Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Physician lead for PICU Local Improvement Team, LPCH (2016 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (2014)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2011)
  • MD, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (2008)
  • Residency, Johns Hopkins University - Harriet Lane Pediatric Residency Program, Baltimore, MD, Pediatrics (2011)
  • Fellowship, Johns Hopkins University - Fellowship in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Pediatric Critical Care (2014)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


My research interests focus on using dissemination and implementation science tools to study and enhance care provided to patients in the pediatric ICU. I have a background in human factors research and in implementation science and am also interested in clinical effectiveness and outcomes in the PICU.

All Publications


  • Implementing the Pediatric Ventilator Liberation Guidelines Using the Most Current Evidence: a Narrative Review. Respiratory care Loberger, J. M., Steffen, K., Khemani, R. G., Nishisaki, A., Abu-Sultaneh, S. 2024

    Abstract

    Invasive mechanical ventilation is prevalent and associated with significant morbidity. Pediatric critical care teams must identify the best timing and approach to liberating (extubating) children from this supportive care modality. Unsurprisingly, practice variation is significant. As a first step to minimizing that variation, the first evidence-based Pediatric Ventilator Liberation Guidelines were published in 2023 and included 15 recommendations. Unfortunately, there is often a substantial delay before clinical guidelines reach widespread clinical practice. As such, it is important to consider barriers and facilitators using a systematic approach during implementation planning and design. In this narrative review, we will 1) summarize guideline recommendations, 2) discuss recent evidence and identify practice gaps relating to those recommendations, and 3) hypothesize about potential barriers and facilitators to their implementation in clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.4187/respcare.11708

    View details for PubMedID 38346842

  • Implementation Science Research in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Woods-Hill, C. Z., Wolfe, H., Malone, S., Steffen, K. M., Agulnik, A., Flaherty, B. F., Barbaro, R. P., Dewan, M., Kudchadkar, S. R., and the Excellence in Pediatric Implementation Science (ECLIPSE) for the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network 2023; 24 (11): 943-951

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Delay or failure to consistently adopt evidence-based or consensus-based best practices into routine clinical care is common, including for patients in the PICU. PICU patients can fail to receive potentially beneficial diagnostic or therapeutic interventions, worsening the burden of illness and injury during critical illness. Implementation science (IS) has emerged to systematically address this problem, but its use of in the PICU has been limited to date. We therefore present a conceptual and methodologic overview of IS for the pediatric intensivist.DESIGN: The members of Excellence in Pediatric Implementation Science (ECLIPSE; part of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators Network) represent multi-institutional expertise in the use of IS in the PICU. This narrative review reflects the collective knowledge and perspective of the ECLIPSE group about why IS can benefit PICU patients, how to distinguish IS from quality improvement (QI), and how to evaluate an IS article.RESULTS: IS requires a shift in one's thinking, away from questions and outcomes that define traditional clinical or translational research, including QI. Instead, in the IS rather than the QI literature, the terminology, definitions, and language differs by specifically focusing on relative importance of generalizable knowledge, as well as aspects of study design, scale, and timeframe over which the investigations occur.CONCLUSIONS: Research in pediatric critical care practice must acknowledge the limitations and potential for patient harm that may result from a failure to implement evidence-based or professionals' consensus-based practices. IS represents an innovative, pragmatic, and increasingly popular approach that our field must readily embrace in order to improve our ability to care for critically ill children.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003335

    View details for PubMedID 37916878

  • Factors influencing pediatric transfusion: A complex decision impacting quality of care. Transfusion Steffen, K. M., Spinella, P. C., Holdsworth, L. M., Ford, M., Lee, G. M., Asch, S. M., Proctor, E. K., Doctor, A. 2023

    Abstract

    The risks of red blood cell transfusion may outweigh the benefits for many patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), but guidelines from the Transfusion and Anemia eXpertise Initiative (TAXI) have not been consistently adopted. We sought to identify factors that influenced transfusion decision-making in PICUs to explore potential barriers and facilitators to implementing the guidelines.A total of 50 ICU providers working in eight US ICUs of different types (non-cardiac PICUs, cardiovascular ICUs, combined units) and variable sizes (11-32 beds) completed semi-structured interviews. Providers included ICU attendings and trainees, nurse practitioners, nurses, and subspecialty physicians. Interviews examined factors that influenced transfusion decisions, transfusion practices, and provider beliefs. Qualitative analysis utilized a Framework Approach. Summarized data was compared between provider roles and units with consideration to identify patterns and unique informative statements.Providers cited clinical, physiologic, anatomic, and logistic factors they considered in making transfusion decisions. Improving oxygen carrying capacity, hemodynamics and perfusion, respiratory function, volume deficits, and correcting laboratory values were among the reasons given for transfusion. Other sought-after benefits included alleviating symptoms of anemia, improving ICU throughput, and decreasing blood waste. Providers in different roles approached transfusion decisions differently, with the largest differences noted between nurses and subspecialists as compared with other ICU providers. While ICU attendings most often made the decision to transfuse, all providers influenced the decision-making.Implementation of transfusion guidelines requires multi-professional approaches that emphasize the known risks of transfusion, its limited benefits, and highlight evidence around the safety and benefit of restrictive approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/trf.17364

    View details for PubMedID 37078686

  • Definition, Incidence, and Epidemiology of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: From the Second Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Yehya, N., Smith, L., Thomas, N. J., Steffen, K. M., Zimmerman, J., Lee, J. H., Erickson, S. J., Shein, S. L. 2023; 24 (Supplement 1 2S): S87-S98

    Abstract

    In 2015, the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) provided the first pediatric-specific definitions for acute respiratory distress syndrome (pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome [PARDS]). These definitions have since been operationalized in cohort and interventional PARDS studies. As substantial data have accrued since 2015, we have an opportunity to assess the construct validity and utility of the initial PALICC definitions. Therefore, the Second PALICC (PALICC-2) brought together multiple PARDS experts and aimed to identify and summarize relevant evidence related to the definition and epidemiology of PARDS and create modifications to the definition of PARDS.MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Elsevier), and CINAHL Complete (EBSCOhost).We included studies of subjects with PARDS, or at risk for PARDS, excluding studies pertaining primarily to adults except as specified for identifying age-specific cutoffs.Title/abstract review, full-text review, and data extraction using a standardized data collection form.The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to identify and summarize evidence and develop recommendations. A total of 97 studies were identified for full-text extraction addressing distinct aspects of the PARDS definition, including age, timing, imaging, oxygenation, modes of respiratory support, and specific coexisting conditions. Data were assessed in a Patient/Intervention/Comparator/Outcome format when possible, and formally summarized for effect size, risk, benefit, feasibility of implementation, and equity. A total of 17 consensus-based definition statements were made that update the definition of PARDS, as well as the related diagnoses of "Possible PARDS" and "At-Risk for PARDS." These statements are presented alongside a summary of the relevant epidemiology.We present updated, data-informed consensus statements on the definition for PARDS and the related diagnoses of "Possible PARDS" and "At-Risk for PARDS."

