Bio


Smith is a professor of music and (by courtesy) electrical engineering (Information Systems Lab) based at the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA). Teaching and research pertain to music and audio applications of signal processing. Former software engineer at NeXT Computer, Inc., responsible for signal processing software pertaining to music and audio. For more, see https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Keynote Speaker, Digital Audio Effects (DAFx) Conference, Edinburgh (2017)
  • Keynote Speaker, Linux Audio Conference (LAC-2015), Mainz, Germany (2015)
  • Plenary Speaker, IEEE International Workshop on Recent Trends in Signal Processing, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2015)
  • CIRMMT Distinguished Lecture, McGill University (2010)
  • Keynote Speaker, Digital Audio Effects (DAFx) Converence, Como Italy (2009)
  • Fellow, Audio Engineering Society (2008)
  • Heyser Lecture, Audio Engineering Society Conference (San Francisco) (2006)
  • Invited Masterclass, Audio Engineering Society Conference (San Francisco) (2006)
  • Keynote Speaker, Digital Audio Effects Conference (DAFx) (2006)
  • Keynote Speaker, IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio & Acoustics (WASPAA) (2005)
  • Fellow, Acoustical Society of America (2003)
  • Invited Speaker, first in the Opening Session, Stockholm Musical Acoustics Conference (2003)
  • Technical Program Chair, IEEE Audio & Acoustics Signal Processing Workshop (1997)
  • Member, IRCAM Scientific Council (1996)
  • Plenary Speaker, Nordic Acoustics Conference (1996)
  • Keynote Speaker, Tempo Reale Workshop on Physical Modeling (1996)
  • Inventor Recognition Award, Stanford Office of Technology and Licensing (1996)
  • Keynote Speaker, ICMC-91 (Int. Computer Music Conf.) (1996)
  • Graduate Fellowship, Hertz (Fall 1977 to Fall 1982)

Professional Education


  • B.Sc. (Hons), Rice University, Electrical Engineering (1975)
  • PhD, Stanford University, Electrical Engineering (1983)

Stanford Advisees


  • Doctoral Dissertation Reader (AC)
    Ante Qu, Zhengshan Shi
  • Doctoral Dissertation Advisor (AC)
    Mark Rau, Travis Skare
  • Master's Program Advisor
    Andrea Baldioceda Oreamuno, Champ Darabundit, Brendan Larkin
  • Doctoral Dissertation Co-Advisor (AC)
    Orchi Das, Nolan Lem
  • Doctoral (Program)
    Mark Rau, Travis Skare

All Publications


  • State-space modeling of sound source directivity: An experimental study of the violin and the clarinet. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Maestre, E., Scavone, G. P., Smith, J. O. 2021; 149 (4): 2768

    Abstract

    A method is presented for simulating the free-field, frequency-dependent directivity of linear sound sources for use in real-time within geometric acoustic environments. The method, which is applied to modeling the directivity of a violin body and a clarinet air column from experimental acoustic data in this study, is based on using minimum-phase measurements to design a state-space filter, allowing the interactive simulation of a time-varying number of radiated sound wavefronts, each toward a time-varying direction. With applicability in sound synthesis and/or auralization within virtual environments, where sound sources change position and orientation dynamically, techniques are proposed for modeling and simulating directivity profiles on perceptual frequency axes with alternatives for representing directivity on a per-vibration-mode basis while incorporating relative phase terms or by reduced-order efficient representations comprising separate components for the signature resonant structure and the associated directivity on an adjustable frequency resolution.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/10.0004241

    View details for PubMedID 33940861

  • Improved Real-Time Monophonic Pitch Tracking with the Extended Complex Kalman Filter JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY Das, O., Smith, J. O., Chafe, C. 2020; 68 (1-2): 78–86
  • Converting Series Biquad Filters Into Delayed Parallel Form: Application to Graphic Equalizers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING Liski, J., Bank, B., Smith, J. O., Valimaki, V. 2019; 67 (14): 3785–95
  • Generalized Wave Digital Filter Realizations of Arbitrary Reciprocal Connection Networks IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Bernardim, A., Werner, K., Smith, J., Sarti, A. 2019; 66 (2): 694–707
  • Modeling Circuits With Arbitrary Topologies and Active Linear Multiports Using Wave Digital Filters IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Werner, K., Bernardini, A., Smith, J. O., Sarti, A. 2018; 65 (12): 4233–46
  • Modeling sound scattering using a combination of the edge source integral equation and the boundary element method. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Martin, S. R., Svensson, U. P., Slechta, J., Smith, J. O. 2018; 144 (1): 131

    Abstract

    A hybrid method for sound scattering calculations is presented in this paper. The boundary element method (BEM) is combined with a recently developed edge source integral equation (ESIE) [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 3681-3691 (2013)]. Although the ESIE provides accurate results for convex, rigid polyhedra, it has several numerical challenges, one of which applies to certain radiation directions. The proposed method, denoted ESIEBEM, overcomes this problem with certain radiation directions by applying a similar approach as BEM. First, the sound pressure is calculated on the surface of the scattering object using the ESIE, and then second, the scattered sound is obtained at the receiver point using the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz boundary integral equation, as BEM does. The three methods have been compared for the scattering by a rigid cube. Based on results from several discretizations, ESIE and ESIEBEM results are typically (90% quartile) within 3-4·10-4 for a kL-value of 1.83 and 2·10-3 for kL=9.15, L being the cube length, of reference results computed with the BEM. The computational cost of ESIEBEM appears to be lower than BEM.

