novel strategies to exploit them for vaccines and therapies.
- Immunology: Homeostasis and Disease
MI 214 (Win)
Independent Studies (11)
- Directed Investigation
BIOE 392 (Spr, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Immunology
IMMUNOL 299 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Directed Reading in Microbiology and Immunology
MI 299 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Early Clinical Experience in Immunology
IMMUNOL 280 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Graduate Research
IMMUNOL 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduate Research
MI 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Medical Scholars Research
MI 370 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Out-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology
BIO 199X (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Teaching in Immunology
IMMUNOL 290 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Undergraduate Research
IMMUNOL 199 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Undergraduate Research
MI 199 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Directed Investigation
Prior Year Courses
- Advanced Immunology I
IMMUNOL 201, MI 211 (Win)
- Advanced Immunology I
High-Dimensional Phenotypic Mapping of Human Dendritic Cells Reveals Interindividual Variation and Tissue Specialization.
Given the limited efficacy of clinical approaches that rely on ex vivo generated dendritic cells (DCs), it is imperative to design strategies that harness specialized DC subsets in situ. This requires delineating the expression of surface markers by DC subsets among individuals and tissues. Here, we performed a multiparametric phenotypic characterization and unbiased analysis of human DC subsets in blood, tonsil, spleen, and skin. We uncovered previously unreported phenotypic heterogeneity of human cDC2s among individuals, including variable expression of functional receptors such as CD172a. We found marked differences in DC subsets localized in blood and lymphoid tissues versus skin, and a striking absence of the newly discovered Axl+ DCs in the skin. Finally, we evaluated the capacity of anti-receptor monoclonal antibodies to deliver vaccine components to skin DC subsets. These results offer a promising path for developing DC subset-specific immunotherapies that cannot be provided by transcriptomic analysis alone.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.11.001
View details for PubMedID 29221729
Expansion and Activation of CD103(+) Dendritic Cell Progenitors at the Tumor Site Enhances Tumor Responses to Therapeutic PD-L1 and BRAF Inhibition
2016; 44 (4): 924-938
Large numbers of melanoma lesions develop resistance to targeted inhibition of mutant BRAF or fail to respond to checkpoint blockade. We explored whether modulation of intratumoral antigen-presenting cells (APCs) could increase responses to these therapies. Using mouse melanoma models, we found that CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) were the only APCs transporting intact antigens to the lymph nodes and priming tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells. CD103(+) DCs were required to promote anti-tumoral effects upon blockade of the checkpoint ligand PD-L1; however, PD-L1 inhibition only led to partial responses. Systemic administration of the growth factor FLT3L followed by intratumoral poly I:C injections expanded and activated CD103(+) DC progenitors in the tumor, enhancing responses to BRAF and PD-L1 blockade and protecting mice from tumor rechallenge. Thus, the paucity of activated CD103(+) DCs in tumors limits checkpoint-blockade efficacy and combined FLT3L and poly I:C therapy can enhance tumor responses to checkpoint and BRAF blockade.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.03.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000374444300022
View details for PubMedID 27096321
CDKN1A regulates Langerhans cell survival and promotes Treg cell generation upon exposure to ionizing irradiation.
2015; 16 (10): 1060–68
Treatment with ionizing radiation (IR) can lead to the accumulation of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and subsequent resistance of tumors to radiotherapy. Here we focused on the contribution of the epidermal mononuclear phagocytes Langerhans cells (LCs) to this phenomenon because of their ability to resist depletion by high-dose IR. We found that LCs resisted apoptosis and rapidly repaired DNA damage after exposure to IR. In particular, we found that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21) was overexpressed in LCs and that Cdkn1a(-/-) LCs underwent apoptosis and accumulated DNA damage following IR treatment. Wild-type LCs upregulated major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, migrated to the draining lymph nodes and induced an increase in Treg cell numbers upon exposure to IR, but Cdkn1a(-/-) LCs did not. Our findings suggest a means for manipulating the resistance of LCs to IR to enhance the response of cutaneous tumors to radiotherapy.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ni.3270
View details for PubMedID 26343536
Induction of innate and adaptive immunity by delivery of poly dA:dT to dendritic cells
NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY
2013; 9 (4): 250-256
Targeted delivery of antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) is a promising vaccination strategy. However, to ensure immunity, the approach depends on coadministration of an adjuvant. Here we ask whether targeting of both adjuvant and antigen to DCs is sufficient to induce immunity. Using a protein ligation method, we develop a general approach for linking the immune stimulant, poly dA:dT (pdA:dT), to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for DEC205 (DEC). We show that DEC-specific mAbs deliver pdA:dT to DCs for the efficient production of type I interferon in human monocyte-derived DCs and in mice. Notably, adaptive T-cell immunity is elicited when mAbs specific for DEC-pdA:dT are used as the activation stimuli and are administered together with a DC-targeted antigen. Collectively, our studies indicate that DCs can integrate innate and adaptive immunity in vivo and suggest that dual delivery of antigen and adjuvant to DCs might be an efficient approach to vaccine development.
