Clinical Focus

  • Orthognathic Surgery
  • Rhinoplasty
  • Craniofacial Surgery
  • Plastic Surgery
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Pediatric Plastic Surgery
  • Pediatric Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Cleft Lip / Cleft Palate
  • Velopharyngeal Insufficiency
  • Jaw Surgery
  • Aesthetic Surgery
  • Cosmetic Surgery
  • Jaw Abnormalities
  • Jaw Cysts
  • Jaw Diseases
  • Facial Fractures / Facial Trauma
  • Congenital Anomalies
  • Mohs Reconstruction
  • TMJ Disorders
  • Ear Deformities
  • Otoplasty
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Facelift
  • Facial Implants
  • Dental Implants
  • Dentoalveolar Surgery
  • Wisdom Teeth
  • Impacted Teeth
  • Fat Grafting
  • Bone Grafting

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Plastic Surgery, Plastic Surgery (2022)
  • Residency: Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (2015) PA
  • Fellowship: Yale University Pediatric Surgery (2019) CT
  • Board Certification: American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (2016)
  • Residency: Thomas Jefferson University Hospital PA
  • Residency: The Institute of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, New York University Medical Center (2018) NY
  • Residency: Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (2014) PA
  • Medical Education: Thomas Jefferson University Office of the Registrar (2011) PA
  • Dental Education: Columbia University School of (2008) NY

All Publications

  • Risk Factors for Hardware Removal Following Bimaxillary Surgery: A National Database Analysis. The Journal of craniofacial surgery Shah, J. K., Silverstein, M., Cevallos, P., Johnstone, T., Wu, R., Nazerali, R., Bruckman, K. 2024


    Orthognathic surgery typically relies on the rigid fixation of fracture fragments using metal hardware. Though hardware is usually intended to be implanted permanently, the removal of hardware (ROH) is sometimes indicated for a variety of reasons. The authors sought to identify risk factors for ROH following orthognathic surgery. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of the Merative MarketScan Research Databases, 2007-2021 using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Disease (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes to identify patients who underwent an index Le Fort 1 osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy operation on the same day. Statistical analysis involved χ2, Shapiro-Wilk, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, Poisson regression, and multivariable logistic regression tests. 4698 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at surgery was 25 years, and 57% were female. ROH occurred in 5.9% of patients. The mean time to hardware removal was 190.5±172.4 days. In a multivariate logistic regression, increased odds of ROH were associated with older patient age [OR: 1.02 (1.01-1.03), P=0.046], sleep apnea [OR: 1.62 (1.13-2.32), P=0.018], and craniofacial syndrome and/or cleft diagnoses [OR: 1.88 (1.14-2.55), P<0.001]. In the same model, postoperative oral antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with ROH (P=0.494). The incidence of all-cause complications [IRR: 1.03 (1.01-1.05), P<0.001] rose over the study period, while the incidence of ROH did not change significantly (P=0.281). Patients at elevated risk should be counseled on the increased possibility of a second operation for ROH before having orthognathic surgery to ensure expectations and health care utilization decisions align with the evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SCS.0000000000009929

    View details for PubMedID 38231209

  • Spatial subsetting enables integrative modeling of oral squamous cell carcinoma multiplex imaging data. iScience Einhaus, J., Gaudilliere, D. K., Hedou, J., Feyaerts, D., Ozawa, M. G., Sato, M., Ganio, E. A., Tsai, A. S., Stelzer, I. A., Bruckman, K. C., Amar, J. N., Sabayev, M., Bonham, T. A., Gillard, J., Diop, M., Cambriel, A., Mihalic, Z. N., Valdez, T., Liu, S. Y., Feirrera, L., Lam, D. K., Sunwoo, J. B., Schürch, C. M., Gaudilliere, B., Han, X. 2023; 26 (12): 108486


