Clinical Focus

  • Maternal and Fetal Medicine

Professional Education

  • Fellowship: Stanford University Maternal Fetal Medicine Fellowship (2023) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology (2022)
  • Residency: University of Massachusetts GME Office (2020) MA
  • Medical Education: Tufts University School of Medicine (2016) MA

All Publications

  • Magnesium sulfate and risk of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in a high-risk cohort. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Minor, K. C., Liu, J., Druzin, M. L., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Hintz, S. R., Bonifacio, S. L., Leonard, S. A., Lee, H. C., Profit, J., Karakash, S. D. 2024


    Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy contributes to morbidity and mortality among neonates ≥ 360 weeks' gestation. Evidence of preventative antenatal treatment is limited. Magnesium sulfate has neuroprotective properties among preterm fetuses. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a risk factor for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and magnesium sulfate is recommended for maternal seizure prophylaxis among patients with pre-eclampsia with severe features.1) Determine trends in incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, antenatal magnesium sulfate and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, 2) evaluate the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and 3) evaluate if, among patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the odds of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is mitigated by receipt of antenatal magnesium sulfate. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted an analysis of a prospective cohort of live births ≥360 weeks' gestation between 2012-2018 within the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative registry, linked with the California Department of Health Care Access and Information files. We used Cochran-Armitage tests to assess trends in hypertensive disorders, encephalopathy diagnoses, and magnesium sulfate utilization, and compared demographic factors between patients with or without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or treatment with magnesium sulfate. Hierarchical logistic regression models were built to explore if hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were associated with any severity and moderate/severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Separate hierarchical logistic regression models were built among those with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to evaluate the association of magnesium sulfate with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.Among 44,314 unique infants, the diagnosis of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the use of magnesium sulfate increased over time. Compared to patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy alone, patients with hypertensive disorders treated with magnesium sulfate represented a higher risk population. They were more likely to be publicly insured, born 36-38 weeks' gestation, be small for gestational age, have lower Apgar scores, require a higher level of resuscitation at delivery, have prolonged rupture of membranes, preterm labor, fetal distress, and undergo operative delivery (all p-values <0.002). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were associated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13-1.40, p-value <.001) and specifically moderate/severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11-1.42, p-value <.001). Among patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, treatment with magnesium sulfate was associated with 29% reduction in the odds of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (aOR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.97, p-value= 0.03) and a 37% reduction in the odds of moderate/severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (aOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94, p-value=0.03).Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and specifically, moderate/severe disease. Among people with hypertensive disorders, receipt of antenatal magnesium sulfate is associated with significant reduction in the odds of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and moderate/severe disease in a neonatal cohort admitted to the NICU ≥360 weeks' gestation. The findings of this observational study cannot prove causality and are intended to be hypothesis generating for future clinical trials on MgSO4 in term infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2024.04.001

    View details for PubMedID 38580044

  • Understanding the distinction between cleft lip and cleft palate: a critical step for successful prenatal detection. Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology Minor, K., Chueh, J. 2023


    Orofacial clefts (OCs) are among the most common congenital anomalies, however, prenatal detection of cleft palate without cleft lip (CP) remains low. CP is associated with a higher risk of associated structural anomalies, recurrence risk and genetic aberrations. There is opportunity to optimize prenatal diagnosis, counseling and diagnostic genetic testing for OCs.Improving prenatal diagnosis of CP requires understanding that embryologically, the secondary palate develops from the 6th to the 10th week and fuses with the primary palate by the 12th week. Multiple first, second and third trimester 2D ultrasonographic markers for OCs have been described including the maxillary gap, frontal space, maxilla-nasion-mandible angle, retronasal triangle, palatino-maxillary diameter, equal sign, nonvisualization or gap in the soft to hard palate interface and loss of the superimposed line. We discuss the technique, evidence and limitations of each.Prenatal detection of OC can be optimized by employing 2D sonographic markers. Prenatal detection of CP may be improved by recognizing its high association with retrognathia/micrognathia.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000852

    View details for PubMedID 36912278

  • In Virtual Simulation is Teaching to Fish Better Than Giving a Fish? Bianco, K., Minor, K., Schaffer, K., Sei, L., Mayo, J., Leonard, S. A., Daniels, K. SPRINGER HEIDELBERG. 2023: 215A-216A
  • A novel virtual simulation training improves providers' knowledge and confidence to manage obstetric emergencies Minor, K. C., Mayo, J. A., Bianco, K., Judy, A., Abir, G., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A., Sie, L., Ayotte, S., Daniels, K. I. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2023: S160
  • Severity of small-for-gestational-age and morbidity and mortality among very preterm neonates. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association Minor, K. C., Bianco, K., Sie, L., Druzin, M. L., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A. 2022


    Evaluate the association between small for gestational age (SGA) severity and morbidity and mortality in a contemporary, population of very preterm infants.This secondary analysis of a California statewide database evaluated singleton infants born during 2008-2018 at 24-32 weeks' gestation, with a birthweight <15th percentile. We analyzed neonatal outcomes in relation to weight for gestational age (WGA) and symmetry of growth restriction.An increase in WGA by one z-score was associated with decreased major morbidity or mortality risk (aRR 0.73, 95% CI 0.68-0.77) and other adverse outcomes. The association was maintained across gestational ages and did not differ by fetal growth restriction diagnosis. Symmetric growth restriction was not associated with neonatal outcomes after standardizing for gestational age at birth.Increasing SGA severity had a significant impact on neonatal outcomes among very preterm infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41372-022-01544-w

    View details for PubMedID 36302849

  • Preterm twin gestation: The association between severity of small for gestational age and neonatal outcomes Miller, H. E., Sie, L., Minor, K. C., Bianco, K., Druzin, M. L., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: S391-S392
  • Does magnesium sulfate for hypertensive disease reduce the risk of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy? Minor, K. C., Liu, J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L., Profit, J., Hintz, S., Bonifacio, S., Leonard, S. A., Karakash, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: S526
  • Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: Do peripartum risk factors account for observed changes in incidence? Minor, K. C., Liu, J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L., Profit, J., Hintz, S., Bonifacio, S., Karakash, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: S210
  • Lessons learned in maternal cardiopulmonary arrest simulation: where should educational efforts be concentrated? Minor, K. C., Trepman, P., Miller, H. E., Judy, A., Arafeh, J., Jayaraman, T., Druzin, M. L., Harney, K. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: S718
  • Outcomes in pregnancies complicated by IUGR before 32 weeks: does the degree of SGA matter? Minor, K., Bianco, K., Sie, L., Druzin, M. L., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: S519