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003161

    View details for PubMedID 36661438

  • The Impact of Restrictive Transfusion Practices on Hemodynamically Stable Critically Ill Children Without Heart Disease: A Secondary Analysis of the Age of Blood in Children in the PICU Trial. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Steffen, K. M., Tucci, M., Doctor, A., Reeder, R., Caro, J. J., Muszynski, J. A., Spinella, P. C., Pediatric Critical Care Blood Research Network (BloodNet) subgroup of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network 2023; 24 (2): 84-92

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommend against RBC transfusion in hemodynamically stable (HDS) children without cardiac disease, if hemoglobin is greater than or equal to 7g/dL. We sought to assess the clinical and economic impact of compliance with RBC transfusion guidelines.DESIGN: A nonprespecified secondary analysis of noncardiac, HDS patients in the randomized trial Age of Blood in Children (NCT01977547) in PICUs. Costs analyzed included ICU stay and physician fees. Stabilized inverse propensity for treatment weighting was used to create a cohort balanced with respect to potential confounding variables. Weighted regression models were fit to evaluate outcomes based on guideline compliance.SETTING: Fifty international tertiary care centers.PATIENTS: Critically ill children 3 days to 16 years old transfused RBCs at less than or equal to 7 days of ICU admission. Six-hundred eighty-seven subjects who met eligibility criteria were included in the analysis.INTERVENTIONS: Initial RBC transfusions administered when hemoglobin was less than 7g/dL were considered "compliant" or "non-compliant" if hemoglobin was greater than or equal to 7g/dL.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Frequency of new or progressive multiple organ system dysfunction (NPMODS), ICU survival, and associated costs. The hypothesis was formulated after data collection but exposure groups were masked until completion of planned analyses. Forty-nine percent of patients (338/687) received a noncompliant initial transfusion. Weighted cohorts were balanced with respect to confounding variables (absolute standardized differences < 0.1). No differences were noted in NPMODS frequency (relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.61-1.22; p = 0.4). Patients receiving compliant transfusions had more ICU-free days (mean difference, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.57-2.88; p = 0.003). Compliance reduced mean costs in ICU by $38,845 U.S. dollars per patient (95% CI, $65,048-$12,641).CONCLUSIONS: Deferring transfusion until hemoglobin is less than 7g/dL is not associated with increased organ dysfunction in this population but is independently associated with increased likelihood of live ICU discharge and lower ICU costs.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003128

    View details for PubMedID 36661416

  • Methodology of the Second Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Iyer, N., Khemani, R., Emeriaud, G., Lopez-Fernandez, Y. M., Korang, S. K., Steffen, K. M., Barbaro, R. P., Bembea, M. M., Second Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC-2) Group on behalf and the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network 2023; 24 (Supplement 1 2S): S76-S86

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: This article describes the methodology used for The Second Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC-2). The PALLIC-2 sought to develop evidence-based clinical recommendations and when evidence was lacking, expert-based consensus statements and research priorities for the diagnosis and management of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS).DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases from 2012 to March 2022.STUDY SELECTION: Content was divided into 11 sections related to PARDS, with abstract and full text screening followed by data extraction for studies which met inclusion with no exclusion criteria.DATA EXTRACTION: We used a standardized data extraction form to construct evidence tables, grade the evidence, and formulate recommendations or statements using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.DATA SYNTHESIS: This consensus conference was comprised of a multidisciplinary group of international experts in pediatric critical care, pulmonology, respiratory care, and implementation science which followed standards set by the Institute of Medicine, using the GRADE system and Research And Development/University of California, Los Angeles appropriateness method, modeled after PALICC 2015. The panel of 52 content and four methodology experts had several web-based meetings over the course of 2 years. We conducted seven systematic reviews and four scoping reviews to cover the 11 topic areas. Dissemination was via primary publication listing all statements and separate supplemental publications for each subtopic that include supporting arguments for each recommendation and statement.CONCLUSIONS: A consensus conference of experts from around the world developed recommendations and consensus statements for the definition and management of PARDS and identified evidence gaps which need further research.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003160

    View details for PubMedID 36661437

  • Executive Summary of the Second International Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (PALICC-2). Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Emeriaud, G., López-Fernández, Y. M., Iyer, N. P., Bembea, M. M., Agulnik, A., Barbaro, R. P., Baudin, F., Bhalla, A., Brunow de Carvalho, W., Carroll, C. L., Cheifetz, I. M., Chisti, M. J., Cruces, P., Curley, M. A., Dahmer, M. K., Dalton, H. J., Erickson, S. J., Essouri, S., Fernández, A., Flori, H. R., Grunwell, J. R., Jouvet, P., Killien, E. Y., Kneyber, M. C., Kudchadkar, S. R., Korang, S. K., Lee, J. H., Macrae, D. J., Maddux, A., Modesto I Alapont, V., Morrow, B. M., Nadkarni, V. M., Napolitano, N., Newth, C. J., Pons-Odena, M., Quasney, M. W., Rajapreyar, P., Rambaud, J., Randolph, A. G., Rimensberger, P., Rowan, C. M., Sanchez-Pinto, L. N., Sapru, A., Sauthier, M., Shein, S. L., Smith, L. S., Steffen, K., Takeuchi, M., Thomas, N. J., Tse, S. M., Valentine, S., Ward, S., Watson, R. S., Yehya, N., Zimmerman, J. J., Khemani, R. G. 2023; 24 (2): 143-168

