Bio


Smith is a professor of music and (by courtesy) electrical engineering (Information Systems Lab) based at the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA). Teaching and research pertain to music and audio applications of signal processing. Former software engineer at NeXT Computer, Inc., responsible for signal processing software pertaining to music and audio. For more, see https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Keynote Speaker, Digital Audio Effects (DAFx) Conference, Edinburgh (2017)
  • Keynote Speaker, Linux Audio Conference (LAC-2015), Mainz, Germany (2015)
  • Plenary Speaker, IEEE International Workshop on Recent Trends in Signal Processing, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2015)
  • CIRMMT Distinguished Lecture, McGill University (2010)
  • Keynote Speaker, Digital Audio Effects (DAFx) Converence, Como Italy (2009)
  • Fellow, Audio Engineering Society (2008)
  • Heyser Lecture, Audio Engineering Society Conference (San Francisco) (2006)
  • Invited Masterclass, Audio Engineering Society Conference (San Francisco) (2006)
  • Keynote Speaker, Digital Audio Effects Conference (DAFx) (2006)
  • Keynote Speaker, IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio & Acoustics (WASPAA) (2005)
  • Fellow, Acoustical Society of America (2003)
  • Invited Speaker, first in the Opening Session, Stockholm Musical Acoustics Conference (2003)
  • Technical Program Chair, IEEE Audio & Acoustics Signal Processing Workshop (1997)
  • Member, IRCAM Scientific Council (1996)
  • Plenary Speaker, Nordic Acoustics Conference (1996)
  • Keynote Speaker, Tempo Reale Workshop on Physical Modeling (1996)
  • Inventor Recognition Award, Stanford Office of Technology and Licensing (1996)
  • Keynote Speaker, ICMC-91 (Int. Computer Music Conf.) (1996)
  • Graduate Fellowship, Hertz (Fall 1977 to Fall 1982)

Professional Education


  • B.Sc. (Hons), Rice University, Electrical Engineering (1975)
  • PhD, Stanford University, Electrical Engineering (1983)

2021-22 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • A landmark article on nonlinear time-domain modeling in musical acoustics JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Scavone, G., Smith, J. O. 2021; 150 (2): R3-R4

    View details for DOI 10.1121/10.0005725

    View details for Web of Science ID 000682987500001

  • Electric-to-acoustic pickup processing for string instruments: An experimental study of the guitar with a hexaphonic pickupa) JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Rau, M., Abel, J. S., James, D., Smith, J. O. 2021; 150 (1): 385-397

    View details for DOI 10.1121/10.0005540

    View details for Web of Science ID 000675403200001

  • State-space modeling of sound source directivity: An experimental study of the violin and the clarinet. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Maestre, E., Scavone, G. P., Smith, J. O. 2021; 149 (4): 2768

    Abstract

    A method is presented for simulating the free-field, frequency-dependent directivity of linear sound sources for use in real-time within geometric acoustic environments. The method, which is applied to modeling the directivity of a violin body and a clarinet air column from experimental acoustic data in this study, is based on using minimum-phase measurements to design a state-space filter, allowing the interactive simulation of a time-varying number of radiated sound wavefronts, each toward a time-varying direction. With applicability in sound synthesis and/or auralization within virtual environments, where sound sources change position and orientation dynamically, techniques are proposed for modeling and simulating directivity profiles on perceptual frequency axes with alternatives for representing directivity on a per-vibration-mode basis while incorporating relative phase terms or by reduced-order efficient representations comprising separate components for the signature resonant structure and the associated directivity on an adjustable frequency resolution.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/10.0004241

    View details for PubMedID 33940861

  • Electric-to-acoustic pickup processing for string instruments: An experimental study of the guitar with a hexaphonic pickup. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Rau, M., Abel, J. S., James, D., Smith, J. O. 2021; 150 (1): 385

    Abstract

    A signal processing method to impart the response of an acoustic string instrument to an electric instrument that includes frequency-dependent string decay alterations is proposed. This type of processing is relevant when trying to make a less resonant instrument, such as an electric guitar, sound similar to a more resonant instrument, such as acoustic guitar. Unlike previous methods which typically only perform equalization, our method includes detailed physics-based string damping changes by using a time-varying filter which adds frequency-dependent exponential damping. Efficient digital filters are fit to bridge admittance measurements of an acoustic instrument and used to create equalization filters as well as damping correction filters. The damping correction filters are designed to work in real-time as they are triggered by onset and pitch detection of the signal measured through an under-saddle pickup to determine the intensity of the damping. A test case is presented in which an electric guitar is processed to model a measured acoustic guitar.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/10.0005540