    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a prevalent and aggressive neoplasm, poses a significant challenge due to poor prognosis and limited prognostic biomarkers. Leveraging highly multiplexed imaging mass cytometry, we investigated the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in OSCC biopsies, characterizing immune cell distribution and signaling activity at the tumor-invasive front. Our spatial subsetting approach standardized cellular populations by tissue zone, improving feature reproducibility and revealing TIME patterns accompanying loss-of-differentiation. Employing a machine-learning pipeline combining reliable feature selection with multivariable modeling, we achieved accurate histological grade classification (AUC = 0.88). Three model features correlated with clinical outcomes in an independent cohort: granulocyte MAPKAPK2 signaling at the tumor front, stromal CD4+ memory T cell size, and the distance of fibroblasts from the tumor border. This study establishes a robust modeling framework for distilling complex imaging data, uncovering sentinel characteristics of the OSCC TIME to facilitate prognostic biomarkers discovery for recurrence risk stratification and immunomodulatory therapy development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.isci.2023.108486

    View details for PubMedID 38125025

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10730356

  • Towards multiomic analysis of oral mucosal pathologies. Seminars in immunopathology Einhaus, J., Han, X., Feyaerts, D., Sunwoo, J., Gaudilliere, B., Ahmad, S. H., Aghaeepour, N., Bruckman, K., Ojcius, D., Schurch, C. M., Gaudilliere, D. K. 2023


    Oral mucosal pathologies comprise an array of diseases with worldwide prevalence and medical relevance. Affecting a confined space with crucial physiological and social functions, oral pathologies can be mutilating and drastically reduce quality of life. Despite their relevance, treatment for these diseases is often far from curative and remains vastly understudied. While multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal pathologies, the host's immune system plays a major role in the development, maintenance, and resolution of these diseases. Consequently, a precise understanding of immunological mechanisms implicated in oral mucosal pathologies is critical (1) to identify accurate, mechanistic biomarkers of clinical outcomes; (2) to develop targeted immunotherapeutic strategies; and (3) to individualize prevention and treatment approaches. Here, we review key elements of the immune system's role in oral mucosal pathologies that hold promise to overcome limitations in current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We emphasize recent and ongoing multiomic and single-cell approaches that enable an integrative view of these pathophysiological processes and thereby provide unifying and clinically relevant biological signatures.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00281-022-00982-0

    View details for PubMedID 36790488

  • Epistaxis After Orthognathic Surgery: Literature Review and Three Case Studies. Craniomaxillofacial trauma & reconstruction Girard, A., Lopez, C. D., Chen, J., Perrault, D., Desai, N., Bruckman, K. C., Bartlett, S. P., Yang, R. 2022; 15 (2): 147-163


    This is a literature review with 3 case studies.Intraoperative and postoperative bleeding are the most common complications of orthognathic surgery and have the potential to become life-threatening. The rarity of severe postoperative epistaxis has resulted in limited characterization of these cases in the literature. The purpose of this study is to 1) differentiate various presentations of epistaxis following orthognathic surgery in the literature, 2) identify management approaches, and 3) to synthesize a treatment algorithm to guide future management of postoperative epistaxis.A literature search of PubMed was conducted and 28 cases from 17 studies were assessed.Bleeding within the first week may indicate isolated epistaxis, often resolved with local tamponade. Half of cases were attributed to pseudoaneurysm rupture (n = 14), with epistaxis onset ranging from postoperative day 6 to week 9. Angiography was used in most cases (n = 17), often as the primary imaging modality (n = 11). Nasal endoscopy is a less invasive and effective alternative to angiography with embolization. Proximal vessel ligation was used in 3 cases but is not preferred because collaterals may reconstitute flow through the defect and cause rebleeding. Repeat maxillary down-fracture with surgical exploration was described in 4 cases.As outlined in our management algorithm, nasal packing and tamponade should be followed by either local electrocautery or vascular imaging. Angiography with embolization is the preferred approach to diagnosis and management, whereas surgical intervention is reserved for cases of embolization failure or unavailability.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/19433875211008086

    View details for PubMedID 35633764

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9133520

  • A Systematic Review of Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Versus Orthodontic Airway Plate for Airway Obstruction Treatment in Pierre Robin Sequence. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Abbas, D. B., Lavin, C., Fahy, E. J., Choo, H., Truong, M. T., Bruckman, K. C., Khosla, R. K., Lorenz, H. P., Momeni, A., Wan, D. C. 2021: 10556656211011886