    View details for PubMedID 30075636

  • Mobile Music, Sensors, Physical Modeling, and Digital Fabrication: Articulating the Augmented Mobile Instrument APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL Michon, R., Smith, J., Wright, M., Chafe, C., Granzow, J., Wang, G. 2017; 7 (12)

    View details for DOI 10.3390/app7121311

    View details for Web of Science ID 000419175800107

  • Perceptual Spatial Audio Recording, Simulation, and Rendering IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE Hacihabiboglu, H., De Sena, E., Cvetkovic, Z., Johnston, J., Smith, J. O. 2017; 34 (3): 36-54
  • Design of Recursive Digital Filters in Parallel Form by Linearly Constrained Pole Optimization IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS Maestre, E., Scavone, G. P., Smith, J. O. 2016; 23 (11): 1547-1550
  • Modeling Nonlinear Wave Digital Elements Using the Lambert Function IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Bernardini, A., Werner, K. J., Sarti, A., Smith, J. O. 2016; 63 (8): 1231-1242
  • Efficient Synthesis of Room Acoustics via Scattering Delay Networks IEEE-ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING De Sena, E., Hacihabiboglu, H., Cvetkovic, Z., Smith, J. O. 2015; 23 (9): 1478-1492
  • Towards a physical model of the berimbau: Obtaining the modal synthesis of the cabaza. journal of the Acoustical Society of America Castellanos Macin, P., Smith, J. O. 2013; 134 (5): 4243-?

    Abstract

    The worldwide presence of Brazilian culture grows every day. However, some of the musical instruments used in its principal cultural activities lack of a formal acoustic analysis which would make them more understandable for the rest of the world. One of them is the berimbau-de-barriga (berimbau), which consists of a string (wire) attached to an arched rod and a resonance box called cabaza. Modeling the berimbau will not only open up possibilities for its application to other musical genres, but will also allow the incorporation of its characteristics into new virtual instruments. The present work describes the modal synthesis of the cabaza, i.e., modeling this sounding box as a parallel bank of digital resonators. Impulse response measurements were obtained using a force hammer, and second-order resonator frequency-responses were fit to the data using Matlab.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/1.4831602

    View details for PubMedID 24181934

  • Force-Sensitive Detents Improve User Performance for Linear Selection Tasks IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON HAPTICS Berdahl, E., Smith, J. O., Weinzierl, S., Niemeyer, G. 2013; 6 (2): 206-216
  • Fifty Years of Artificial Reverberation IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Valimaki, V., Parker, J. D., Savioja, L., Smith, J. O., Abel, J. S. 2012; 20 (5): 1421-1448
  • Optimized Polynomial Spline Basis Function Design for Quasi-Bandlimited Classical Waveform Synthesis IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS Pekonen, J., Juhan Nam, J., Smith, J. O., Valimaki, V. 2012; 19 (3): 159-162
  • EXPLOITING THE HARMONIC STRUCTURE FOR SPEECH ENHANCEMENT IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing Cho, E., Smith, J. O., Widrow, B. IEEE. 2012: 4569–4572
  • Feedback control of acoustic musical instruments: Collocated control using physical analogs JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Berdahl, E., Smith, J. O., Niemeyer, G. 2012; 131 (1): 963-973

    Abstract

    Traditionally, the average professional musician has owned numerous acoustic musical instruments, many of them having distinctive acoustic qualities. However, a modern musician could prefer to have a single musical instrument whose acoustics are programmable by feedback control, where acoustic variables are estimated from sensor measurements in real time and then fed back in order to influence the controlled variables. In this paper, theory is presented that describes stable feedback control of an acoustic musical instrument. The presentation should be accessible to members of the musical acoustics community who may have limited or no experience with feedback control. First, the only control strategy guaranteed to be stable subject to any musical instrument mobility is described: the sensors and actuators must be collocated, and the controller must emulate a physical analog system. Next, the most fundamental feedback controllers and the corresponding physical analog systems are presented. The effects that these controllers have on acoustic musical instruments are described. Finally, practical design challenges are discussed. A proof explains why changing the resonance frequency of a musical resonance requires much more control power than changing the decay time of the resonance.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/1.3651091