View details for DOI 10.1038/NCHEMBIO.1186
View details for Web of Science ID 000317025800015
View details for PubMedID 23416331
Specialized role of migratory dendritic cells in peripheral tolerance induction
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
2013; 123 (2): 844-854
Harnessing DCs for immunotherapies in vivo requires the elucidation of the physiological role of distinct DC populations. Migratory DCs traffic from peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes charged with tissue self antigens. We hypothesized that these DC populations have a specialized role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, specifically, to generate suppressive Foxp3+ Tregs. To examine the differential capacity of migratory DCs versus blood-derived lymphoid-resident DCs for Treg generation in vivo, we targeted a self antigen, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, using antibodies against cell surface receptors differentially expressed in these DC populations. Using this approach together with mouse models that lack specific DC populations, we found that migratory DCs have a superior ability to generate Tregs in vivo, which in turn drastically improve the outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These results provide a rationale for the development of novel therapies targeting migratory DCs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI65260
View details for Web of Science ID 000314553600037
View details for PubMedID 23298832
- SnapShot: Dendritic Cells CELL 2011; 146 (4): 660-U186
Comparable T helper 1 (Th1) and CD8 T-cell immunity by targeting HIV gag p24 to CD8 dendritic cells within antibodies to Langerin, DEC205, and Clec9A
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2011; 108 (6): 2384-2389
Improved protein-based vaccines should facilitate the goal of effective vaccines against HIV and other pathogens. With respect to T cells, the efficiency of immunization, or "immunogenicity," is improved by targeting vaccine proteins to maturing dendritic cells (DCs) within mAbs to DC receptors. Here, we compared the capacity of Langerin/CD207, DEC205/CD205, and Clec9A receptors, each expressed on the CD8(+) DC subset in mice, to bring about immunization of microbial-specific T cells from the polyclonal repertoire, using HIV gag-p24 protein as an antigen. α-Langerin mAb targeted splenic CD8(+) DCs selectively in vivo, whereas α-DEC205 and α-Clec9A mAbs targeted additional cell types. When the mAb heavy chains were engineered to express gag-p24, the α-Langerin, α-DEC205, and α-Clec9A fusion mAbs given along with a maturation stimulus induced comparable levels of gag-specific T helper 1 (Th1) and CD8(+) T cells in BALB/c × C57BL/6 F1 mice. These immune T cells were more numerous than targeting the CD8(-) DC subset with α-DCIR2-gag-p24. In an in vivo assay in which gag-primed T cells were used to report the early stages of T-cell responses, α-Langerin, α-DEC205, and α-Clec9A also mediated cross-presentation to primed CD8(+) T cells if, in parallel to antigen uptake, the DCs were stimulated with α-CD40. α-Langerin, α-DEC205, and α-Clec9A targeting greatly enhanced T-cell immunization relative to nonbinding control mAb or nontargeted HIV gag-p24 protein. Therefore, when the appropriate subset of DCs is targeted with a vaccine protein, several different receptors expressed by that subset are able to initiate combined Th1 and CD8(+) immunity.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1019547108
View details for Web of Science ID 000287084500041
View details for PubMedID 21262813
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3038758
- Features of the dendritic cell lineage IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS 2010; 234: 5-17
Antibody to Langerin/CD207 localizes large numbers of CD8 alpha(+) dendritic cells to the marginal zone of mouse spleen
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2009; 106 (5): 1524-1529
Dendritic cells (DCs) are strategically positioned to take up antigens and initiate adaptive immunity. One DC subset expresses CD8alphaalpha in mice and is specialized to capture dying cells and process antigens for MHC class I "cross-presentation." Because CD8(+) DCs also express DEC205/CD205, which is localized to splenic T cell regions, it is thought that CD8(+) DCs also are restricted to T zones. Here, we used a new antibody to Langerin/CD207, which colabels isolated CD8(+) CD205(+) DCs, to immunolabel spleen sections. The mAb labeled discrete cells with high levels of CD11c and CD8. Surprisingly most CD207(+) profiles were in marginal zones surrounding splenic white pulp nodules, and only smaller numbers were in T cell areas, where CD205 colabeling was noted. Despite a marginal zone location, CD207(+) DCs lacked identifying molecules for 3 different types of macrophages, localized in proximity and, in contrast to macrophages, marginal zone DCs were poor scavengers of soluble and particulate substrates. After stimulation with microbial agonists, Langerin expression disappeared from the marginal zone at 6-12 h, but was greatly expanded in the T cell areas, and by 24-48 h, Langerin expression disappeared. Therefore, anti-Langerin antibodies localize a majority of CD8(+) DCs to non-T cell regions of mouse spleen, where they are distinct from adjacent macrophages.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0812247106
View details for Web of Science ID 000263074600044
View details for PubMedID 19168629
Cutting edge: Langerin/CD207 receptor on dendritic cells mediates efficient antigen presentation on MHC I and II products in vivo
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2008; 180 (6): 3647-3650
The targeted delivery of Ags to dendritic cell (DCs) in vivo greatly improves the efficiency of Ag presentation to T cells and allows an analysis of receptor function. To evaluate the function of Langerin/CD207, a receptor expressed by subsets of DCs that frequently coexpress the DEC205/CD205 receptor, we genetically introduced OVA into the C terminus of anti-receptor Ab H chains. Taking advantage of the new L31 mAb to the extracellular domain of mouse Langerin, we find that the hybrid Ab targets appropriate DC subsets in draining lymph nodes and spleen. OVA is then presented efficiently to CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells in vivo, which undergo 4-8 cycles of division in 3 days. Peptide MHC I and II complexes persist for days. Dose response studies indicate only modest differences between Langerin and DEC receptors in these functions. Thus, Langerin effectively mediates Ag presentation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000257506600006
View details for PubMedID 18322168
Ebola virus infection kinetics in chimeric mice reveal a key role of T cells as barriers for virus dissemination.
2017; 7: 43776-?
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe systemic disease in humans and non-human primates characterized by high levels of viremia and virus titers in peripheral organs. The natural portals of virus entry are the mucosal surfaces and the skin where macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are primary EBOV targets. Due to the migratory properties of DCs, EBOV infection of these cells has been proposed as a necessary step for virus dissemination via draining lymph nodes and blood. Here we utilize chimeric mice with competent hematopoietic-driven immunity, to show that EBOV primarily infects CD11b(+) DCs in non-lymphoid and lymphoid tissues, but spares the main cross-presenting CD103(+) DC subset. Furthermore, depletion of CD8 and CD4 T cells resulted in loss of early control of virus replication, viremia and fatal Ebola virus disease (EVD). Thus, our findings point out at T cell function as a key determinant of EVD progress and outcome.
View details for DOI 10.1038/srep43776
View details for PubMedID 28256637
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5335601
Pseudogenization of the Secreted Effector Gene sseI Confers Rapid Systemic Dissemination of S. Typhimurium ST313 within Migratory Dendritic Cells.