    View details for PubMedID 34340520

  • A landmark article on nonlinear time-domain modeling in musical acoustics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Scavone, G., Smith, J. O. 2021; 150 (2): R3

    Abstract

    The Reflections series takes a look back on historical articles from The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America that have had a significant impact on the science and practice of acoustics.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/10.0005725

    View details for PubMedID 34470302

  • Improved Real-Time Monophonic Pitch Tracking with the Extended Complex Kalman Filter JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY Das, O., Smith, J. O., Chafe, C. 2020; 68 (1-2): 78–86
  • Converting Series Biquad Filters Into Delayed Parallel Form: Application to Graphic Equalizers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING Liski, J., Bank, B., Smith, J. O., Valimaki, V. 2019; 67 (14): 3785–95
  • Generalized Wave Digital Filter Realizations of Arbitrary Reciprocal Connection Networks IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Bernardim, A., Werner, K., Smith, J., Sarti, A. 2019; 66 (2): 694–707
  • Modeling Circuits With Arbitrary Topologies and Active Linear Multiports Using Wave Digital Filters IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Werner, K., Bernardini, A., Smith, J. O., Sarti, A. 2018; 65 (12): 4233–46
  • Modeling sound scattering using a combination of the edge source integral equation and the boundary element method. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Martin, S. R., Svensson, U. P., Slechta, J., Smith, J. O. 2018; 144 (1): 131

    Abstract

    A hybrid method for sound scattering calculations is presented in this paper. The boundary element method (BEM) is combined with a recently developed edge source integral equation (ESIE) [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 3681-3691 (2013)]. Although the ESIE provides accurate results for convex, rigid polyhedra, it has several numerical challenges, one of which applies to certain radiation directions. The proposed method, denoted ESIEBEM, overcomes this problem with certain radiation directions by applying a similar approach as BEM. First, the sound pressure is calculated on the surface of the scattering object using the ESIE, and then second, the scattered sound is obtained at the receiver point using the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz boundary integral equation, as BEM does. The three methods have been compared for the scattering by a rigid cube. Based on results from several discretizations, ESIE and ESIEBEM results are typically (90% quartile) within 3-4·10-4 for a kL-value of 1.83 and 2·10-3 for kL=9.15, L being the cube length, of reference results computed with the BEM. The computational cost of ESIEBEM appears to be lower than BEM.

    View details for PubMedID 30075636

  • Modeling sound scattering using a combination of the edge source integral equation and the boundary element method JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Martin, S. R., Svensson, U., Slechta, J., Smith, J. O. 2018; 144 (1): 131-141

    View details for DOI 10.1121/1.5044404

    View details for Web of Science ID 000440810900027

  • Mobile Music, Sensors, Physical Modeling, and Digital Fabrication: Articulating the Augmented Mobile Instrument APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL Michon, R., Smith, J., Wright, M., Chafe, C., Granzow, J., Wang, G. 2017; 7 (12)