    Abstract

    We sought to update our 2015 work in the Second Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC-2) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS), considering new evidence and topic areas that were not previously addressed.International consensus conference series involving 52 multidisciplinary international content experts in PARDS and four methodology experts from 15 countries, using consensus conference methodology, and implementation science.Not applicable.Patients with or at risk for PARDS.None.Eleven subgroups conducted systematic or scoping reviews addressing 11 topic areas: 1) definition, incidence, and epidemiology; 2) pathobiology, severity, and risk stratification; 3) ventilatory support; 4) pulmonary-specific ancillary treatment; 5) nonpulmonary treatment; 6) monitoring; 7) noninvasive respiratory support; 8) extracorporeal support; 9) morbidity and long-term outcomes; 10) clinical informatics and data science; and 11) resource-limited settings. The search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL Complete (EBSCOhost) and was updated in March 2022. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology was used to summarize evidence and develop the recommendations, which were discussed and voted on by all PALICC-2 experts. There were 146 recommendations and statements, including: 34 recommendations for clinical practice; 112 consensus-based statements with 18 on PARDS definition, 55 on good practice, seven on policy, and 32 on research. All recommendations and statements had agreement greater than 80%.PALICC-2 recommendations and consensus-based statements should facilitate the implementation and adherence to the best clinical practice in patients with PARDS. These results will also inform the development of future programs of research that are crucially needed to provide stronger evidence to guide the pediatric critical care teams managing these patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003147

    View details for PubMedID 36661420

  • Association of Diagnostic Stewardship for Blood Cultures in Critically Ill Children With Culture Rates, Antibiotic Use, and Patient Outcomes: Results of the Bright STAR Collaborative. JAMA pediatrics Woods-Hill, C. Z., Colantuoni, E. A., Koontz, D. W., Voskertchian, A., Xie, A., Thurm, C., Miller, M. R., Fackler, J. C., Milstone, A. M., Bright STAR Authorship Group, Agulnik, A., Albert, J. E., Auth, M. J., Bradley, E., Clayton, J. A., Coffin, S. E., Dallefeld, S., Ezetendu, C. P., Fainberg, N. A., Flaherty, B. F., Foster, C. B., Hauger, S. B., Hong, S. J., Hysmith, N. D., Kirby, A. L., Kociolek, L. K., Larsen, G. Y., Lin, J. C., Linam, W. M., Newland, J. G., Nolt, D., Priebe, G. P., Sandora, T. J., Schwenk, H. T., Smith, C. M., Steffen, K. M., Tadphale, S. D., Toltzis, P., Wolf, J., Zerr, D. M. 2022

    Abstract

    Importance: Blood culture overuse in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) can lead to unnecessary antibiotic use and contribute to antibiotic resistance. Optimizing blood culture practices through diagnostic stewardship may reduce unnecessary blood cultures and antibiotics.Objective: To evaluate the association of a 14-site multidisciplinary PICU blood culture collaborative with culture rates, antibiotic use, and patient outcomes.Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective quality improvement (QI) collaborative involved 14 PICUs across the United States from 2017 to 2020 for the Bright STAR (Testing Stewardship for Antibiotic Reduction) collaborative. Data were collected from each participating PICU and from the Children's Hospital Association Pediatric Health Information System for prespecified primary and secondary outcomes.Exposures: A local QI program focusing on blood culture practices in the PICU (facilitated by a larger QI collaborative).Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was blood culture rates (per 1000 patient-days/mo). Secondary outcomes included broad-spectrum antibiotic use (total days of therapy and new initiations of broad-spectrum antibiotics ≥3 days after PICU admission) and PICU rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), Clostridioides difficile infection, mortality, readmission, length of stay, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock.Results: Across the 14 PICUs, the blood culture rate was 149.4 per 1000 patient-days/mo preimplementation and 100.5 per 1000 patient-days/mo postimplementation, for a 33% relative reduction (95% CI, 26%-39%). Comparing the periods before and after implementation, the rate of broad-spectrum antibiotic use decreased from 506 days to 440 days per 1000 patient-days/mo, respectively, a 13% relative reduction (95% CI, 7%-19%). The broad-spectrum antibiotic initiation rate decreased from 58.1 to 53.6 initiations/1000 patient-days/mo, an 8% relative reduction (95% CI, 4%-11%). Rates of CLABSI decreased from 1.8 to 1.1 per 1000 central venous line days/mo, a 36% relative reduction (95% CI, 20%-49%). Mortality, length of stay, readmission, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock were similar before and after implementation.Conclusions and Relevance: Multidisciplinary diagnostic stewardship interventions can reduce blood culture and antibiotic use in the PICU. Future work will determine optimal strategies for wider-scale dissemination of diagnostic stewardship in this setting while monitoring patient safety and balancing measures.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.1024

    View details for PubMedID 35499841

  • What Laboratory Tests and Physiologic Triggers Should Guide the Decision to Administer a Platelet or Plasma Transfusion in Critically Ill Children and What Product Attributes Are Optimal to Guide Specific Product Selection? From the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Delaney, M., Karam, O., Lieberman, L., Steffen, K., Muszynski, J. A., Goel, R., Bateman, S. T., Parker, R. I., Nellis, M. E., Remy, K. E., Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding (TAXI-CAB), i. c. 1800; 23 (Supplement 1 1S): e1-e13

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To present consensus statements and supporting literature for plasma and platelet product variables and related laboratory testing for transfusions in general critically ill children from the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding.DESIGN: Systematic review and consensus conference of international, multidisciplinary experts in platelet and plasma transfusion management of critically ill children.SETTING: Not applicable.PATIENTS: Critically ill pediatric patients at risk of bleeding and receiving plasma and/or platelet transfusions.INTERVENTIONS: None.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A panel of 10 experts developed evidence-based and, when evidence was insufficient, expert-based statements for laboratory testing and blood product attributes for platelet and plasma transfusions. These statements were reviewed and ratified by the 29 Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative - Control/Avoidance of Bleeding experts. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, from inception to December 2020. Consensus was obtained using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. Results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. We developed five expert consensus statements and two recommendations in answer to two questions: what laboratory tests and physiologic triggers should guide the decision to administer a platelet or plasma transfusion in critically ill children; and what product attributes are optimal to guide specific product selection?CONCLUSIONS: The Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding program provides some guidance and expert consensus for the laboratory and blood product attributes used for decision-making for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill pediatric patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002854

    View details for PubMedID 34989701

  • EHR USABILITY AND BARRIERS TO EFFICIENT INFORMATION GATHERING ON THE EHR IN THE PICU: CURRENT STATE Sinha, A., Tawfik, D., Steffen, K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: 640
  • Plasma and Platelet Transfusion Strategies in Critically Ill Children With Malignancy, Acute Liver Failure and/or Liver Transplantation, or Sepsis: From the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Lieberman, L., Karam, O., Stanworth, S. J., Goobie, S. M., Crighton, G., Goel, R., Lacroix, J., Nellis, M. E., Parker, R. I., Steffen, K., Stricker, P., Valentine, S. L., Steiner, M. E., Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding (TAXI-CAB), i. c. 1800; 23 (Supplement 1 1S): e37-e49