Cell host & microbe
2017; 21 (2): 182-194
Genome degradation correlates with host adaptation and systemic disease in Salmonella. Most lineages of the S. enterica subspecies Typhimurium cause gastroenteritis in humans; however, the recently emerged ST313 lineage II pathovar commonly causes systemic bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. ST313 lineage II displays genome degradation compared to gastroenteritis-associated lineages; yet, the mechanisms and causal genetic differences mediating these infection phenotypes are largely unknown. We find that the ST313 isolate D23580 hyperdisseminates from the gut to systemic sites, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), via CD11b(+) migratory dendritic cells (DCs). This hyperdissemination was facilitated by the loss of sseI, which encodes an effector that inhibits DC migration in gastroenteritis-associated isolates. Expressing functional SseI in D23580 reduced the number of infected migratory DCs and bacteria in the MLN. Our study reveals a mechanism linking pseudogenization of effectors with the evolution of niche adaptation in a bacterial pathogen.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2017.01.009
View details for PubMedID 28182950
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5325708
European journal of immunology
2017; 47 (2): 345-352
Influenza virus infection triggers an increase in the number of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in the respiratory tract, but the role of these cells during antiviral immunity is still unclear. Here we show that during influenza infection, moDCs dominate the late activation of CD8(+) T cells and trigger the switch in immunodominance of the CD8(+) T-cell response from acidic polymerase specificity to nucleoprotein specificity. Abrogation of monocyte recruitment or depletion of moDCs strongly compromised host resistance to secondary influenza challenge. These findings underscore a novel function of moDCs in the antiviral response to influenza virus, and have important implications for vaccine design.
View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.201646523
View details for PubMedID 27859043
- Monocyte-derived dendritic cells enhance protection against secondary influenza challenge by controlling the switch in CD8(+) T-cell immunodominance EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2017; 47 (2): 345-352
Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.
journal of infectious diseases
2016; 214: S275-S280
A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16(+) monocytes with a poor activation profile. In survivors, CD16(+) monocytes were activated during recovery, coincident with viral clearance, suggesting an important role of this cell subset in EVD pathophysiology.
View details for PubMedID 27521367
- Reply to: "Subverting misconceptions about radiation therapy". Nature immunology 2016; 17 (4): 345-346
ESAT-6 Targeting to DEC205+ Antigen Presenting Cells Induces Specific-T Cell Responses against ESAT-6 and Reduces Pulmonary Infection with Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
2015; 10 (4)
Airways infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is contained mostly by T cell responses, however, Mtb has developed evasion mechanisms which affect antigen presenting cell (APC) maturation/recruitment delaying the onset of Ag-specific T cell responses. Hypothetically, bypassing the natural infection routes by delivering antigens directly to APCs may overcome the pathogen's naturally evolved evasion mechanisms, thus facilitating the induction of protective immune responses. We generated a murine monoclonal fusion antibody (α-DEC-ESAT) to deliver Early Secretory Antigen Target (ESAT)-6 directly to DEC205+ APCs and to assess its in vivo effects on protection associated responses (IFN-γ production, in vivo CTL killing, and pulmonary mycobacterial load). Treatment with α-DEC-ESAT alone induced ESAT-6-specific IFN-γ producing CD4+ T cells and prime-boost immunization prior to Mtb infection resulted in early influx (d14 post-infection) and increased IFN-γ+ production by specific T cells in the lungs, compared to scarce IFN-γ production in control mice. In vivo CTL killing was quantified in relevant tissues upon transferring target cells loaded with mycobacterial antigens. During infection, α-DEC-ESAT-treated mice showed increased target cell killing in the lungs, where histology revealed cellular infiltrate and considerably reduced bacterial burden. Targeting the mycobacterial antigen ESAT-6 to DEC205+ APCs before infection expands specific T cell clones responsible for early T cell responses (IFN-γ production and CTL activity) and substantially reduces lung bacterial burden. Delivering mycobacterial antigens directly to APCs provides a unique approach to study in vivo the role of APCs and specific T cell responses to assess their potential anti-mycobacterial functions.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0124828
View details for PubMedID 25915045
Activation of Toll-like Receptor-2 by Endogenous Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Modulates Dendritic-Cell-Mediated Inflammatory Responses
2014; 9 (5): 1856-1870
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is involved in several physiological mechanisms, including wound healing and tumor progression. We show that MMP-2 directly stimulates dendritic cells (DCs) to both upregulate OX40L on the cell surface and secrete inflammatory cytokines. The mechanism underlying DC activation includes physical association with Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), leading to NF-κB activation, OX40L upregulation on DCs, and ensuing TH2 differentiation. Significantly, MMP-2 polarizes T cells toward type 2 responses in vivo, in a TLR2-dependent manner. MMP-2-dependent type 2 polarization may represent a key immune regulatory mechanism for protection against a broad array of disorders, such as inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases, which can be hijacked by tumors to evade immunity.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.10.067
View details for Web of Science ID 000346851900027
View details for PubMedID 25466255
Murine Langerin(+) dermal dendritic cells prime CD8(+) T cells while Langerhans cells induce cross-tolerance
EMBO MOLECULAR MEDICINE
2014; 6 (9): 1191-1204
Skin dendritic cells (DCs) control the immunogenicity of cutaneously administered vaccines. Antigens targeted to DCs via the C-type lectin Langerin/CD207 are cross-presented to CD8(+) T cells in vivo. We investigated the relative roles of Langerhans cells (LCs) and Langerin(+) dermal DCs (dDCs) in different vaccination settings. Poly(I:C) and anti-CD40 agonist antibody promoted cytotoxic responses upon intradermal immunization with ovalbumin (OVA)-coupled anti-Langerin antibodies (Langerin/OVA). This correlated with CD70 upregulation in Langerin(+) dDCs, but not LCs. In chimeric mice where Langerin targeting was restricted to dDCs, CD8(+) T-cell memory was enhanced. Conversely, providing Langerin/OVA exclusively to LCs failed to prime cytotoxicity, despite initial antigen cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Langerin/OVA combined with imiquimod could not prime CD8(+) T cells and resulted in poor cytotoxicity in subsequent responses. This tolerance induction required targeting and maturation of LCs. Altogether, Langerin(+) dDCs prime long-lasting cytotoxic responses, while cross-presentation by LCs negatively influences CD8(+) T-cell priming. Moreover, this highlights that DCs exposed to TLR agonists can still induce tolerance and supports the existence of qualitatively different DC maturation programs.