    View details for DOI 10.3390/app7121311

    View details for Web of Science ID 000419175800107

  • Perceptual Spatial Audio Recording, Simulation, and Rendering IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE Hacihabiboglu, H., De Sena, E., Cvetkovic, Z., Johnston, J., Smith, J. O. 2017; 34 (3): 36-54
  • Joint Modeling of Bridge Admittance and Body Radiativity for Efficient Synthesis of String Instrument Sound by Digital Waveguides IEEE-ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Maestre, E., Scavone, G. P., Smith, J. O. 2017; 25 (5): 1128-1139
  • Design of Recursive Digital Filters in Parallel Form by Linearly Constrained Pole Optimization IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS Maestre, E., Scavone, G. P., Smith, J. O. 2016; 23 (11): 1547-1550
  • Modeling Nonlinear Wave Digital Elements Using the Lambert Function IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Bernardini, A., Werner, K. J., Sarti, A., Smith, J. O. 2016; 63 (8): 1231-1242
  • More Than Fifty Years of Artificial Reverberation Valimaki, V., Parker, J. D., Savioja, L., Smith, J. O., Abel, J. S., Goetze, S., Spriet, A. AUDIO ENGINEERING SOC INC. 2016
  • Wave Digital Filter Modeling of Circuits with Operational Amplifiers Werner, K., Dunkel, W., Rest, M., Olsen, M., Smith, J. O., IEEE IEEE. 2016: 1033-1037
  • RESOLVING GROUPED NONLINEARITIES IN WAVE DIGITAL FILTERS USING ITERATIVE TECHNIQUES Olsen, M., Werner, K., Smith, J. O., Rajmic, P., Rund, F., Schimmel, J. BRNO UNIV TECHNOLOGY, FAC ELECTRICAL ENG & COMMUNICATION. 2016: 279-286
  • THE FENDER BASSMAN 5F6-A FAMILY OF PREAMPLIFIER CIRCUITS-A WAVE DIGITAL FILTER CASE STUDY Dunkel, W., Rest, M., Werner, K., Olsen, M., Smith, J. O., Rajmic, P., Rund, F., Schimmel, J. BRNO UNIV TECHNOLOGY, FAC ELECTRICAL ENG & COMMUNICATION. 2016: 263-270
  • RT-WDF-A MODULAR WAVE DIGITAL FILTER LIBRARY WITH SUPPORT FOR ARBITRARY TOPOLOGIES AND MULTIPLE NONLINEARITIES Rest, M., Dunkel, W., Werner, K., Smith, J. O., Rajmic, P., Rund, F., Schimmel, J. BRNO UNIV TECHNOLOGY, FAC ELECTRICAL ENG & COMMUNICATION. 2016: 287-294
  • SYNTHESIS OF SOUND TEXTURES WITH TONAL COMPONENTS USING SUMMARY STATISTICS AND ALL-POLE RESIDUAL MODELING Kim, H., Smith, J., Rajmic, P., Rund, F., Schimmel, J. BRNO UNIV TECHNOLOGY, FAC ELECTRICAL ENG & COMMUNICATION. 2016: 129-136
  • Efficient Synthesis of Room Acoustics via Scattering Delay Networks IEEE-ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING De Sena, E., Hacihabiboglu, H., Cvetkovic, Z., Smith, J. O. 2015; 23 (9): 1478-1492
  • WAVE DIGITAL FILTER ADAPTORS FOR ARBITRARY TOPOLOGIES AND MULTIPORT LINEAR ELEMENTS Werner, K., Smith, J. O., Abel, J. S., Svensson, P., Kristiansen, U. NORWEGIAN UNIV SCI TECHNOL. 2015: 379–86
  • DIGITAL MODELING OF STRING INSTRUMENT BRIDGE REFLECTANCE AND BODY RADIATIVITY FOR SOUND SYNTHESIS BY DIGITAL WAVEGUIDES Maestre, E., Scavone, G. P., Smith, J. O., IEEE IEEE. 2015
  • An Energetic Interpretation of Nonlinear Wave Digital Filter Lookup Table Error Werner, K., Smith, J. O., IEEE IEEE. 2015
  • HARMONIZING EFFECT USING SHORT-TIME TIME-REVERSAL Kim, H., Smith, J. O., Svensson, P., Kristiansen, U. NORWEGIAN UNIV SCI TECHNOL. 2015: 81-86
  • Multi-Port NonLinearities in Wave Digital Structures Bernardini, A., Werner, K. J., Sarti, A., Smith, J. O., IEEE IEEE. 2015
  • A GENERAL AND EXPLICIT FORMULATION FOR WAVE DIGITAL FILTERS WITH MULTIPLE/MULTIPORT NONLINEARITIES AND COMPLICATED TOPOLOGIES Werner, K., Nangia, V., Smith, J. O., Abel, J. S., IEEE IEEE. 2015
  • RESOLVING WAVE DIGITAL FILTERS WITH MULTIPLE/MULTIPORT NONLINEARITIES Werner, K., Nangia, V., Smith, J. O., Abel, J. S., Svensson, P., Kristiansen, U. NORWEGIAN UNIV SCI TECHNOL. 2015: 387–94
  • A PHYSICALLY-INFORMED, CIRCUIT-BENDABLE, DIGITAL MODEL OF THE ROLAND TR-808 BASS DRUM CIRCUIT Werner, K., Abel, J. S., Smith, J. O., Int Audio Labs Erlangen INT AUDIO LABORATORIES ERLANGEN. 2014: 159–66
  • SHORT-TIME TIME-REVERSAL ON AUDIO SIGNALS Kim, H., Smith, J. O., Int Audio Labs Erlangen INT AUDIO LABORATORIES ERLANGEN. 2014: 29-33
  • Towards a physical model of the berimbau: Obtaining the modal synthesis of the cabaza. journal of the Acoustical Society of America Castellanos Macin, P., Smith, J. O. 2013; 134 (5): 4243-?