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To present the consensus statements with supporting literature for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation from the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding.DESIGN: Systematic review and consensus conference of international, multidisciplinary experts in platelet and plasma transfusion management of critically ill children.SETTING: Not applicable.PATIENTS: Critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation.INTERVENTIONS: None.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A panel of 13 experts developed evidence-based and, when evidence was insufficient, expert-based statements for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation. These statements were reviewed and ratified by the 29 Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding experts. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, from inception to December 2020. Consensus was obtained using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. Results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. We developed 12 expert consensus statements.CONCLUSIONS: In the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding program, the current absence of evidence for use of plasma and/or platelet transfusion in critically ill children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis means that only expert consensus statements are possible for these areas of practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002857

    View details for PubMedID 34989704

  • Executive Summary of Recommendations and Expert Consensus for Plasma and Platelet Transfusion Practice in Critically Ill Children: From the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding (TAXI-CAB). Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Nellis, M. E., Karam, O., Valentine, S. L., Bateman, S. T., Remy, K. E., Lacroix, J., Cholette, J. M., Bembea, M. M., Russell, R. T., Steiner, M. E., Goobie, S. M., Tucci, M., Stricker, P. A., Stanworth, S. J., Delaney, M., Lieberman, L., Muszynski, J. A., Bauer, D. F., Steffen, K., Nishijima, D., Ibla, J., Emani, S., Vogel, A. M., Haas, T., Goel, R., Crighton, G., Delgado, D., Demetres, M., Parker, R. I., Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise InitiativeControl/Avoidance of Bleeding (TAXI-CAB), i. c. 1800; 23 (1): 34-51

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Critically ill children frequently receive plasma and platelet transfusions. We sought to determine evidence-based recommendations, and when evidence was insufficient, we developed expert-based consensus statements about decision-making for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill pediatric patients.DESIGN: Systematic review and consensus conference series involving multidisciplinary international experts in hemostasis, and plasma/platelet transfusion in critically ill infants and children (Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding [TAXI-CAB]).SETTING: Not applicable.PATIENTS: Children admitted to a PICU at risk of bleeding and receipt of plasma and/or platelet transfusions.INTERVENTIONS: None.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A panel of 29 experts in methodology, transfusion, and implementation science from five countries and nine pediatric subspecialties completed a systematic review and participated in a virtual consensus conference series to develop recommendations. The search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, from inception to December 2020, using a combination of subject heading terms and text words for concepts of plasma and platelet transfusion in critically ill children. Four graded recommendations and 49 consensus expert statements were developed using modified Research and Development/UCLA and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. We focused on eight subpopulations of critical illness (1, severe trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, or traumatic brain injury; 2, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery; 3, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; 4, oncologic diagnosis or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; 5, acute liver failure or liver transplantation; 6, noncardiac surgery; 7, invasive procedures outside the operating room; 8, sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation) as well as laboratory assays and selection/processing of plasma and platelet components. In total, we came to consensus on four recommendations, five good practice statements, and 44 consensus-based statements. These results were further developed into consensus-based clinical decision trees for plasma and platelet transfusion in critically ill pediatric patients.CONCLUSIONS: The TAXI-CAB program provides expert-based consensus for pediatric intensivists for the administration of plasma and/or platelet transfusions in critically ill pediatric patients. There is a pressing need for primary research to provide more evidence to guide practitioners.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002851

    View details for PubMedID 34989711

  • Ultrasound education improves safety for peripheral intravenous catheter insertion in critically ill children. Pediatric research Bhargava, V., Su, E., Haileselassie, B., Davis, D., Steffen, K. M. 2021

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Difficulty in obtaining peripheral vascular access is a common problem in patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The use of ultrasound guidance can improve the overall success in obtaining vascular access. This study evaluated the success and longevity of PIV placement by nurses pre- and post-implementation of an USGPIV curriculum.METHODS: PICU nurses participated in a prospective quality improvement study. Each participating nurse attempted 10 PIVs by using landmark (LM) methods. The same nurses then received individual instruction in an USGPIV placement curriculum. Following the educational intervention, each nurse attempted 10 USGPIVs.RESULTS: A total of 150 LM PIVs and 143 USGPIVs were attempted. The first stick success in the post-intervention (USGPIV) group was 85.9% compared to 47.3% in the pre-intervention (LM) group (p<0.001). Overall success was also superior in the USGPIV group (94.3 versus 57.3%, respectively; p<0.001). PIVs placed by US lasted longer with a median survival time of 4±3.84 daysversus 3±3.51 days for LM PIVs (p<0.050, log-rank test).CONCLUSIONS: Successful implementation of a standardized curriculum for USGPIV placement for PICU nurses improves first stick, overall success, and longevity of PIV catheter placement.IMPACT: An ultrasound-guided IV curriculum can be successfully implemented resulting in increased first stick success and increased longevity. Registered nurses can be trained in placement of ultrasound-guided IV placement. This study provides a training curriculum for ultrasound-guided IV placement that can be applied to other settings or institutions.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41390-021-01568-6

    View details for PubMedID 34075190

  • Implementation of clinical practice changes in the PICU: a qualitative study using and refining the iPARIHS framework. Implementation science : IS Steffen, K. M., Holdsworth, L. M., Ford, M. A., Lee, G. M., Asch, S. M., Proctor, E. K. 2021; 16 (1): 15

    Abstract

    Like in many settings, implementation of evidence-based practices often fall short in pediatric intensive care units (PICU). Very few prior studies have applied implementation science frameworks to understand how best to improve practices in this unique environment. We used the relatively new integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (iPARIHS) framework to assess practice improvement in the PICU and to explore the utility of the framework itself for that purpose.We used the iPARIHS framework to guide development of a semi-structured interview tool to examine barriers, facilitators, and the process of change in the PICU. A framework approach to qualitative analysis, developed around iPARIHS constructs and subconstructs, helped identify patterns and themes in provider interviews. We assessed the utility of iPARIHS to inform PICU practice change.Fifty multi-professional providers working in 8 U.S. PICUs completed interviews. iPARIHS constructs shaped the development of a process model for change that consisted of phases that include planning, a decision to adopt change, implementation and facilitation, and sustainability; the PICU environment shaped each phase. Large, complex multi-professional teams, and high-stakes work at near-capacity impaired receptivity to change. While the unit leaders made decisions to pursue change, providers' willingness to accept change was based on the evidence for the change, and provider's experiences, beliefs, and capacity to integrate change into a demanding workflow. Limited analytic structures and resources frustrated attempts to monitor changes' impacts. Variable provider engagement, time allocated to work on changes, and limited collaboration impacted facilitation. iPARIHS constructs were useful in exploring implementation; however, we identified inter-relation of subconstructs, unique concepts not captured by the framework, and a need for subconstructs to further describe facilitation.The PICU environment significantly shaped the implementation. The described process model for implementation may be useful to guide efforts to integrate changes and select implementation strategies. iPARIHS was adequate to identify barriers and facilitators of change; however, further elaboration of subconstructs for facilitation would be helpful to operationalize the framework.Not applicable, as no health care intervention was performed.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13012-021-01080-9