View details for Web of Science ID 000341700700008
View details for PubMedID 25085878
BRAF-V600E expression in precursor versus differentiated dendritic cells defines clinically distinct LCH risk groups
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
2014; 211 (4): 669-683
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal disorder with elusive etiology, characterized by the accumulation of CD207(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in inflammatory lesions. Recurrent BRAF-V600E mutations have been reported in LCH. In this study, lesions from 100 patients were genotyped, and 64% carried the BRAF-V600E mutation within infiltrating CD207(+) DCs. BRAF-V600E expression in tissue DCs did not define specific clinical risk groups but was associated with increased risk of recurrence. Strikingly, we found that patients with active, high-risk LCH also carried BRAF-V600E in circulating CD11c(+) and CD14(+) fractions and in bone marrow (BM) CD34(+) hematopoietic cell progenitors, whereas the mutation was restricted to lesional CD207(+) DC in low-risk LCH patients. Importantly, BRAF-V600E expression in DCs was sufficient to drive LCH-like disease in mice. Consistent with our findings in humans, expression of BRAF-V600E in BM DC progenitors recapitulated many features of the human high-risk LCH, whereas BRAF-V600E expression in differentiated DCs more closely resembled low-risk LCH. We therefore propose classification of LCH as a myeloid neoplasia and hypothesize that high-risk LCH arises from somatic mutation of a hematopoietic progenitor, whereas low-risk disease arises from somatic mutation of tissue-restricted precursor DCs.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20130977
View details for Web of Science ID 000334917400009
View details for PubMedID 24638167
Streamlined Expressed Protein Ligation Using Split Inteins
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2013; 135 (1): 286-292
Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant α-thioester is ligated to an N-terminal Cys-containing peptide. Despite the widespread use of EPL, the generation and isolation of the required recombinant protein α-thioesters remain challenging. We describe here a new method for the preparation and purification of recombinant protein α-thioesters using engineered versions of naturally split DnaE inteins. This family of autoprocessing enzymes is closely related to the inteins currently used for protein α-thioester generation, but they feature faster kinetics and are split into two inactive polypeptides that need to associate to become active. Taking advantage of the strong affinity between the two split intein fragments, we devised a streamlined procedure for the purification and generation of protein α-thioesters from cell lysates and applied this strategy for the semisynthesis of a variety of proteins including an acetylated histone and a site-specifically modified monoclonal antibody.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja309126m
View details for Web of Science ID 000313143000048
View details for PubMedID 23265282
Targeting Leishmania major Antigens to Dendritic Cells In Vivo Induces Protective Immunity.
2013; 8 (6): e67453
Efficient vaccination against the parasite Leishmania major, the causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, requires development of type 1 T-helper (Th1) CD4(+) T cell immunity. Because of their unique capacity to initiate and modulate immune responses, dendritic cells (DCs) are attractive targets for development of novel vaccines. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the capacity of a DC-targeted vaccine to induce protective responses against L. major. To this end, we genetically engineered the N-terminal portion of the stress-inducible 1 protein of L. major (LmSTI1a) into anti-DEC205/CD205 (DEC) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and thereby delivered the conjugated protein to DEC(+) DCs in situ in the intact animal. Delivery of LmSTI1a to adjuvant-matured DCs increased the frequency of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ(+), IL-2(+), and TNF-α(+) in two different strains of mice (C57BL/6 and Balb/c), while such responses were not observed with the same doses of a control Ig-LmSTI1a mAb without receptor affinity or with non-targeted LmSTI1a protein. Using a peptide library for LmSTI1a, we identified at least two distinct CD4(+) T cell mimetopes in each MHC class II haplotype, consistent with the induction of broad immunity. When we compared T cell immune responses generated after targeting DCs with LmSTI1a or other L. major antigens, including LACK (Leishmania receptor for activated C kinase) and LeIF (Leishmania eukaryotic ribosomal elongation and initiation factor 4a), we found that LmSTI1a was superior for generation of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells, which correlated with higher protection of susceptible Balb/c mice to a challenge with L. major. For the first time, this study demonstrates the potential of a DC-targeted vaccine as a novel approach for cutaneous leishmaniasis, an increasing public health concern that has no currently available effective treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0067453
View details for PubMedID 23840706
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3694010
Consortium biology in immunology: the perspective from the Immunological Genome Project
NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY
2012; 12 (10): 734-740
Although the field has a long collaborative tradition, immunology has made less use than genetics of 'consortium biology', wherein groups of investigators together tackle large integrated questions or problems. However, immunology is naturally suited to large-scale integrative and systems-level approaches, owing to the multicellular and adaptive nature of the cells it encompasses. Here, we discuss the value and drawbacks of this organization of research, in the context of the long-running 'big science' debate, and consider the opportunities that may exist for the immunology community. We position this analysis in light of our own experience, both positive and negative, as participants of the Immunological Genome Project.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nri3300
View details for Web of Science ID 000309263800014
View details for PubMedID 22955842
Zinc finger transcription factor zDC is a negative regulator required to prevent activation of classical dendritic cells in the steady state
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
2012; 209 (9): 1583-1593
Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) process and present antigens to T cells. Under steady-state conditions, antigen presentation by cDCs induces tolerance. In contrast, during infection or inflammation, cDCs become activated, express higher levels of cell surface MHC molecules, and induce strong adaptive immune responses. We recently identified a cDC-restricted zinc finger transcription factor, zDC (also known as Zbtb46 or Btbd4), that is not expressed by other immune cell populations, including plasmacytoid DCs, monocytes, or macrophages. We define the zDC consensus DNA binding motif and the genes regulated by zDC using chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing. By deleting zDC from the mouse genome, we show that zDC is primarily a negative regulator of cDC gene expression. zDC deficiency alters the cDC subset composition in the spleen in favor of CD8(+) DCs, up-regulates activation pathways in steady-state cDCs, including elevated MHC II expression, and enhances cDC production of vascular endothelial growth factor leading to increased vascularization of skin-draining lymph nodes. Consistent with these observations, zDC protein expression is rapidly down-regulated after TLR stimulation. Thus, zDC is a TLR-responsive, cDC-specific transcriptional repressor that is in part responsible for preventing cDC maturation in the steady state.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20121003