    Abstract

    The worldwide presence of Brazilian culture grows every day. However, some of the musical instruments used in its principal cultural activities lack of a formal acoustic analysis which would make them more understandable for the rest of the world. One of them is the berimbau-de-barriga (berimbau), which consists of a string (wire) attached to an arched rod and a resonance box called cabaza. Modeling the berimbau will not only open up possibilities for its application to other musical genres, but will also allow the incorporation of its characteristics into new virtual instruments. The present work describes the modal synthesis of the cabaza, i.e., modeling this sounding box as a parallel bank of digital resonators. Impulse response measurements were obtained using a force hammer, and second-order resonator frequency-responses were fit to the data using Matlab.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/1.4831602

    View details for PubMedID 24181934

  • Force-Sensitive Detents Improve User Performance for Linear Selection Tasks IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON HAPTICS Berdahl, E., Smith, J. O., Weinzierl, S., Niemeyer, G. 2013; 6 (2): 206-216

    Abstract

    Haptic technology, providing force cues and creating a programmable interface, can assist users in more accurately using an interface. This paper investigates haptic assistance in combination with auditory feedback instead of visual feedback. A user test is carried out in which participants select fundamental frequencies from a continuous range to play brief musical melodies. Two control conditions are compared with two detent-based haptic assistance conditions. The detents gently guide the users toward locations of equal tempered fundamental frequencies. Results from the user test confirm improved accuracy brought about by the detents. It is further helpful to provide regulation of the strength of haptic assistance in real time, allowing the user to remain always in control. This concept motivated the force-sensitive detent condition, which enables the user to adjust the strength of the haptic assistance in real time by changing the downward force applied to the haptic device. The work implies that users of graphical user interfaces could similarly benefit from force-sensitive detents and more generally real-time regulation of the strength of haptic assistance.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/ToH.2012.55

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319877500007

  • Fifty Years of Artificial Reverberation IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Valimaki, V., Parker, J. D., Savioja, L., Smith, J. O., Abel, J. S. 2012; 20 (5): 1421-1448
  • Optimized Polynomial Spline Basis Function Design for Quasi-Bandlimited Classical Waveform Synthesis IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS Pekonen, J., Juhan Nam, J., Smith, J. O., Valimaki, V. 2012; 19 (3): 159-162
  • EXPLOITING THE HARMONIC STRUCTURE FOR SPEECH ENHANCEMENT IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing Cho, E., Smith, J. O., Widrow, B. IEEE. 2012: 4569–4572
  • Feedback control of acoustic musical instruments: Collocated control using physical analogs JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Berdahl, E., Smith, J. O., Niemeyer, G. 2012; 131 (1): 963-973

    Abstract

    Traditionally, the average professional musician has owned numerous acoustic musical instruments, many of them having distinctive acoustic qualities. However, a modern musician could prefer to have a single musical instrument whose acoustics are programmable by feedback control, where acoustic variables are estimated from sensor measurements in real time and then fed back in order to influence the controlled variables. In this paper, theory is presented that describes stable feedback control of an acoustic musical instrument. The presentation should be accessible to members of the musical acoustics community who may have limited or no experience with feedback control. First, the only control strategy guaranteed to be stable subject to any musical instrument mobility is described: the sensors and actuators must be collocated, and the controller must emulate a physical analog system. Next, the most fundamental feedback controllers and the corresponding physical analog systems are presented. The effects that these controllers have on acoustic musical instruments are described. Finally, practical design challenges are discussed. A proof explains why changing the resonance frequency of a musical resonance requires much more control power than changing the decay time of the resonance.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/1.3651091