    View details for PubMedID 33509190

  • Factors Influencing Implementation of Blood Transfusion Recommendations in Pediatric Critical Care Units. Frontiers in pediatrics Steffen, K. M., Spinella, P. C., Holdsworth, L. M., Ford, M. A., Lee, G. M., Asch, S. M., Proctor, E. K., Doctor, A. 1800; 9: 800461

    Abstract

    Purpose: Risks of red blood cell transfusion may outweigh benefits for many patients in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs). The Transfusion and Anemia eXpertise Initiative (TAXI) recommendations seek to limit unnecessary and potentially harmful transfusions, but use has been variable. We sought to identify barriers and facilitators to using the TAXI recommendations to inform implementation efforts. Materials and Methods: The integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (iPARIHS) framework guided semi-structured interviews conducted in 8 U.S. ICUs; 50 providers in multiple ICU roles completed interviews. Adapted Framework analysis, a form of content analysis, used the iPARIHS innovation, recipient, context and facilitation constructs and subconstructs to categorize data and identify patterns as well as unique informative statements. Results: Providers perceived that the TAXI recommendations would reduce transfusion rates and practice variability, but adoption faced challenges posed by attitudes around transfusion and care in busy and complex units. Development of widespread buy-in and inclusion in implementation, integration into workflow, designating committed champions, and monitoring outcomes data were expected to enhance implementation. Conclusions: Targeted activities to create buy-in, educate, and plan for use are necessary for TAXI implementation. Recognition of contextual challenges posed by the PICU environment and an approach that adjusts for barriers may optimize adoption.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fped.2021.800461

    View details for PubMedID 34976903

  • Target Based Care: An Intervention to Reduce Variation in Postoperative Length of Stay. The Journal of pediatrics Shin, A. Y., Rao, I. J., Bassett, H. K., Chadwick, W., Kim, J., Kipps, A. K., Komra, K., Loh, L., Maeda, K., Mafla, M., Presnell, L., Sharek, P. J., Steffen, K. M., Scheinker, D., Algaze, C. A. 2020

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To derive care targets and evaluate the impact of displaying them at the point of care on postoperative length of stay (LOS).STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study using 2 years of historical controls within a freestanding, academic children's hospital. Patients undergoing benchmark cardiac surgery between May 4, 2014 and August 15, 2016 (preintervention) and September 6, 2016 to September 30, 2018 (postintervention) were included. The intervention consisted of displaying at the point of care targets for the timing of extubation, transfer from the intensive care unit (ICU), and hospital discharge. Family satisfaction, reintubation, and readmission rates were tracked.RESULTS: The postintervention cohort consisted of 219 consecutive patients. There was a reduction in variation for ICU (difference in SD -2.56, p < 0.01), and total LOS (difference in SD -2.84, P < .001). Patients stayed on average 0.97 fewer days (p<0.001) in the ICU (median -1.01 [IQR -2.15,-0.39], 0.7 fewer days (p<0.001) on mechanical ventilation (median -0.54 [IQR -0.77,-0.50], and 1.18 fewer days (p<0.001) for the total LOS (median -2.25 [IQR -3.69,-0.15]. Log transformed multivariable linear regression demonstrated the intervention to be associated with shorter ICU LOS (beta coefficient -0.19, SE 0.059, p<0.001), total postoperative LOS (beta coefficient -0.12, SE 0.052, p=0.02), and ventilator duration (beta coefficient -0.21, SE 0.048, p<0.001). Balancing metrics did not differ after the intervention.CONCLUSIONS: Target based care is a simple, novel intervention associated with reduced variation in LOS and absolute LOS across a diverse spectrum of complex cardiac surgeries.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.09.017

    View details for PubMedID 32920104

  • Regulating Critical Care Ultrasound, It Is All in the Interpretation. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Su, E. n., Soni, N. J., Blaivas, M. n., Bhargava, V. n., Steffen, K. n., Haileselassie, B. n. 2020

    Abstract

    Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) use is rapidly expanding as a practice in adult and pediatric critical care environments. In January 2020, the Joint Commission endorsed a statement from the Emergency Care Research Institute citing point-of-care ultrasound as a potential hazard to patients for reasons related to training and skill verification, oversight of use, and recordkeeping and accountability mechanisms for clinical use; however, no evidence was presented to support these concerns. Existing data on point-of-care ultrasound practices in pediatric critical care settings verify that point-of-care ultrasound use continues to increase, and contrary to the concerns raised, resources are becoming increasingly available for point-of-care ultrasound use. Many institutions have recognized a successful approach to addressing these concerns that can be achieved through multispecialty collaborations.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002600

    View details for PubMedID 33060421

  • Pediatric Transport Triage: Development and Assessment of an Objective Tool to Guide Transport Planning. Pediatric emergency care Steffen, K. M., Noje, C. n., Costabile, P. M., Henderson, E. n., Hunt, E. A., Klein, B. L., McMillan, K. N. 2020; 36 (5): 240–47

    Abstract

    We developed a Pediatric Transport Triage Tool (PT3) to objectively guide selection of team composition and transport mode, thereby standardizing transport planning. Previously, modified Pediatric Early Warning Score for transport has been used to assess illness severity but not to guide transport decision making.The PT3 was created for pediatric transport by combining objective evaluations of neurologic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems with a systems-based medical condition list to identify diagnoses requiring expedited transport and/or advanced team composition not captured by neurologic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems alone. A scoring algorithm was developed to guide transport planning. Transport data (mode, team composition, time to dispatch, patient disposition, and complications) were collected before and after PT3 implementation at a single tertiary care center over an 18-month period.We reviewed 2237 inbound pediatric transports. Transport mode, patient disposition, and dispatch time were unchanged over the study period. Fewer calls using a transport nurse were noted after PT3 implementation (33.9% vs 30%, P = 0.05), with a trend toward fewer rotor-wing transports and transports requiring physicians. The majority of users, regardless of experience level, reported improved transport standardization with the tool. Need to upgrade team composition or mode during transport was not different during the study period. No adverse patient safety events occurred with PT3 use.The PT3 represents an objective triage tool to reduce variability in transport planning. The PT3 decreased resource utilization and was not associated with adverse outcomes. Teams with dynamic staffing models, various experience levels, and multiple transport modes may benefit from this standardized assessment tool.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001641

