Professional Education


  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of California San Francisco (2017)
  • B.A., Northwestern University, Biological Sciences (2010)

All Publications


  • Catalytic activation of beta-arrestin by GPCRs NATURE Eichel, K., Jullie, D., Barsi-Rhyne, B., Latorraca, N. R., Masureel, M., Sibarita, J., Dror, R. O., von Zastrow, M. 2018; 557 (7705): 381-+

    Abstract

    β-arrestins are critical regulator and transducer proteins for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). β-arrestin is widely believed to be activated by forming a stable and stoichiometric GPCR-β-arrestin scaffold complex, which requires and is driven by the phosphorylated tail of the GPCR. Here we demonstrate a distinct and additional mechanism of β-arrestin activation that does not require stable GPCR-β-arrestin scaffolding or the GPCR tail. Instead, it occurs through transient engagement of the GPCR core, which destabilizes a conserved inter-domain charge network in β-arrestin. This promotes capture of β-arrestin at the plasma membrane and its accumulation in clathrin-coated endocytic structures (CCSs) after dissociation from the GPCR, requiring a series of interactions with membrane phosphoinositides and CCS-lattice proteins. β-arrestin clustering in CCSs in the absence of the upstream activating GPCR is associated with a β-arrestin-dependent component of the cellular ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) response. These results delineate a discrete mechanism of cellular β-arrestin function that is activated catalytically by GPCRs.

    View details for PubMedID 29720660

  • Subcellular Organization of GPCR Signaling. Trends in pharmacological sciences Eichel, K., von Zastrow, M. 2018; 39 (2): 200–208

    Abstract

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large and diverse class of signal-transducing receptors that undergo dynamic and isoform-specific membrane trafficking. GPCRs thus have an inherent potential to initiate or regulate signaling reactions from multiple membrane locations. This review discusses emerging insights into the subcellular organization of GPCR function in mammalian cells, focusing on signaling transduced by heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestins. We summarize recent evidence indicating that GPCR-mediated activation of G proteins occurs not only from the plasma membrane (PM) but also from endosomes and Golgi membranes and that β-arrestin-dependent signaling can be transduced from the PM by β-arrestin trafficking to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) after dissociation from a ligand-activated GPCR.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tips.2017.11.009

    View details for PubMedID 29478570

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5830169

  • Phosphorylated EGFR Dimers Are Not Sufficient to Activate Ras. Cell reports Liang, S. I., van Lengerich, B., Eichel, K., Cha, M., Patterson, D. M., Yoon, T. Y., von Zastrow, M., Jura, N., Gartner, Z. J. 2018; 22 (10): 2593–2600

    Abstract

    Growth factor binding to EGFR drives conformational changes that promote homodimerization and transphosphorylation, followed by adaptor recruitment, oligomerization, and signaling through Ras. Whether specific receptor conformations and oligomerization states are necessary for efficient activation of Ras is unclear. We therefore evaluated the sufficiency of a phosphorylated EGFR dimer to activate Ras without growth factor by developing a chemical-genetic strategy to crosslink and "trap" full-length EGFR homodimers on cells. Trapped dimers become phosphorylated and recruit adaptor proteins at stoichiometry equivalent to that of EGF-stimulated receptors. Surprisingly, these phosphorylated dimers do not activate Ras, Erk, or Akt. In the absence of EGF, phosphorylated dimers do not further oligomerize or reorganize on cell membranes. These results suggest that a phosphorylated EGFR dimer loaded with core signaling adapters is not sufficient to activate Ras and that EGFR ligands contribute to conformational changes or receptor dynamics necessary for oligomerization and efficient signal propagation through the SOS-Ras-MAPK pathway.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.02.031

    View details for PubMedID 29514089

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5916813

  • An Approach to Spatiotemporally Resolve Protein Interaction Networks in Living Cells CELL Lobingier, B. T., Huttenhain, R., Eichel, K., Miller, K. B., Ting, A. Y., von Zastrow, M., Krogan, N. J. 2017; 169 (2): 350-360

