Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Synaptic reorganization of synchronized neuronal networks with synaptic weight and structural plasticity. PLoS computational biology Chauhan, K., Neiman, A. B., Tass, P. A. 2024; 20 (7): e1012261


    Abnormally strong neural synchronization may impair brain function, as observed in several brain disorders. We computationally study how neuronal dynamics, synaptic weights, and network structure co-emerge, in particular, during (de)synchronization processes and how they are affected by external perturbation. To investigate the impact of different types of plasticity mechanisms, we combine a network of excitatory integrate-and-fire neurons with different synaptic weight and/or structural plasticity mechanisms: (i) only spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), (ii) only homeostatic structural plasticity (hSP), i.e., without weight-dependent pruning and without STDP, (iii) a combination of STDP and hSP, i.e., without weight-dependent pruning, and (iv) a combination of STDP and structural plasticity (SP) that includes hSP and weight-dependent pruning. To accommodate the diverse time scales of neuronal firing, STDP, and SP, we introduce a simple stochastic SP model, enabling detailed numerical analyses. With tools from network theory, we reveal that structural reorganization may remarkably enhance the network's level of synchrony. When weaker contacts are preferentially eliminated by weight-dependent pruning, synchrony is achieved with significantly sparser connections than in randomly structured networks in the STDP-only model. In particular, the strengthening of contacts from neurons with higher natural firing rates to those with lower rates and the weakening of contacts in the opposite direction, followed by selective removal of weak contacts, allows for strong synchrony with fewer connections. This activity-led network reorganization results in the emergence of degree-frequency, degree-degree correlations, and a mixture of degree assortativity. We compare the stimulation-induced desynchronization of synchronized states in the STDP-only model (i) with the desynchronization of models (iii) and (iv). The latter require stimuli of significantly higher intensity to achieve long-term desynchronization. These findings may inform future pre-clinical and clinical studies with invasive or non-invasive stimulus modalities aiming at inducing long-lasting relief of symptoms, e.g., in Parkinson's disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1012261

    View details for PubMedID 38980898

  • Dynamics of phase oscillator networks with synaptic weight and structural plasticity. Scientific reports Chauhan, K., Khaledi-Nasab, A., Neiman, A. B., Tass, P. A. 2022; 12 (1): 15003


    We study the dynamics of Kuramoto oscillator networks with two distinct adaptation processes, one varying the coupling strengths and the other altering the network structure. Such systems model certain networks of oscillatory neurons where the neuronal dynamics, synaptic weights, and network structure interact with and shape each other. We model synaptic weight adaptation with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) that runs on a longer time scale than neuronal spiking. Structural changes that include addition and elimination of contacts occur at yet alonger time scale than the weight adaptations. First, we study the steady-state dynamics of Kuramoto networks that are bistable and can settle in synchronized or desynchronized states. To compare the impact of adding structural plasticity, we contrast the network with only STDP to one with a combination of STDP and structural plasticity. We show that the inclusion of structural plasticity optimizes the synchronized state of a network by allowing for synchronization with fewer links than a network with STDP alone. With non-identical units in the network, the addition of structural plasticity leads to the emergence of correlations between the oscillators' natural frequencies and node degrees. In the desynchronized regime, the structural plasticity decreases the number of contacts, leading to a sparse network. In this way, adding structural plasticity strengthens both synchronized and desynchronized states of a network. Second, we use desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation and synchronizing periodic stimulation to induce desynchronized and synchronized states, respectively. Our findings indicate that a network with a combination of STDP and structural plasticity may require stronger and longer stimulation to switch between the states than a network with STDP only.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-19417-9

    View details for PubMedID 36056151

  • Information processing in tree networks of excitable elements Information processing in tree networks of excitable elements Khaledi Nasab , A., Chauhan , K., Tass, P., Neiman , A. 2021; 103