    View details for PubMedID 30461668

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6526089

  • ULTRASOUND-GUIDED IV PROGRAM IMPROVES FIRST STICK SUCCESS AND LONGEVITY IN CRITICALLY ILL CHILDREN Bhargava, V., Su, E., Haileselassie, B., Davis, D., Steffen, K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020
  • Ultrasound-Targeted Lung Recruitment: Process Improvement for Ventilating the Critically Ill Child PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Su, E., Steffen, K. M. 2019; 20 (5): 493–94
  • LEVERAGING AGGREGATE DATA AT THE POINT OF CARE REDUCES VARIATION FOR PEDIATRIC NEUROSURGERY PATIENTS Steffen, K., Su, F., Algaze, C., Duethman, L., Jacobs, K., Casazza, M., Chantra, J., Loh, L., Shin, A., Grant, G. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019
  • Development of a Structured Outcomes Assessment and Implementation Program in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL QUALITY Steffen, K. M., Lin, J. C., Malone, S., Doctor, A., Hartman, M. E. 2019; 34 (1): 23–29
  • Use of Telemedicine During Interhospital Transport of Children With Operative Intracranial Hemorrhage* PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Jackson, E. M., Costabile, P. M., Tekes, A., Steffen, K. M., Ahn, E. S., Scafidi, S., Noje, C. 2018; 19 (11): 1033–38

    Abstract

    To analyze the impact of an intervention of using telemedicine during interhospital transport on time to surgery in children with operative intracranial hemorrhage.We performed a retrospective chart review of children with intracranial hemorrhage transferred for emergent neurosurgical intervention between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016. We identified those patients whose neuroimaging was transmitted via telemedicine to the neurosurgical team prior to arrival at our center and then compared the telemedicine and nontelemedicine groups. Mann-Whitney U and Fisher exact tests were used to compare interval variables and categorical data.Single-center study performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital.Patients less than or equal to 18 years old transferred for operative intracranial hemorrhage.Pediatric transport implemented routine telemedicine use via departmental smart phones to facilitate transfer of information and imaging and reduce time to definitive care by having surgical services available when needed.Fifteen children (eight in telemedicine group; seven in nontelemedicine group) met inclusion criteria. Most had extraaxial hemorrhage (87.5% telemedicine group; 85.7% nontelemedicine group; p = 1.0), were intubated pre transport (62.5% telemedicine group; 71.4% nontelemedicine group; p = 1.0), and arrived at our center's trauma bay during night shift or weekend (87.5% telemedicine group; 57.1% nontelemedicine group; p = 0.28). Median trauma bay Glasgow Coma Scale scores did not differ (eight in telemedicine group; seven in nontelemedicine group; p = 0.24). Although nonsignificant, when compared with the nontelemedicine group, the telemedicine group had decreased rates of repeat preoperative neuroimaging (37.5% vs 57%; p = 0.62), shorter median times from trauma bay arrival to surgery (33 min vs 47 min; p = 0.22) and from diagnosis to surgery (146.5 min vs 157 min; p = 0.45), shorter intensive care stay (2.5 vs 5 d) and hospitalization (4 vs 5 d), and higher home discharge rates (87.5% vs 57.1%; p = 0.28).Telemedicine use during interhospital transport appears to expedite definitive care for children with intracranial hemorrhage requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention, which could contribute to improved patient outcomes.

    View details for PubMedID 30134361

  • Implementation of the Recommendations for RBC Transfusions for Critically Ill Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Steffen, K. M., Bateman, S. T., Valentine, S. L., Small, S., Spinella, P. C., Doctor, A., Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Initiative (TAXI), i. c. 2018; 19 (9S Suppl 1): S170–S176

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To provide context for the implementation of the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative recommendations for RBC transfusions including a review of prior research related to implementation of transfusion guidelines, efforts to facilitate implementation through Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative, and to provide a framework for recommendation implementation.DESIGN: Review of existing clinical literature and description of a comprehensive approach to implementation based on Implementation Science principles.RESULTS: The Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative recommendations on RBC transfusions are based on clinical evidence and aim to limit unnecessary and potentially harmful transfusions. Prior efforts to use transfusion guidelines include use of provider education, local guidelines, visual aids, prospective and retrospective audit and feedback as well as computerized decision support tools; however, no single approach has been identified as optimal for implementation in pediatric critical care settings. Evidence around provider beliefs and transfusion decision-making point to the need for additional provider education, emphasizing the importance of limiting transfusions, and the development of recommendations, such as the Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative guidelines, that can be applied to specific clinical conditions.CONCLUSIONS: The Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative guidelines will be broadly disseminated; however, coordinated implementation efforts will be required to impact practice. An approach that encourages involvement of a wide range of multiprofessional stakeholders, formal agreement on the implemented guidelines, selection of strategies that are practical and feasible, and active monitoring of clinical practice and outcomes throughout implementation is recommended. A formal second stage Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative - Continuous Assessment of Blood-use is proposed to enhance implementation of the recommendations, follow uptake and impact on practice and patient outcomes, and ensure integration of new clinical evidence into the existing guideline as it is developed.

    View details for PubMedID 30161073

  • Implementation of the Recommendations for RBC Transfusions for Critically III Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Steffen, K. M., Bateman, S. T., Valentine, S. L., Small, S., Spinella, P. C., Doctor, A. 2018; 19: S170-S176
  • Consensus Recommendations for RBC Transfusion Practice in Critically Ill Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Valentine, S. L., Bembea, M. M., Muszynski, J. A., Cholette, J. M., Doctor, A., Spinella, P. C., Steiner, M. E., Tucci, M., Hassan, N. E., Parker, R. I., Lacroix, J., Argent, A., Carson, J. L., Remy, K. E., Demaret, P., Emeriaud, G., Kneyber, M. J., Guzzetta, N., Hall, M. W., Macrae, D., Karam, O., Russell, R. T., Stricker, P. A., Vogel, A. M., Tasker, R. C., Turgeon, A. F., Schwartz, S. M., Willems, A., Josephson, C. D., Luban, N. C., Lehmann, L. E., Stanworth, S. J., Zantek, N. D., Bunchman, T. E., Cheifetz, I. M., Fortenberry, J. D., Delaney, M., van de Watering, L., Robinson, K. A., Malone, S., Steffen, K. M., Bateman, S. T., Pediat Critical Care Transfusion, Pediat Critical Care Blood Res, Pediat Acute Lung Injury Sepsis 2018; 19 (9): 884–98