View details for Web of Science ID 000308423900006
View details for PubMedID 22851594
Expression of the zinc finger transcription factor zDC (Zbtb46, Btbd4) defines the classical dendritic cell lineage
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
2012; 209 (6): 1153-1165
Classical dendritic cells (cDCs), monocytes, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) arise from a common bone marrow precursor (macrophage and DC progenitors [MDPs]) and express many of the same surface markers, including CD11c. We describe a previously uncharacterized zinc finger transcription factor, zDC (Zbtb46, Btbd4), which is specifically expressed by cDCs and committed cDC precursors but not by monocytes, pDCs, or other immune cell populations. We inserted diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) cDNA into the 3' UTR of the zDC locus to serve as an indicator of zDC expression and as a means to specifically deplete cDCs. Mice bearing this knockin express DTR in cDCs but not other immune cell populations, and DT injection into zDC-DTR bone marrow chimeras results in cDC depletion. In contrast to previously characterized CD11c-DTR mice, non-cDCs, including pDCs, monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, were spared after DT injection in zDC-DTR mice. We compared immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii and MO4 melanoma in DT-treated zDC- and CD11c-DTR mice and found that immunity was only partially impaired in zDC-DTR mice. Our results indicate that CD11c-expressing non-cDCs make significant contributions to initiating immunity to parasites and tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20112675
View details for Web of Science ID 000304907800010
View details for PubMedID 22615130
Dll4-Notch signaling in Flt3-independent dendritic cell development and autoimmunity in mice
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
2012; 209 (5): 1011-1028
Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)-Notch signaling is essential for T cell development and alternative thymic lineage decisions. How Dll4-Notch signaling affects pro-T cell fate and thymic dendritic cell (tDC) development is unknown. We found that Dll4 pharmacological blockade induces accumulation of tDCs and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) in the thymic cortex. Both genetic inactivation models and anti-Dll4 antibody (Ab) treatment promote de novo natural T(reg) cell expansion by a DC-dependent mechanism that requires major histocompatibility complex II expression on DCs. Anti-Dll4 treatment converts CD4(-)CD8(-)c-kit(+)CD44(+)CD25(-) (DN1) T cell progenitors to immature DCs that induce ex vivo differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into T(reg) cells. Induction of these tolerogenic DN1-derived tDCs and the ensuing expansion of T(reg) cells are Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) independent, occur in the context of transcriptional up-regulation of PU.1, Irf-4, Irf-8, and CSF-1, genes critical for DC differentiation, and are abrogated in thymectomized mice. Anti-Dll4 treatment fully prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) via a T(reg) cell-mediated mechanism and inhibits CD8(+) T cell pancreatic islet infiltration. Furthermore, a single injection of anti-Dll4 Ab reverses established T1D. Disease remission and recurrence are correlated with increased T(reg) cell numbers in the pancreas-draining lymph nodes. These results identify Dll4-Notch as a novel Flt3-alternative pathway important for regulating tDC-mediated T(reg) cell homeostasis and autoimmunity.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20111615
View details for Web of Science ID 000303684300014
View details for PubMedID 22547652
Skin Langerin(+) Dendritic Cells Transport Intradermally Injected Anti-DEC-205 Antibodies but Are Not Essential for Subsequent Cytotoxic CD8(+) T Cell Responses
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2012; 188 (5): 2146-2155
Incorporation of Ags by dendritic cells (DCs) increases when Ags are targeted to endocytic receptors by mAbs. We have previously demonstrated in the mouse that mAbs against C-type lectins administered intradermally are taken up by epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), dermal Langerin(neg) DCs, and dermal Langerin(+) DCs in situ. However, the relative contribution of these skin DC subsets to the induction of immune responses after Ag targeting has not been addressed in vivo. We show in this study that murine epidermal LCs and dermal DCs transport intradermally injected mAbs against the lectin receptor DEC-205/CD205 in vivo. Skin DCs targeted in situ with mAbs migrated through lymphatic vessels in steady state and inflammation. In the skin-draining lymph nodes, targeting mAbs were found in resident CD8α(+) DCs and in migrating skin DCs. More than 70% of targeted DCs expressed Langerin, including dermal Langerin(+) DCs and LCs. Numbers of targeted skin DCs in the nodes increased 2-3-fold when skin was topically inflamed by the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. Complete removal of the site where OVA-coupled anti-DEC-205 had been injected decreased endogenous cytotoxic responses against OVA peptide-loaded target cells by 40-50%. Surprisingly, selective ablation of all Langerin(+) skin DCs in Langerin-DTR knock-in mice did not affect such responses independently of the adjuvant chosen. Thus, in cutaneous immunization strategies where Ag is targeted to DCs, Langerin(+) skin DCs play a major role in transport of anti-DEC-205 mAb, although Langerin(neg) dermal DCs and CD8α(+) DCs are sufficient to subsequent CD8(+) T cell responses.
View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1004120
View details for Web of Science ID 000300610800014
View details for PubMedID 22291181
Treml4, an Ig Superfamily Member, Mediates Presentation of Several Antigens to T Cells In Vivo, Including Protective Immunity to HER2 Protein
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2012; 188 (3): 1147-1155
Members of the triggering expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) receptor family fine-tune inflammatory responses. We previously identified one of these receptors, called Treml4, expressed mainly in the spleen, as well as at high levels by CD8α(+) dendritic cells and macrophages. Like other Trem family members, Treml4 has an Ig-like extracellular domain and a short cytoplasmic tail that associates with the adaptor DAP12. To follow up on our initial results that Treml4-Fc fusion proteins bind necrotic cells, we generated a knockout mouse to assess the role of Treml4 in the uptake and presentation of dying cells in vivo. Loss of Treml4 expression did not impair uptake of dying cells by CD8α(+) dendritic cells or cross-presentation of cell-associated Ag to CD8(+) T cells, suggesting overlapping function between Treml4 and other receptors in vivo. To further investigate Treml4 function, we took advantage of a newly generated mAb against Treml4 and engineered its H chain to express three different Ags (i.e., OVA, HIV GAGp24, and the extracellular domain of the breast cancer protein HER2). OVA directed to Treml4 was efficiently presented to CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells in vivo. Anti-Treml4-GAGp24 mAbs, given along with a maturation stimulus, induced Th1 Ag-specific responses that were not observed in Treml4 knockout mice. Also, HER2 targeting using anti-Treml4 mAbs elicited combined CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell immunity, and both T cells participated in resistance to a transplantable tumor. Therefore, Treml4 participates in Ag presentation in vivo, and targeting Ags with anti-Treml4 Abs enhances immunization of otherwise naive mice.
