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  • Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION Robin, A. N., Denton, K. K., Horna Lowell, E. S., Dulay, T., Ebrahimi, S., Johnson, G. C., Mai, D., O'Fallon, S., Philson, C. S., Speck, H. P., Zhang, X., Nonacs, P. 2021; 09
  • Conformity and content-biased cultural transmission in the evolution of altruism. Theoretical population biology Denton, K. K., Ram, Y., Feldman, M. W. 2021

    Abstract

    The evolution of altruism has been extensively modeled under the assumption of genetic transmission, whereas the dynamics under cultural transmission are less well understood. Previous research has shown that cultural transmission can facilitate the evolution of altruism by increasing 1) the probability of adopting the altruistic phenotype, and 2) assortment between altruists. We incorporate vertical and oblique transmission, which can be conformist or anti-conformist, into models of parental care, sibling altruism, and altruism between individuals that meet assortatively. If oblique transmission is conformist, it becomes easier for altruism to invade a population of non-altruists as the probability of vertical transmission increases. If oblique transmission is anti-conformist, decreasing vertical transmission facilitates invasion by altruism in the assortative meeting model, whereas in other models, there is a trade-off: greater vertical transmission produces greater assortment among genetically related altruists, but lowers the probability of adopting altruism via anti-conformity. Compared to conditions for invasion under genetic transmission, e.g., Hamilton's rule, we show that invasion can be easier with sufficiently strong anti-conformity, and in some models, with sufficiently high assortment even if oblique transmission is conformist. We also explore invasion by an allele A that increases individuals' content bias for altruism, in the absence of other forms of cultural transmission. If costs and benefits combine additively, A invades under previously known conditions. If costs and benefits combine multiplicatively, invasion by A and by altruism become more difficult than in the corresponding additive models.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tpb.2021.10.004

    View details for PubMedID 34793823

  • On randomly changing conformity bias in cultural transmission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Denton, K. K., Liberman, U., Feldman, M. W. 2021; 118 (34)

    Abstract

    Humans and nonhuman animals display conformist as well as anticonformist biases in cultural transmission. Whereas many previous mathematical models have incorporated constant conformity coefficients, empirical research suggests that the extent of (anti)conformity in populations can change over time. We incorporate stochastic time-varying conformity coefficients into a widely used conformity model, which assumes a fixed number n of "role models" sampled by each individual. We also allow the number of role models to vary over time ([Formula: see text]). Under anticonformity, nonconvergence can occur in deterministic and stochastic models with different parameter values. Even if strong anticonformity may occur, if conformity or random copying (i.e., neither conformity nor anticonformity) is expected, there is convergence to one of the three equilibria seen in previous deterministic models of conformity. Moreover, this result is robust to stochastic variation in [Formula: see text] However, dynamic properties of these equilibria may be different from those in deterministic models. For example, with random conformity coefficients, all equilibria can be stochastically locally stable simultaneously. Finally, we study the effect of randomly changing weak selection. Allowing the level of conformity, the number of role models, and selection to vary stochastically may produce a more realistic representation of the wide range of group-level properties that can emerge under (anti)conformist biases. This promises to make interpretation of the effect of conformity on differences between populations, for example those connected by migration, rather difficult. Future research incorporating finite population sizes and migration would contribute added realism to these models.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2107204118

    View details for PubMedID 34417299

  • Cultural evolution of conformity and anticonformity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Denton, K. K., Ram, Y. n., Liberman, U. n., Feldman, M. W. 2020

    Abstract

    Conformist bias occurs when the probability of adopting a more common cultural variant in a population exceeds its frequency, and anticonformist bias occurs when the reverse is true. Conformist and anticonformist bias have been widely documented in humans, and conformist bias has also been observed in many nonhuman animals. Boyd and Richerson used models of conformist and anticonformist bias to explain the evolution of large-scale cooperation, and subsequent research has extended these models. We revisit Boyd and Richerson's original analysis and show that, with conformity based on more than three role models, the evolutionary dynamics can be more complex than previously assumed. For example, we show the presence of stable cycles and chaos under strong anticonformity and the presence of new equilibria when both conformity and anticonformity act at different variant frequencies, with and without selection. We also investigate the case of population subdivision with migration and find that the common claim that conformity can maintain between-group differences is not always true. Therefore, the effect of conformity on the evolution of cooperation by group selection may be more complicated than previously stated. Finally, using Feldman and Liberman's modifier approach, we investigate the conditions under which a rare modifier of the extent of conformity or the number of role models can invade a population. Understanding the dynamics of conformist- and anticonformist-biased transmission may have implications for research on human and nonhuman animal behavior, the evolution of cooperation, and frequency-dependent transmission in general.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2004102117

    View details for PubMedID 32461360