    Abstract

    To date, there are no published guidelines to direct RBC transfusion decision-making specifically for critically ill children. We present the recommendations from the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative.Consensus conference series of multidisciplinary, international experts in RBC transfusion management of critically ill children.Not applicable.None.Children with, or children at risk for, critical illness who receive or are at risk for receiving a RBC transfusion.A panel of 38 content and four methodology experts met over the course of 2 years to develop evidence-based, and when evidence lacking, expert consensus-based recommendations regarding decision-making for RBC transfusion management and research priorities for transfusion in critically ill children. The experts focused on nine specific populations of critically ill children: general, respiratory failure, nonhemorrhagic shock, nonlife-threatening bleeding or hemorrhagic shock, acute brain injury, acquired/congenital heart disease, sickle cell/oncology/transplant, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/ventricular assist/ renal replacement support, and alternative processing. Data to formulate evidence-based and expert consensus recommendations were selected based on searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from 1980 to May 2017. Agreement was obtained using the Research and Development/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method.The Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative consensus conference developed and reached consensus on a total of 102 recommendations (57 clinical [20 evidence based, 37 expert consensus], 45 research recommendations). All final recommendations met agreement, defined a priori as greater than 80%. A decision tree to aid clinicians was created based on the clinical recommendations.The Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative recommendations provide important clinical guidance and applicable tools to avoid unnecessary RBC transfusions. Research recommendations identify areas of focus for future investigation to improve outcomes and safety for RBC transfusion.

    View details for PubMedID 30180125

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6126913

  • Development of a Structured Outcomes Assessment and Implementation Program in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. American journal of medical quality : the official journal of the American College of Medical Quality Steffen, K. M., Lin, J. C., Malone, S., Doctor, A., Hartman, M. E. 2018: 1062860618788173

    Abstract

    This article reports on the Outcomes Program (OP) that the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) developed to (1) monitor unit-based outcomes trends and safety data, (2) systematically identify targets for process improvement, and (3) implement new projects and care protocols with the aim of improving patient care. Following development of the OP structure in 2013, the authors have coordinated the components of outcomes data and reporting, clinical performance review, outcomes committee, knowledge translation, and implementation science programs to impact practice. Through routine provider updates, educational strategies, and prioritization of focused projects that include structured implementation plans, the model of PICU care has been improved. Described herein is the development of the process to evaluate intensive care unit outcomes and address the need for programmatic change through implementation science principles. Such a process may be of use in other PICUs.

    View details for PubMedID 30009638

  • Assessment of Virtual Support of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Using a Checklist Chime, N. O., Jones, K., Steffen, K., Noje, C., Duval-Arnould, J., Hunt, E. A., McMillan, K. AMER ACAD PEDIATRICS. 2018
  • Tele-Pediatric Intensive Care for Critically Ill Children in Syria TELEMEDICINE AND E-HEALTH Ghbeis, M., Steffen, K. M., Braunlin, E. A., Beilman, G. J., Dahman, J., Ostwani, W., Steiner, M. E. 2017

    Abstract

    Armed conflicts can result in humanitarian crises and have major impacts on civilians, of whom children represent a significant proportion. Usual pediatric medical care is often disrupted and trauma resulting from war-related injuries is often devastating. High pediatric mortality rates are thus experienced in these ravaged medical environments.Using simple communication technology to provide real-time management recommendations from highly trained pediatric personnel can provide substantive clinical support and have a significant impact on pediatric morbidity and mortality.We implemented a "Tele-Pediatric Intensive Care" program (Tele-PICU) to provide real-time management consultation for critically ill and injured pediatric patients in Syria with intensive care needs.Over the course of 7 months, 19 cases were evaluated, ranging in age from 1 day to 11 years. Consultation questions addressed a wide range of critical care needs. Five patients are known to have survived, three were transferred, five died, and six outcomes were unknown.Based on this limited undertaking with its positive impact on survival, further development of Tele-PICU-based efforts with attention to implementation and barriers identified through this program is desirable.Even limited Tele-PICU can provide timely and potentially lifesaving assistance to pediatric care providers. Future efforts are encouraged.

    View details for PubMedID 29232173

  • Controlling Phlebotomy Volume Diminishes PICU Transfusion: Implementation Processes and Impact. Pediatrics Steffen, K., Doctor, A., Hoerr, J., Gill, J., Markham, C., Brown, S. M., Cohen, D., Hansen, R., Kryzer, E., Richards, J., Small, S., Valentine, S., York, J. L., Proctor, E. K., Spinella, P. C. 2017; 140 (2)

    Abstract

    Phlebotomy excess contributes to anemia in PICU patients and increases the likelihood of red blood cell transfusion, which is associated with risk of adverse outcomes. Excessive phlebotomy reduction (EPR) strategies may reduce the need for transfusion, but have not been evaluated in a PICU population. We hypothesized that EPR strategies, facilitated by implementation science methods, would decrease excess blood drawn and reduce transfusion frequency.Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Patient and blood draw data were collected with survey and focus group data to evaluate knowledge and attitudes before and after EPR intervention. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to interpret qualitative data. Multivariate regression was employed to adjust for potential confounders for blood overdraw volume and transfusion incidence.Populations were similar pre- and postintervention. EPR strategies decreased blood overdraw volumes 62% from 5.5 mL (interquartile range 1-23) preintervention to 2.1 mL (interquartile range 0-7.9 mL) postintervention (P < .001). Fewer patients received red blood cell transfusions postintervention (32.1% preintervention versus 20.7% postintervention, P = .04). Regression analyses showed that EPR strategies reduced blood overdraw volume (P < .001) and lowered transfusion frequency (P = .05). Postintervention surveys reflected a high degree of satisfaction (93%) with EPR strategies, and 97% agreed EPR was a priority postintervention.Implementation science methods aided in the selection of EPR strategies and enhanced acceptance which, in this cohort, reduced excessive overdraw volumes and transfusion frequency. Larger trials are needed to determine if this approach can be applied in broader PICU populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2016-2480

    View details for PubMedID 28701427

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5527666

  • RBC Distribution Width: Biomarker for Red Cell Dysfunction and Critical Illness Outcome? PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Said, A. S., Spinella, P. C., Hartman, M. E., Steffen, K. M., Jackups, R., Holubkov, R., Wallendorf, M., Doctor, A. 2017; 18 (2): 134-142