View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1102541
View details for Web of Science ID 000299690200029
View details for PubMedID 22210914
Dendritic cell-targeted protein vaccines: a novel approach to induce T-cell immunity
JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
2012; 271 (2): 183-192
Current vaccines primarily work by inducing protective antibodies. However, in many infections like HIV, malaria and tuberculosis as well as cancers, there remains a need for durable and protective T-cell immunity. Here, we summarize our efforts to develop a safe T-cell-based protein vaccine that exploits the pivotal role of dendritic cells (DC) in initiating adaptive immunity. Focusing on HIV, gag-p24 protein antigen is introduced into a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that efficiently and specifically targets the DEC-205 antigen uptake receptor on DC. When administered together with synthetic double-stranded RNA, polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly IC) or its analogue poly IC stabilized with carboxymethylcellulose and poly-L-lysine (poly ICLC), as adjuvant, HIV gag-p24 within anti-DEC-205 mAb is highly immunogenic in mice, rhesus macaques, and in ongoing research, healthy human volunteers. Human subjects form both T- and B-cell responses to DC-targeted protein. Thus, DC-targeted protein vaccines are a potential new vaccine platform, either alone or in combination with highly attenuated viral vectors, to induce integrated immune responses against microbial or cancer antigens, with improved ease of manufacturing and clinical use.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02496.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000299157900011
View details for PubMedID 22126373
Microbial Stimulation Fully Differentiates Monocytes to DC-SIGN/CD209(+) Dendritic Cells for Immune T Cell Areas
2010; 143 (3): 416-429
Dendritic cells (DCs), critical antigen-presenting cells for immune control, normally derive from bone marrow precursors distinct from monocytes. It is not yet established if the large reservoir of monocytes can develop into cells with critical features of DCs in vivo. We now show that fully differentiated monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) develop in mice and DC-SIGN/CD209a marks the cells. Mo-DCs are recruited from blood monocytes into lymph nodes by lipopolysaccharide and live or dead gram-negative bacteria. Mobilization requires TLR4 and its CD14 coreceptor and Trif. When tested for antigen-presenting function, Mo-DCs are as active as classical DCs, including cross-presentation of proteins and live gram-negative bacteria on MHC I in vivo. Fully differentiated Mo-DCs acquire DC morphology and localize to T cell areas via L-selectin and CCR7. Thus the blood monocyte reservoir becomes the dominant presenting cell in response to select microbes, yielding DC-SIGN(+) cells with critical functions of DCs.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.039
View details for Web of Science ID 000283603900015
View details for PubMedID 21029863
Targeting of antigens to skin dendritic cells: possibilities to enhance vaccine efficacy
IMMUNOLOGY AND CELL BIOLOGY
2010; 88 (4): 424-430
Vaccinations in medicine are commonly administered through the skin. Therefore, the vaccine is immunologically processed by antigen-presenting cells of the skin. There is recent evidence that the clinically less often used intradermal route is effective; in cases even superior to the conventional subcutaneous or intramuscular route. Professional antigen-presenting cells of the skin comprise epidermal Langerhans cells (CD207/langerin(+)), dermal langerin(-) and dermal langerin(+) dendritic cells (DCs). In human skin, langerin(-) dermal DCs can be further subdivided on the basis of their reciprocal CD1a and CD14 expression. The relative contributions of these subsets to the generation of immunity or tolerance are still unclear. Langerhans cells in human skin seem to be specialized for induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Likewise, mouse Langerhans cells are capable of cross-presentation and of protecting against experimental tumours. It is desirable to harness these properties for immunotherapy. A promising strategy to dramatically improve the outcome of vaccinations is 'antigen targeting'. Thereby, the vaccine is delivered directly and selectively to defined types of skin DCs. Targeting is achieved by means of coupling antigen to antibodies that recognize cell surface receptors on DCs. This approach is being widely explored. Little is known, however, about the events that take place in the skin and the DCs subsets involved therein. This topic will be discussed in this article.
View details for DOI 10.1038/icb.2010.39
View details for Web of Science ID 000277442500014
View details for PubMedID 20368713
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2907485
Epidermal Langerhans Cells Rapidly Capture and Present Antigens from C-Type Lectin-Targeting Antibodies Deposited in the Dermis
JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY
2010; 130 (3): 755-762
Antigen-presenting cells can capture antigens that are deposited in the skin, including vaccines given subcutaneously. These include different dendritic cells (DCs) such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), dermal DCs, and dermal langerin+ DCs. To evaluate access of dermal antigens to skin DCs, we used mAb to two C-type lectin endocytic receptors, DEC-205/CD205 and langerin/CD207. When applied to murine and human skin explant cultures, these mAbs were efficiently taken up by epidermal LCs. In addition, anti-DEC-205 targeted langerin+ CD103+ and langerin- CD103- mouse dermal DCs. Unexpectedly, intradermal injection of either mAb, but not isotype control, resulted in strong and rapid labeling of LCs in situ, implying that large molecules can diffuse through the basement membrane into the epidermis. Epidermal LCs targeted in vivo by ovalbumin-coupled anti-DEC-205 potently presented antigen to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro. However, to our surprise, LCs targeted through langerin were unable to trigger T-cell proliferation. Thus, epidermal LCs have a major function in uptake of lectin-binding antibodies under standard vaccination conditions.
