Clinical Focus

  • Maternal and Fetal Medicine

Professional Education

  • Fellowship: Stanford University Maternal Fetal Medicine Fellowship (2023) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology (2022)
  • Residency: University of Massachusetts GME Office (2020) MA
  • Medical Education: Tufts University School of Medicine (2016) MA

All Publications

  • Understanding the distinction between cleft lip and cleft palate: a critical step for successful prenatal detection. Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology Minor, K., Chueh, J. 2023


    Orofacial clefts (OCs) are among the most common congenital anomalies, however, prenatal detection of cleft palate without cleft lip (CP) remains low. CP is associated with a higher risk of associated structural anomalies, recurrence risk and genetic aberrations. There is opportunity to optimize prenatal diagnosis, counseling and diagnostic genetic testing for OCs.Improving prenatal diagnosis of CP requires understanding that embryologically, the secondary palate develops from the 6th to the 10th week and fuses with the primary palate by the 12th week. Multiple first, second and third trimester 2D ultrasonographic markers for OCs have been described including the maxillary gap, frontal space, maxilla-nasion-mandible angle, retronasal triangle, palatino-maxillary diameter, equal sign, nonvisualization or gap in the soft to hard palate interface and loss of the superimposed line. We discuss the technique, evidence and limitations of each.Prenatal detection of OC can be optimized by employing 2D sonographic markers. Prenatal detection of CP may be improved by recognizing its high association with retrognathia/micrognathia.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000852

    View details for PubMedID 36912278

  • In Virtual Simulation is Teaching to Fish Better Than Giving a Fish? Bianco, K., Minor, K., Schaffer, K., Sei, L., Mayo, J., Leonard, S. A., Daniels, K. SPRINGER HEIDELBERG. 2023: 215A-216A
  • A novel virtual simulation training improves providers' knowledge and confidence to manage obstetric emergencies Minor, K. C., Mayo, J. A., Bianco, K., Judy, A., Abir, G., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A., Sie, L., Ayotte, S., Daniels, K. I. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2023: S160
  • Severity of small-for-gestational-age and morbidity and mortality among very preterm neonates. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association Minor, K. C., Bianco, K., Sie, L., Druzin, M. L., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A. 2022


    Evaluate the association between small for gestational age (SGA) severity and morbidity and mortality in a contemporary, population of very preterm infants.This secondary analysis of a California statewide database evaluated singleton infants born during 2008-2018 at 24-32 weeks' gestation, with a birthweight <15th percentile. We analyzed neonatal outcomes in relation to weight for gestational age (WGA) and symmetry of growth restriction.An increase in WGA by one z-score was associated with decreased major morbidity or mortality risk (aRR 0.73, 95% CI 0.68-0.77) and other adverse outcomes. The association was maintained across gestational ages and did not differ by fetal growth restriction diagnosis. Symmetric growth restriction was not associated with neonatal outcomes after standardizing for gestational age at birth.Increasing SGA severity had a significant impact on neonatal outcomes among very preterm infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41372-022-01544-w

    View details for PubMedID 36302849

  • Preterm twin gestation: The association between severity of small for gestational age and neonatal outcomes Miller, H. E., Sie, L., Minor, K. C., Bianco, K., Druzin, M. L., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: S391-S392
  • Does magnesium sulfate for hypertensive disease reduce the risk of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy? Minor, K. C., Liu, J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L., Profit, J., Hintz, S., Bonifacio, S., Leonard, S. A., Karakash, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: S526
  • Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: Do peripartum risk factors account for observed changes in incidence? Minor, K. C., Liu, J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L., Profit, J., Hintz, S., Bonifacio, S., Karakash, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: S210
  • Lessons learned in maternal cardiopulmonary arrest simulation: where should educational efforts be concentrated? Minor, K. C., Trepman, P., Miller, H. E., Judy, A., Arafeh, J., Jayaraman, T., Druzin, M. L., Harney, K. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: S718
  • Outcomes in pregnancies complicated by IUGR before 32 weeks: does the degree of SGA matter? Minor, K., Bianco, K., Sie, L., Druzin, M. L., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: S519