    Abstract

    RBC distribution width is reported to be an independent predictor of outcome in adults with a variety of conditions. We sought to determine if RBC distribution width is associated with morbidity or mortality in critically ill children.Retrospective observational study.Tertiary PICU.All admissions to St. Louis Children's Hospital PICU between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012.We collected demographics, laboratory values, hospitalization characteristics, and outcomes. We calculated the relative change in RBC distribution width from admission RBC distribution width to the highest RBC distribution width during the first 7 days of hospitalization. Our primary outcome was ICU mortality or use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a composite. Secondary outcomes were ICU- and ventilator-free days.We identified 3,913 eligible subjects with an estimated mortality (by Pediatric Index of Mortality 2) of 2.94% ± 9.25% and an actual ICU mortality of 2.91%. For the study cohort, admission RBC distribution width was 14.12% ± 1.89% and relative change in RBC distribution width was 2.63% ± 6.23%. On univariate analysis, both admission RBC distribution width and relative change in RBC distribution width correlated with mortality or the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (odds ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.12-1.27] and odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.04-1.08], respectively; p < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, including severity of illness, both admission RBC distribution width (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) and relative change in RBC distribution width (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) remained independently associated with ICU mortality or the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Admission RBC distribution width and relative change in RBC distribution width both weakly correlated with fewer ICU- (r = 0.038) and ventilator-free days (r = 0.05) (p < 0.001).Independent of illness severity in critically ill children, admission RBC distribution width is associated with ICU mortality and morbidity. These data suggest that RBC distribution width may be a biomarker for RBC injury that is of sufficient magnitude to influence critical illness outcome, possibly via oxygen delivery impairment.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000394305600011

    View details for PubMedID 27832023

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5291765

  • Determination of Genetic Predisposition to Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants PEDIATRICS Dagle, J. M., Lepp, N. T., Cooper, M. E., Schaa, K. L., Kelsey, K. J., Orr, K. L., Caprau, D., Zimmerman, C. R., Steffen, K. M., Johnson, K. J., Marazita, M. L., Murray, J. C. 2009; 123 (4): 1116-1123

    Abstract

    Patent ductus arteriosus is a common morbidity associated with preterm birth. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus increases with decreasing gestational age to approximately 70% in infants born at 25 weeks' gestation. Our major goal was to determine if genetic risk factors play a role in patent ductus arteriosus seen in preterm infants.We investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that regulate smooth muscle contraction, xenobiotic detoxification, inflammation, and other processes are markers for persistent patency of ductus arteriosus. Initially, 377 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 130 genes of interest were evaluated in DNA samples collected from 204 infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks. A family-based association test was performed on genotyping data to evaluate overtransmission of alleles.P values of <.01 were detected for genetic variations found in 7 genes. This prompted additional analysis with an additional set of 162 infants, focusing on the 7 markers with initial P values of <.01, and 1 genetic variant in the angiotensin II type I receptor previously shown to be related to patent ductus arteriosus. Of the initial positive signals, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the transcription factor AP-2 beta and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 genes remained significant. Additional haplotype analysis revealed genetic variations in prostacyclin synthase to be associated with patent ductus arteriosus. An angiotensin II type I receptor polymorphism previously reported to be associated with patent ductus arteriosus after prophylactic indomethacin administration was not associated with the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus in our population.Overall, our data support a role for genetic variations in transcription factor AP-2 beta, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1, and prostacyclin synthase in the persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus seen in preterm infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2008-0313

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264663100006

    View details for PubMedID 19336370

  • Evaluation of fetal and maternal genetic variation in the progesterone receptor gene for contributions to preterm birth PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Ehn, N. L., Cooper, M. E., Orr, K., Shi, M., Johnson, M. K., Caprau, D., Dagle, J., Steffen, K., Johnson, K., Marazita, M. L., Merrill, D., Murray, J. C. 2007; 62 (5): 630-635

    Abstract

    Progesterone plays a critical role in the maintenance of pregnancy and has been effectively used to prevent recurrences of preterm labor. We investigated the role of genetic variation in the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene in modulating risks for preterm labor by examining both maternal and fetal effects. Cases were infants delivered prematurely at the University of Iowa. DNA was collected from the mother, infant, and father. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and an insertion deletion variant in PGR were studied in 415 families. Results were then analyzed using transmission disequilibrium tests and log-linear-model-based analysis. DNA sequencing of the PGR gene was also carried out in 92 mothers of preterm infants. We identified significant associations between SNP in the PGR for both mother and preterm infant. No etiologic sequence variants were found in the coding sequence of the PGR gene. This study suggests that genetic variation in the PGR gene of either the mother or the fetus may trigger preterm labor.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250477000022

    View details for PubMedID 17805208

  • Maternal and fetal variation in genes of cholesterol metabolism is associated with preterm delivery JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Steffen, K. M., Cooper, M. E., Shi, M., Caprau, D., Simhan, H. N., Dagle, J. M., Marazita, M. L., Murray, J. C. 2007; 27 (11): 672-680

    Abstract

    To examine the contribution of variants in fetal and maternal cholesterol metabolism genes in preterm delivery (PTD).A total of 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 16 genes related to cholesterol metabolism were examined for 414 preterm infants (gestational ages 22 to 36 weeks; comprising 305 singletons and 109 twins) and at least 1 parent. Fetal effects were assessed using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) for each SNP, followed by a log linear model-based approach to utilize families with missing parental genotypes for those SNPs showing significance under TDT. Genetic variant effects were examined for a role in PTD, gestational age and birth weight. Maternal effects were estimated using a log linear model-based approach.Among singleton gestations, suggestive association (P<0.01 without adjusting for multiple comparisons) was found between birth weight and fetal DHCR7 gene/SNP combinations (rs1630498, P=0.002 and rs2002064, P=0.003). Among all gestations, suggestive associations were found between PTD and fetal HMGCR (rs2303152, P=0.002) and APOA1 (rs 5070, P=0.004). The result for HMGCR was further supported by the log linear model-based test in the single births (P=0.007) and in all births (P=0.006). New associations (APOE and ABCA1) were observed when birth weight was normalized for gestational age suggesting independent effects of variants on birth weight separate from effects on PTD. Testing for maternally mediated genetic effects has identified suggestive association between ABCA1 (rs4149313, P=0.004) and decreased gestational age.Variants in maternal and fetal genes for cholesterol metabolism were associated with PTD and decreased birth weight or gestational age in this study. Genetic markers may serve as one mechanism to identify high-risk mothers and fetuses for targeted nutritional treatment and/or prevention of low birth weight or PTD.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.jp.7211806

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250444500002

    View details for PubMedID 17855807