Education & Certifications


  • Master of Philosophy, University of Cambridge, Computational Biology (2017)
  • M.Phil, University of Cambridge, Computational Biology (2014)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Carleton College, Computer Science (2013)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Carleton College, Computer Science (2013)

Work Experience


  • Computer Science Lab Teaching, Carleton College (4/1/2013 - 6/1/2013)
  • Professional Athlete, Professional Ultimate of San J (1/1/2015 - 8/1/2017)
  • Research and Innovation Analys, Stanford Center for Digital He (6/1/2016)

All Publications


  • Healthcare Service Utilization under a New Virtual Primary Care Delivery Model. Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association Cheung, L., Leung, T. I., Ding, V. Y., Wang, J. X., Norden, J., Desai, M., Harrington, R. A., Desai, S. 2018

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Telemedicine holds great promise for changing healthcare delivery. While telemedicine has been used significantly in the direct-to-consumer setting, the use of telemedicine in a preventive primary care setting is not well studied.INTRODUCTION: ClickWell Care (CWC) is the first known implementation of a technology-enabled primary care model. We wanted to quantify healthcare utilization of primary care by patient characteristics and modality of care delivery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study population included those who completed a visit to a CWC clinic between January 1, 2015 and September 30, 2015. We compared patients based on utilization of CWCs in-person and virtual visits across the following domains: patient demographics, distance from clinic, responses to a Health Risk Assessment, and top 10 conditions treated.RESULTS: Thousand two hundred seven patients completed a visit with a CWC physician in 2015. Nearly three-quarters of our patients were ≤40 years and sex was significantly different (p=0.015) between visit cohorts. The greatest representation of men (47%) was seen in the virtual-only cohort. Patients' proximity to the clinic was also significantly different across visit cohorts (p=0.018) with 44% of in-person-only and 34% of virtual-only patients living within 5 miles of Stanford Hospital.DISCUSSION: We found men were more likely to engage in virtual-only care. Young patients are willing to accept virtual care although many prefer to complete an in-person visit first.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a "bricks-and-clicks" care model where telemedicine is supported by a brick-and-mortar location may be an effective way to leverage telemedicine to deliver primary care.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/tmj.2018.0145

    View details for PubMedID 30192211

  • Objective measurement of function following lumbar spinal stenosis decompression reveals improved functional capacity with stagnant real-life physical activity SPINE JOURNAL Smuck, M., Muaremi, A., Zheng, P., Norden, J., Sinha, A., Hu, R., Tomkins-Lane, C. 2018; 18 (1): 15–21
  • New Delivery Model for Rising-Risk Patients: The Forgotten Lot? Telemedicine journal and e-health Cheung, L., Norden, J., Harrington, R. A., Desai, S. A. 2017

    Abstract

    Shared-risk models encourage providers to engage young patients early. Telemedicine may be well suited for younger, healthier patients although it is unclear how best to incorporate telemedicine into routine clinical care.We test the assumptions surrounding the use of telemedicine, younger and rising-risk patients, and primary care in ClickWell Care (CWC), a care model developed at our institution for our own accountable care organization.CWC's team of physicians and wellness coaches work together to provide comprehensive primary care through in-person, phone, and video visits. This study examines usage of the clinic over its initial year in operation.1,464 unique patients conducted a total of 3,907 visits. 2,294 (58.7%) visits were completed virtually (1,382 [35.4%] by phone and 912 [23.3%] by video). Patients were more inclined to see the physician in-person for a new visit (1,065 visits [70.5%] vs. 362 [24%] phone and 83 [6%] video) and more likely to see the physician virtually for a return visit (606 [43.2%] phone and 249 [17.7%] video vs. 548 [39.1%] in-person), a statistically significant difference (X(2) = 306.7, p < 0.00001).This new care model successfully engaged a younger population of patients. However, our data suggest young patients may not be inclined to establish care with a primary care physician virtually and, in fact, choose an initial in-person touch point, although many are willing to conduct return visits virtually. This new model of care could have a large impact on how care is delivered to low- and rising-risk patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/tmj.2016.0181

    View details for PubMedID 28375821

  • Objective measurement of free-living physical activity (performance) in lumbar spinal stenosis: are physical activity guidelines being met? The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society Norden, J., Smuck, M., Sinha, A., Hu, R., Tomkins-Lane, C. 2017; 17 (1): 26-33