    Abstract

    Cells operate through protein interaction networks organized in space and time. Here, we describe an approach to resolve both dimensions simultaneously by using proximity labeling mediated by engineered ascorbic acid peroxidase (APEX). APEX has been used to capture entire organelle proteomes with high temporal resolution, but its breadth of labeling is generally thought to preclude the higher spatial resolution necessary to interrogate specific protein networks. We provide a solution to this problem by combining quantitative proteomics with a system of spatial references. As proof of principle, we apply this approach to interrogate proteins engaged by G-protein-coupled receptors as they dynamically signal and traffic in response to ligand-induced activation. The method resolves known binding partners, as well as previously unidentified network components. Validating its utility as a discovery pipeline, we establish that two of these proteins promote ubiquitin-linked receptor downregulation after prolonged activation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2017.03.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398349500018

    View details for PubMedID 28388416

  • Genetic evidence that β-arrestins are dispensable for the initiation of β2-adrenergic receptor signaling to ERK. Science signaling O'Hayre, M., Eichel, K., Avino, S., Zhao, X., Steffen, D. J., Feng, X., Kawakami, K., Aoki, J., Messer, K., Sunahara, R., Inoue, A., von Zastrow, M., Gutkind, J. S. 2017; 10 (484)

    Abstract

    The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has provided a paradigm to elucidate how G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control intracellular signaling, including the discovery that β-arrestins, which bind to ligand-activated GPCRs, are central for GPCR function. We used genome editing, conditional gene deletion, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to determine the roles of β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1) and β-arr2 in β2AR internalization, trafficking, and signaling to ERK. We found that only β-arr2 was essential for β2AR internalization. Unexpectedly, β-arr1 and β-arr2 and receptor internalization were dispensable for ERK activation. Instead, β2AR signaled through Gαs and Gβγ subunits through a pathway that involved the tyrosine kinase SRC, the adaptor protein SHC, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS, the small GTPase RAS, and the kinases RAF and MEK, which led to ERK activation. These findings provide a molecular framework for β2AR signaling through β-arrestin-independent pathways in key physiological functions and under pathological conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scisignal.aal3395

    View details for PubMedID 28634209

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5751434

  • beta-Arrestin drives MAP kinase signalling from clathrin-coated structures after GPCR dissociation NATURE CELL BIOLOGY Eichel, K., Jullie, D., von Zastrow, M. 2016; 18 (3): 303-?

    Abstract

    β-Arrestins critically regulate G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling, not only 'arresting' the G protein signal but also modulating endocytosis and initiating a discrete G-protein-independent signal through MAP kinase. Despite enormous recent progress towards understanding biophysical aspects of arrestin function, arrestin cell biology remains relatively poorly understood. Two key tenets underlie the prevailing current view: β-arrestin accumulates in clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) exclusively in physical complex with its activating GPCR, and MAP kinase activation requires endocytosis of formed GPCR-β-arrestin complexes. We show here, using β1-adrenergic receptors, that β-arrestin-2 (arrestin 3) accumulates robustly in CCSs after dissociating from its activating GPCR and transduces the MAP kinase signal from CCSs. Moreover, inhibiting subsequent endocytosis of CCSs enhances the clathrin- and β-arrestin-dependent MAP kinase signal. These results demonstrate β-arrestin 'activation at a distance', after dissociating from its activating GPCR, and signalling from CCSs. We propose a β-arrestin signalling cycle that is catalytically activated by the GPCR and energetically coupled to the endocytic machinery.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncb3307

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371031300011

    View details for PubMedID 26829388

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4767649

  • Functional Conservation of Cis-Regulatory Elements of Heat-Shock Genes over Long Evolutionary Distances PLOS ONE He, Z., Eichel, K., Ruvinsky, I. 2011; 6 (7)

    Abstract

    Transcriptional control of gene regulation is an intricate process that requires precise orchestration of a number of molecular components. Studying its evolution can serve as a useful model for understanding how complex molecular machines evolve. One way to investigate evolution of transcriptional regulation is to test the functions of cis-elements from one species in a distant relative. Previous results suggested that few, if any, tissue-specific promoters from Drosophila are faithfully expressed in C. elegans. Here we show that, in contrast, promoters of fly and human heat-shock genes are upregulated in C. elegans upon exposure to heat. Inducibility under conditions of heat shock may represent a relatively simple "on-off" response, whereas complex expression patterns require integration of multiple signals. Our results suggest that simpler aspects of regulatory logic may be retained over longer periods of evolutionary time, while more complex ones may be diverging more rapidly.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0022677

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293172900066

    View details for PubMedID 21799932

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3143172