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299131200032

    View details for PubMedID 22280719

  • Audio Signal Processing Using Graphics Processing Units JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY Savioja, L., Valimaki, V., Smith, J. O. 2011; 59 (1-2): 3-19
  • Analysis and Synthesis of Coupled Vibrating Strings Using a Hybrid Modal-Waveguide Synthesis Model IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Lee, N., Smith, J. O., Valimaki, V. 2010; 18 (4): 833-842
  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Virtual Analog Audio Effects and Musical Instruments IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Valimaki, V., Fontana, F., Smith, J. O., Zoelzer, U. 2010; 18 (4): 713-714
  • Automated Physical Modeling of Nonlinear Audio Circuits For Real-Time Audio Effects-Part I: Theoretical Development IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Yeh, D. T., Abel, J. S., Smith, J. O. 2010; 18 (4): 728-737
  • Alias-Suppressed Oscillators Based on Differentiated Polynomial Waveforms IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Valimaki, V., Nam, J., Smith, J. O., Abel, J. S. 2010; 18 (4): 786-798
  • Efficient Antialiasing Oscillator Algorithms Using Low-Order Fractional Delay Filters IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Nam, J., Valimaki, V., Abel, J. S., Smith, J. O. 2010; 18 (4): 773-785
  • Spectral Delay Filters JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY Valimaki, V., Abel, J. S., Smith, J. O. 2009; 57 (7-8): 521-531
  • Numerical methods for simulation of guitar distortion circuits COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Yeh, D. T., Abei, J. S., Vladimirescu, A., Smith, J. O. 2008; 32 (2): 23-42
  • Parameterized finite difference schemes for plates: Stability, the reduction of directional dispersion and frequency warping IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Bilbao, S., Savioja, L., Smith, J. O. 2007; 15 (4): 1488-1495
  • Generative model of voice in noise for structured coding applications 32nd IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing Jinachitra, P., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2007: 281–284
  • Humming Control Interface for Hand-held Devices 9th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility Won, S. Y., Lee, D., Smith, J. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 259–260
  • Efficient time-varying loudness estimation via the hopping Goertzel DFT 50th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems Cassidy, R. J., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2007: 362–363
  • Inducing unusual dynamics in acoustic musical instruments IEEE Conference on Control Applications Berdahl, E., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2007: 411–416
  • Singer-dependent falsetto detection for live vocal processing based on support vector classification 40th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers Mysore, G. J., Cassidy, R. J., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2006: 1139–1142
  • Energy-conserving finite difference schemes for nonlinear strings ACTA ACUSTICA UNITED WITH ACUSTICA Bilbao, S., Smith, J. O. 2005; 91 (2): 299-311
  • Joint estimation of glottal source and vocal tract for vocal synthesis using Kalman smoothing and EM algorithm Workshop on Applications of Sigbak Processing to Audio and Acoustics Jinachitra, P., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2005: 327–330
  • The simulation of piano string vibration: From physical models to finite difference schemes and digital waveguides JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Bensa, J., Bilbao, S., Kronland-Martinet, R., Smith, J. O. 2003; 114 (2): 1095-1107

    Abstract

    A model of transverse piano string vibration, second order in time, which models frequency-dependent loss and dispersion effects is presented here. This model has many desirable properties, in particular that it can be written as a well-posed initial-boundary value problem (permitting stable finite difference schemes) and that it may be directly related to a digital waveguide model, a digital filter-based algorithm which can be used for musical sound synthesis. Techniques for the extraction of model parameters from experimental data over the full range of the grand piano are discussed, as is the link between the model parameters and the filter responses in a digital waveguide. Simulations are performed. Finally, the waveguide model is extended to the case of several coupled strings.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/1.1587146

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184637500048

    View details for PubMedID 12942987

  • Finite difference schemes and digital waveguide networks for the wave equation: Stability, passivity, and numerical dispersion IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING Bilbao, S., Smith, J. O. 2003; 11 (3): 255-266
  • PHYSICAL MODELING USING DIGITAL WAVE-GUIDES COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Smith, J. O. 1992; 16 (4): 74-98
  • SMITH,J.O. COMMENTS ON SULLIVAN KARPLUS-STRONG ARTICLE COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Smith, J. O. 1991; 15 (2): 10-11
  • FUNDAMENTALS OF DIGITAL-FILTER THEORY COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Smith, J. O. 1985; 9 (3): 13-23
  • EXTENSIONS OF THE KARPLUS-STRONG PLUCKED-STRING ALGORITHM COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Jaffe, D. A., Smith, J. O. 1983; 7 (2): 56-69
  • A CONSTANT-GAIN DIGITAL RESONATOR TUNED BY A SINGLE COEFFICIENT COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Smith, J. O., ANGELL, J. B. 1982; 6 (4): 36-40