    Abstract

    Research suggests that people with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) would benefit from increased physical activity. Yet, to date, we do not have disease-specific activity guidelines for LSS, and the nature of free-living physical activity (performance) in LSS remains unknown. LSS care providers could endorse the 2008 United States Physical Activity Guidelines; however, we do not know if this is realistic. The goal of the present study was to determine the proportion of individuals with LSS meeting the 2008 Guidelines. A secondary goal was to better understand the nature of physical performance in this population.Retrospective study.People from the Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Accelerometry Database, all of whom have both radiographic and clinical LSS and are seeking various treatments for their symptoms.Seven-day accelerometry (functional outcome) and demographics (self-reported).For the present study, we analyzed only baseline data that were obtained before any new treatments. Patients with at least 4 valid days of baseline accelerometry data were included. We determined the proportion of individuals with LSS meeting the 2008 US Physical Activity Guidelines of at least 150 minutes of moderate-vigorous (MV) physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more. We also used the novel Physical Performance analysis designed by our group to determine time spent in varying intensities of activity. There are no conflicts of interest to disclose.We analyzed data from 75 individuals with a mean age of 68 (SD 9), 37% of whom were male. Three people (4%) were considered Meeting Guidelines (at least 150 MV minutes/week), and 56 (75%) were considered Inactive with not even 1 MV minute/week. With the 10-minute bout requirement removed, 10 of 75 (13%) achieved the 150-minute threshold. The average time spent in sedentary activity was 82%, and of time spent in nonsedentary activity, 99.6% was in the light activity range.In conclusion, the present study confirms that people with symptomatic LSS, neurogenic claudication, walking limitations, and LSS-related disability are extremely sedentary and are not meeting guidelines for physical activity. There is an urgent need for interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behavior and increasing the overall level of physical activity in LSS, not only to improve function but also to prevent diseases of inactivity. The present study suggests that reducing sedentary time, increasing time spent in light intensity activity, and increasing time spent in higher intensities of light activity may be appropriate as initial goals for exercise interventions in people with symptomatic LSS and neurogenic claudication, transitioning to moderate activity when appropriate. Results of the present study also demonstrate the importance of employing disease-specific measures for assessment of performance in LSS, and highlight the potential value of these methods for developing targeted and realistic goals for physical activity. Physical activity goals could be personalized using objective assessment of performance with accelerometry. The present study is one step toward a personalized medicine approach for people with LSS, focusing on increasing physical function.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.spinee.2016.10.016

    View details for PubMedID 27793759

  • Objective measurement of free-living physical activity (performance) in lumbar spinal stenosis: are physical activity guidelines being met? SPINE JOURNAL Norden, J., Smuck, M., Sinha, A., Hu, R., Tomkins-Lane, C. 2017; 17 (1): 26-33

    Abstract

    Research suggests that people with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) would benefit from increased physical activity. Yet, to date, we do not have disease-specific activity guidelines for LSS, and the nature of free-living physical activity (performance) in LSS remains unknown. LSS care providers could endorse the 2008 United States Physical Activity Guidelines; however, we do not know if this is realistic. The goal of the present study was to determine the proportion of individuals with LSS meeting the 2008 Guidelines. A secondary goal was to better understand the nature of physical performance in this population.Retrospective study.People from the Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Accelerometry Database, all of whom have both radiographic and clinical LSS and are seeking various treatments for their symptoms.Seven-day accelerometry (functional outcome) and demographics (self-reported).For the present study, we analyzed only baseline data that were obtained before any new treatments. Patients with at least 4 valid days of baseline accelerometry data were included. We determined the proportion of individuals with LSS meeting the 2008 US Physical Activity Guidelines of at least 150 minutes of moderate-vigorous (MV) physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more. We also used the novel Physical Performance analysis designed by our group to determine time spent in varying intensities of activity. There are no conflicts of interest to disclose.We analyzed data from 75 individuals with a mean age of 68 (SD 9), 37% of whom were male. Three people (4%) were considered Meeting Guidelines (at least 150 MV minutes/week), and 56 (75%) were considered Inactive with not even 1 MV minute/week. With the 10-minute bout requirement removed, 10 of 75 (13%) achieved the 150-minute threshold. The average time spent in sedentary activity was 82%, and of time spent in nonsedentary activity, 99.6% was in the light activity range.In conclusion, the present study confirms that people with symptomatic LSS, neurogenic claudication, walking limitations, and LSS-related disability are extremely sedentary and are not meeting guidelines for physical activity. There is an urgent need for interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behavior and increasing the overall level of physical activity in LSS, not only to improve function but also to prevent diseases of inactivity. The present study suggests that reducing sedentary time, increasing time spent in light intensity activity, and increasing time spent in higher intensities of light activity may be appropriate as initial goals for exercise interventions in people with symptomatic LSS and neurogenic claudication, transitioning to moderate activity when appropriate. Results of the present study also demonstrate the importance of employing disease-specific measures for assessment of performance in LSS, and highlight the potential value of these methods for developing targeted and realistic goals for physical activity. Physical activity goals could be personalized using objective assessment of performance with accelerometry. The present study is one step toward a personalized medicine approach for people with LSS, focusing on increasing physical function.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.spinee.2016.10.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396451800005