View details for DOI 10.1038/jid.2009.343
View details for Web of Science ID 000275017600019
View details for PubMedID 19890348
Acute in vivo exposure to interferon-gamma enables resident brain dendritic cells to become effective antigen presenting cells
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2009; 106 (49): 20918-20923
Dendritic cells (DC) are the professional antigen presenting cells (APC) that bridge the innate and adaptive immune system. Previously, in a CD11c/EYFP transgenic mouse developed to study DC functions, we anatomically mapped and phenotypically characterized a discrete population of EYFP(+) cells within the microglia that we termed brain dendritic cells (bDC). In this study, we advanced our knowledge of the function of these cells in the CD11c/EYFP transgenic mouse and its chimeras, using acute stimuli of stereotaxically inoculated IFNgamma or IL-4 into the CNS. The administration of IFNgamma increased the number of EYFP(+)bDC but did not recruit peripheral DC into the CNS. IFNgamma, but not IL-4, upregulated the expression levels of major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II). In addition, IFNgamma-activated EYFP(+)bDC induced antigen-specific naïve CD4 T cells to proliferate and secrete Th1/Th17 cytokines. Activated bDC were also able to stimulate naïve CD8 T cells. Collectively, these data reveal the Th1 cytokine IFNgamma, but not the Th2 cytokine IL4, induces bDC to up-regulate MHC-II and become competent APC.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0911509106
View details for Web of Science ID 000272553000066
View details for PubMedID 19906988
Dendritic cells require a systemic type I interferon response to mature and induce CD4(+) Th1 immunity with poly IC as adjuvant
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
2009; 206 (7): 1589-1602
Relative to several other toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, we found polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly IC) to be the most effective adjuvant for Th1 CD4(+) T cell responses to a dendritic cell (DC)-targeted HIV gag protein vaccine in mice. To identify mechanisms for adjuvant action in the intact animal and the polyclonal T cell repertoire, we found poly IC to be the most effective inducer of type I interferon (IFN), which was produced by DEC-205(+) DCs, monocytes, and stromal cells. Antibody blocking or deletion of type I IFN receptor showed that IFN was essential for DC maturation and development of CD4(+) immunity. The IFN-AR receptor was directly required for DCs to respond to poly IC. STAT 1 was also essential, in keeping with the type I IFN requirement, but not type II IFN or IL-12 p40. Induction of type I IFN was mda5 dependent, but DCs additionally used TLR3. In bone marrow chimeras, radioresistant and, likely, nonhematopoietic cells were the main source of IFN, but mda5 was required in both marrow-derived and radioresistant host cells for adaptive responses. Therefore, the adjuvant action of poly IC requires a widespread innate type I IFN response that directly links antigen presentation by DCs to adaptive immunity.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20090247
View details for Web of Science ID 000267738700014
View details for PubMedID 19564349
A New Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (Trem) Family Member, Trem-Like 4, Binds to Dead Cells and Is a DNAX Activation Protein 12-Linked Marker for Subsets of Mouse Macrophages and Dendritic Cells
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2009; 182 (3): 1278-1286
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that can control immune responses against self and altered self, typically foreign, determinants. DCs can be divided into several subsets, including CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs. These subsets possess specific functions. For example, mouse splenic CD8alpha(+), but not CD8alpha(-) DCs selectively take up dying cells and cross-present cell-associated Ags to naive T cells. In this study, we identified genes that were more expressed in CD8alpha(+) than CD8alpha(-) DCs by microarray analysis. Only one of these genes, when the extracellular domains were linked to human IgG Fc domain, could bind to late apoptotic or necrotic cells. This gene was a new member of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) family, Trem-like 4 (Treml4). Treml4 mRNA and protein, the latter detected with a new mAb, were predominantly expressed in spleen. Treml4, like other Trem family members, could associate with the adaptor molecule DNAX activation protein 12 kDa, but neither DNAX activation protein 10 kDa nor FcRgamma. Consistent with the microarray data, we confirmed that Treml4 protein was more expressed on CD8alpha(+) than CD8alpha(-) DCs, and we also found that Treml4 was expressed at high levels on splenic macrophages in spleen, particularly red pulp and marginal metallophilic macrophages. In addition, Treml4 expression on DCs was not changed after maturation induced by TLR ligands. Thus, Treml4 is a new Trem family molecule that is abundantly expressed on CD8alpha(+) DCs and subsets of splenic resident macrophages, and can recognize dead cells by different types of phagocytes in spleen.