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299131200032

    View details for PubMedID 22280719

  • Audio Signal Processing Using Graphics Processing Units JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY Savioja, L., Valimaki, V., Smith, J. O. 2011; 59 (1-2): 3-19
  • Analysis and Synthesis of Coupled Vibrating Strings Using a Hybrid Modal-Waveguide Synthesis Model IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Lee, N., Smith, J. O., Valimaki, V. 2010; 18 (4): 833-842
  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Virtual Analog Audio Effects and Musical Instruments IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Valimaki, V., Fontana, F., Smith, J. O., Zoelzer, U. 2010; 18 (4): 713-714
  • Automated Physical Modeling of Nonlinear Audio Circuits For Real-Time Audio Effects-Part I: Theoretical Development IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Yeh, D. T., Abel, J. S., Smith, J. O. 2010; 18 (4): 728-737
  • Alias-Suppressed Oscillators Based on Differentiated Polynomial Waveforms IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Valimaki, V., Nam, J., Smith, J. O., Abel, J. S. 2010; 18 (4): 786-798
  • Efficient Antialiasing Oscillator Algorithms Using Low-Order Fractional Delay Filters IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Nam, J., Valimaki, V., Abel, J. S., Smith, J. O. 2010; 18 (4): 773-785
  • Robust, Efficient Design of Allpass Filters for Dispersive String Sound Synthesis IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS Abel, J. S., Valimaki, V., Smith, J. O. 2010; 17 (4): 406–9
  • Virtual String Synthesis SCIENCE OF STRING INSTRUMENTS Lee, N., Smith, J. O., Rossing, T. D. 2010: 417-455
  • Spectral Delay Filters JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY Valimaki, V., Abel, J. S., Smith, J. O. 2009; 57 (7-8): 521-531
  • Numerical methods for simulation of guitar distortion circuits COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Yeh, D. T., Abei, J. S., Vladimirescu, A., Smith, J. O. 2008; 32 (2): 23-42
  • Audio Watermarking through Deterministic plus Stochastic Signal Decomposition EURASIP JOURNAL ON INFORMATION SECURITY Liu, Y., Smith, J. O. 2007

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2007/75961

    View details for Web of Science ID 000215280000005

  • Parameterized finite difference schemes for plates: Stability, the reduction of directional dispersion and frequency warping IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING Bilbao, S., Savioja, L., Smith, J. O. 2007; 15 (4): 1488-1495
  • Generative model of voice in noise for structured coding applications 32nd IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing Jinachitra, P., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2007: 281–284
  • Humming Control Interface for Hand-held Devices 9th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility Won, S. Y., Lee, D., Smith, J. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 259–260
  • Efficient time-varying loudness estimation via the hopping Goertzel DFT 50th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems Cassidy, R. J., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2007: 362–363
  • Inducing unusual dynamics in acoustic musical instruments IEEE Conference on Control Applications Berdahl, E., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2007: 411–416
  • Singer-dependent falsetto detection for live vocal processing based on support vector classification 40th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers Mysore, G. J., Cassidy, R. J., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2006: 1139–1142
  • Energy-conserving finite difference schemes for nonlinear strings ACTA ACUSTICA UNITED WITH ACUSTICA Bilbao, S., Smith, J. O. 2005; 91 (2): 299-311
  • Joint estimation of glottal source and vocal tract for vocal synthesis using Kalman smoothing and EM algorithm Workshop on Applications of Sigbak Processing to Audio and Acoustics Jinachitra, P., Smith, J. O. IEEE. 2005: 327–330
  • The simulation of piano string vibration: From physical models to finite difference schemes and digital waveguides JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Bensa, J., Bilbao, S., Kronland-Martinet, R., Smith, J. O. 2003; 114 (2): 1095-1107

    Abstract

    A model of transverse piano string vibration, second order in time, which models frequency-dependent loss and dispersion effects is presented here. This model has many desirable properties, in particular that it can be written as a well-posed initial-boundary value problem (permitting stable finite difference schemes) and that it may be directly related to a digital waveguide model, a digital filter-based algorithm which can be used for musical sound synthesis. Techniques for the extraction of model parameters from experimental data over the full range of the grand piano are discussed, as is the link between the model parameters and the filter responses in a digital waveguide. Simulations are performed. Finally, the waveguide model is extended to the case of several coupled strings.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/1.1587146

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184637500048

    View details for PubMedID 12942987

  • Finite difference schemes and digital waveguide networks for the wave equation: Stability, passivity, and numerical dispersion IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING Bilbao, S., Smith, J. O. 2003; 11 (3): 255-266
  • PHYSICAL MODELING USING DIGITAL WAVE-GUIDES COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Smith, J. O. 1992; 16 (4): 74-98
  • SMITH,J.O. COMMENTS ON SULLIVAN KARPLUS-STRONG ARTICLE COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Smith, J. O. 1991; 15 (2): 10-11
  • FUNDAMENTALS OF DIGITAL-FILTER THEORY COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Smith, J. O. 1985; 9 (3): 13-23
  • EXTENSIONS OF THE KARPLUS-STRONG PLUCKED-STRING ALGORITHM COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Jaffe, D. A., Smith, J. O. 1983; 7 (2): 56-69
  • A CONSTANT-GAIN DIGITAL RESONATOR TUNED BY A SINGLE COEFFICIENT COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL Smith, J. O., ANGELL, J. B. 1982; 6 (4): 36-40