  • Complications, Readmissions, and Revisions for Spine Procedures Performed by Orthopedic Surgeons Versus Neurosurgeons: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study. Clinical spine surgery Mabud, T., Norden, J., Veeravagu, A., Swinney, C., Cole, T., McCutcheon, B. A., Ratliff, J. 2016: -?

    Abstract

    Retrospective database analysis.To examine the impact of training pathway, either neurosurgical or orthopedic, on complications, readmissions, and revisions in spine surgery.Training pathway has been shown to have an impact on outcomes in various surgical subspecialties. Although training pathway has not been shown to have a significant impact on spine surgery outcomes in the perioperative period, long-term results are unknown.A retrospective analysis of 197,682 patients receiving 1 of 3 common spine surgeries [lumbar laminectomy, lumbar fusion, and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)] between 2006 and 2010 was conducted. Patient data were obtained from a large claims database. Postoperative adverse effects, all-cause readmission, revision surgery rates, and intermediary payments in these cohorts of patients were compared between spine surgeons with either neurosurgical or orthopedic backgrounds.Patient demographics, hospital-stay characteristics, and medical comorbidities were similar between neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons. The risks of surgical complications, all-cause readmission, and revision surgery were also similar between neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons across all procedure types assessed, with several minor exceptions: neurosurgeons had marginally higher odds of any complication for lumbar fusions [odds ratio (OR) 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.20] and ACDFs (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15). Neurosurgeons also had slightly higher rates of revision surgery for concurrent lumbar laminectomy with fusion (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.22), and ACDFs (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14-1.28). No associations between surgeon type and any particular complication were consistently observed for all procedure groups. There were also no associations between surgeon type and 30-day all-cause readmission. Median total intermediary payments were somewhat higher for neurosurgery patients for all procedure groups assessed.Few significant associations between surgeon type and patient outcomes exist in the context of spine surgery. Those which do are small and unlikely to be clinically meaningful.Level 3.

    View details for PubMedID 27623297

  • Brain volume and shape in infants with deformational plagiocephaly CHILDS NERVOUS SYSTEM Collett, B. R., Aylward, E. H., Berg, J., Davidoff, C., Norden, J., Cunningham, M. L., Speltz, M. L. 2012; 28 (7): 1083-1090

    Abstract

    Infants with deformational plagiocephaly (DP) have been shown to exhibit developmental delays relative to unaffected infants. Although the mechanisms accounting for these delays are unknown, one hypothesis focuses on underlying differences in brain development. In this study, we used MRI to examine brain volume and shape in infants with and without DP.Participants included 20 infants with DP (mean age = 7.9 months, SD = 1.2; n = 12 male) and 21 controls (mean age = 7.9 months, SD = 1.3; n = 11 male). Measures included volumes of the total brain and cerebellum; midsagittal areas of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis; and linear distance measures used to quantify the shape of selected brain structures. We also evaluated the association between shape measures and developmental scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSID-III).Brain volume did not distinguish cases and controls (p = .214-.976). However, cases exhibited greater asymmetry and flattening of the posterior brain (p < .001-.002) and cerebellar vermis (p = .035), shortening of the corpus callosum (p = .012), and differences in the orientation of the corpus callosum (p = .005). Asymmetry and flattening of brain structures were associated with worse developmental outcomes on the BSID-III.Infants with DP show differences in brain shape, consistent with the skull deformity characteristic of this condition, and shape measures were associated with infant development. Longitudinal studies, beginning in the neonatal period, are needed to clarify whether developmental effects precede or follow brain deformation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00381-012-1731-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305465900018

    View details for PubMedID 22447491

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3393042