    OBJECTIVE: Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) is frequently performed to address airway obstruction in patients with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS), though more recently the technique of orthodontic airway plating (OAP) has gained traction. We aimed to evaluate OAP compared to MDO for airway obstruction in PRS.DESIGN: A systematic literature search across PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar identified all studies published in English, which involved MDO or any form of OAP as treatments for PRS. All relevant articles were reviewed in detail and reported on, adhering to PRISMA guidelines.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Airway (tracheostomy avoidance, decannulation rate), feeding (full oral feeding tolerance).RESULTS: Literature search identified 970 articles, of which 42 MDO studies and 9 OAP studies met criteria for review. A total of 1159 individuals were treated with MDO, and 322 individuals were treated with OAP. Primary outcomes appear similar for MDO and OAP at face value; however, this must be interpreted with different pretreatment contexts in mind.CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontic airway plating may be considered for airway obstruction in PRS, as some airway-related and feeding-related outcomes appear similar with MDO, per existing evidence in the literature. However, since PRS severity differed between studies, OAP cannot be uniformly considered a replacement for MDO. Further research is required to more comprehensively assess these treatment modalities inclusive of metrics that allow for direct comparison.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/10556656211011886

    View details for PubMedID 34075816

  • Readability of Online Patient Information Relating to Cleft Palate Surgery. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Lavin, C. V., Fahy, E. J., Abbas, D. B., Griffin, M., Deleon, N. M., Lee, D. K., Khosla, R. K., Bruckman, K., Lorenz, H. P., Wan, D. C. 2021: 10556656211013177


    OBJECTIVE: It is important for health care education materials to be easily understood by caretakers of children requiring craniofacial surgery. This study aimed to analyze the readability of Google search results as they pertain to "Cleft Palate Surgery" and "Palatoplasty." Additionally, the study included a search from several locations globally to identify possible geographic differences.DESIGN: Google searches of the terms "Cleft Palate Surgery" and "Palatoplasty" were performed. Additionally, searches of only "Cleft Palate Surgery" were run from several internet protocol addresses globally.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Readability Ease, Gunning Fog Index, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index, and Coleman-Liau Index.RESULTS: Search results for "Cleft Palate Surgery" were easier to read and comprehend compared to search results for "Palatoplasty." Mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores were 7.0 and 10.11, respectively (P = .0018). Mean Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease scores were 61.29 and 40.71, respectively (P = .0003). Mean Gunning Fog Index scores were 8.370 and 10.34, respectively (P = .0458). Mean SMOG Index scores were 6.84 and 8.47, respectively (P = .0260). Mean Coleman-Liau Index scores were 12.95 and 15.33, respectively (P = .0281). No significant differences were found in any of the readability measures based on global location.CONCLUSIONS: Although some improvement can be made, craniofacial surgeons can be confident in the online information pertaining to cleft palate repair, regardless of where the search is performed from. The average readability of the top search results for "Cleft Palate Surgery" is around the seventh-grade reading level (US educational system) and compares favorably to other health care readability analyses.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/10556656211013177

    View details for PubMedID 33960204

  • Nonsurgical Orthodontic Airway Plate Treatment for Newborns With Robin Sequence. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Choo, H., Khosla, R. K., Meister, K. D., Wan, D. C., Lin, H. C., Feczko, R., Bruckman, K., Hopkins, E., Truong, M. T., Lorenz, H. P. 2021: 10556656211007689


    Despite promising outcomes for >50 years, nonsurgical orthodontic airway plates (OAP) are only infrequently offered for babies with Robin sequence in a few parts of the world. This article demonstrates possibility of providing functional improvement using an OAP to help these babies overcome their functional and structural difficulties on their own. Two consecutively treated cases are presented exemplifying that OAP treatment that had originated from Europe is reproducible and effective in an institution in the United States.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/10556656211007689

    View details for PubMedID 33845627

  • Epistaxis After Orthognathic Surgery: Literature Review and Three Case Studies CRANIOMAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA & RECONSTRUCTION Girard, A., Lopez, C. D., Chen, J., Perrault, D., Desai, N., Bruckman, K. C., Bartlett, S. P., Yang, R. 2021