View details for Web of Science ID 000262842100010
View details for PubMedID 19155473
Generation and application of new rat monoclonal antibodies against synthetic FLAG and OLLAS tags for improved immunodetection
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
2008; 331 (1-2): 27-38
Previously, we prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing rats with the recombinant fusion proteins of mouse Langerin/CD207, which contained a flexible linker sequence from E. coli OmpF and a FLAG epitope. We found many of new rat mAbs were not reactive to mouse Langerin, and here we identify the epitopes of two of these IgG mAbs, L2 and L5, and assess their efficacy in various immunodetection methods. MAb L5 is a rat IgG mAb against the FLAG epitope, which detected both N-terminal and C-terminal FLAG tagged protein 2 to 8 times better than the conventional anti-FLAG mAb M2 by Western blot. For mAb L2, we found its epitope to be a 14 amino acid sequence SGFANELGPRLMGK which consisted of both sequences from the OmpF derived linker and mouse Langerin. This epitope sequence was named OLLAS (E. coliOmpF Linker and mouse Langerin fusion Sequence), and mAb L2 as mAb OLLA-2. When the OLLAS sequence was inserted into recombinant proteins at N-terminal, C-terminal, or internal sites, the OLLAS tag was detected by mAb OLLA-2 with very high sensitivity compared to other conventional epitope tags and anti-tag mAbs. MAb OLLA-2 recognized OLLAS tagged proteins with at least 100-fold more sensitivity than anti-FLAG M2 and anti-V5 mAbs in Western blot analyses. We also find the OLLAS epitope to be superior in immunoprecipitation and other immunodetection methods, such as fluorescent immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. In the process, we successfully utilized the OLLAS epitope sequence as an internal linker for fusion between the engineered mAb and the antigen, and thus achieved improved immunodetection.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jim.2007.10.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000254059400003
View details for PubMedID 18054954
Tumor cells prevent mouse dendritic cell maturation induced by TLR ligands
CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY
2007; 56 (8): 1237-1250
Tumor cells can evade the immune system through several mechanisms, one of which is to block DC maturation. It has been suggested that signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLR) may be involved in the induction of prophylactic anti-cancer immunity and in the treatment of established tumors. In the present study we found that high numbers of tumor cells interfere with BMDC activation induced by the TLR ligands LPS and poly IC. Tumor cells blocked TLR3- and TLR4-mediated induction of MHCII and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, as well as the cytokines IL-12, TNF-alpha and IL-6. Importantly, tumor cells induced inhibitory molecules (B7-DC, B7-H1 and CD80) on spleen DC in vivo and on BMDC, even in the presence of TLR ligands. Moreover, after a long exposure with tumor cells, purified BMDC were unable to respond to a second challenge with TLR ligands. The failure of tumor exposed-BMDC to express co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines in the presence of TLR ligands has implications for the future development of DC-based cancer immune therapies using TLR ligands as adjuvants for the activation of DC.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00262-006-0275-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000246561900011
View details for PubMedID 17237931
Production of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the extracellular domain of mouse Langerin/CD207
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
2007; 324 (1-2): 48-62
Langerin CD207 is a type II transmembrane protein. It is responsible for the formation of Birbeck granules, which are intracellular organelles within Langerhans cells, the dendritic cells of stratified squamous epithelia like the epidermis. Because current anti-CD207 antibodies have limitations, we prepared new monoclonals by immunizing rats with the extracellular region of mouse Langerin followed by a boost with enriched Langerhans cells (LCs). We secured a large panel of mAbs, most of which reacted with the carboxy terminal carbohydrate recognition domain. These mAbs could be used to immunoblot and immunoprecipitate mouse Langerin and to stain the cell surface and intracellular pools of CD207 by FACS analysis. Labeling of Birbeck granules was also achieved by immunoelectron microscopy. Anti-CD207 identified LCs in the epidermis and skin draining lymph nodes of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but BALB/c mice had an additional Langerin(+) population in spleen, thymus and mesenteric lymph node. This additional subset had higher levels of CD8 and CD205 than epidermal LCs, and also had a less mature phenotype, i.e., lower MHC II, CD40 and CD86. Subcutaneous injection of IgG but not IgM forms of these new anti-CD207 mAbs led to rapid and selective labeling of the Langerin(+) cells in skin draining lymph nodes as well as spleen. The new IgG anti-CD207 mAbs should be useful for further research on LCs and dendritic cells including an evaluation of the consequences of antigen delivery within anti-CD207 mAbs in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jim.2007.05.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000248516400005
View details for PubMedID 17553520
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2700064
Innate NKT lymphocytes confer superior adaptive immunity via tumor-capturing dendritic cells
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
2005; 202 (11): 1507-1516
If irradiated tumor cells could be rendered immunogenic, they would provide a safe, broad, and patient-specific array of antigens for immunotherapies. Prior approaches have emphasized genetic transduction of live tumor cells to express cytokines, costimulators, and surrogate foreign antigens. We asked if immunity could be achieved by delivering irradiated, major histocompatibility complex-negative plasmacytoma cells to maturing mouse dendritic cells (DCs) within lymphoid organs. Tumor cells injected intravenously (i.v.) were captured by splenic DCs, whereas subcutaneous (s.c.) injection led only to weak uptake in lymph node or spleen. The natural killer T (NKT) cells mobilizing glycolipid alpha-galactosyl ceramide, used to mature splenic DCs, served as an effective adjuvant to induce protective immunity. This adjuvant function was mimicked by a combination of poly IC and agonistic alphaCD40 antibody. The adjuvant glycolipid had to be coadministered with tumor cells i.v. rather than s.c. Specific resistance was generated both to a plasmacytoma and lymphoma. The resistance afforded by a single vaccination lasted >2 mo and required both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Mature tumor capturing DCs stimulated the differentiation of P1A tumor antigen-specific, CD8+ T cells and uniquely transferred tumor resistance to naive mice. Therefore, the access of dying tumor cells to DCs that are maturing to activated NKT cells efficiently induces long-lived adaptive resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20050956
View details for Web of Science ID 000233753900007
View details for PubMedID 16330814
Dendritic cells charged with apoptotic tumor cells induce long-lived protective CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell immunity against B16 melanoma
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2003; 171 (11): 5940-5947
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent APCs and attractive vectors for cancer immunotherapy. Using the B16 melanoma, a poorly immunogenic experimental tumor that expresses low levels of MHC class I products, we investigated whether DCs loaded ex vivo with apoptotic tumor cells could elicit combined CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell dependent, long term immunity following injection into mice. The bone marrow-derived DCs underwent maturation during overnight coculture with apoptotic melanoma cells. Following injection, DCs migrated to the draining lymph nodes comparably to control DCs at a level corresponding to approximately 0.5% of the injected inoculum. Mice vaccinated with tumor-loaded DCs were protected against an intracutaneous challenge with B16, with 80% of the mice remaining tumor-free 12 wk after challenge. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were efficiently primed in vaccinated animals, as evidenced by IFN-gamma secretion after in vitro stimulation with DCs loaded with apoptotic B16 or DCs pulsed with the naturally expressed melanoma Ag, tyrosinase-related protein 2. In addition, B16 melanoma cells were recognized by immune CD8(+) T cells in vitro, and cytolytic activity against tyrosinase-related protein 2(180-188)-pulsed target cells was observed in vivo. When either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells were depleted at the time of challenge, the protection was completely abrogated. Mice receiving a tumor challenge 10 wk after vaccination were also protected, consistent with the induction of tumor-specific memory. Therefore, DCs loaded with cells undergoing apoptotic death can prime melanoma-specific helper and CTLs and provide long term protection against a poorly immunogenic tumor in mice.
View details for Web of Science ID 000186767200038
View details for PubMedID 14634105