Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Cardiovascular Intensive Care
  • Pediatric Cardiology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology (2018)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (2018) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2016)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (2016) CA
  • Residency: UCSF Pediatric Residency (2011) CA
  • Medical Education: University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (2008) CA

All Publications


  • Fluid overload independent of acute kidney injury predicts poor outcomes in neonates following congenital heart surgery. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) Mah, K. E., Hao, S. n., Sutherland, S. M., Kwiatkowski, D. M., Axelrod, D. M., Almond, C. S., Krawczeski, C. D., Shin, A. Y. 2017

    Abstract

    Fluid overload (FO) is common after neonatal congenital heart surgery and may contribute to mortality and morbidity. It is unclear if the effects of FO are independent of acute kidney injury (AKI).This was a retrospective cohort study which examined neonates (age < 30 days) who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass in a university-affiliated children's hospital between 20 October 2010 and 31 December 2012. Demographic information, risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score, surgery type, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross-clamp time, and vasoactive inotrope score were recorded. FO [(fluid in-out)/pre-operative weight] and AKI defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria were calculated. Outcomes were all-cause, in-hospital mortality and median postoperative hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay.Overall, 167 neonates underwent cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass in the study period, of whom 117 met the inclusion criteria. Of the 117 neonates included in the study, 76 (65%) patients developed significant FO (>10%), and 25 (21%) developed AKI ≥ Stage 2. When analyzed as FO cohorts (< 10%,10-20%, > 20% FO), patients with greater FO were more likely to have AKI (9.8 vs. 18.2 vs. 52.4%, respectively, with AKI ≥ stage 2; p = 0.013) and a higher vasoactive-inotrope score, and be premature. In the multivariable regression analyses of patients without AKI, FO was independently associated with hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay [0.322 extra days (p = 0.029) and 0.468 extra days (p < 0.001), respectively, per 1% FO increase). In all patients, FO was also associated with mortality [odds ratio 1.058 (5.8% greater odds of mortality per 1% FO increase); 95% confidence interval 1.008,1.125;p = 0.032].Fluid overload is an important independent contributor to outcomes in neonates following congenital heart surgery. Careful fluid management after cardiac surgery in neonates with and without AKI is warranted.

    View details for PubMedID 29128923

  • The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players SLEEP Mah, C. D., Mah, K. E., Kezirian, E. J., Dement, W. C. 2011; 34 (7): 943-950

    Abstract

    To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness.Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years).Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2-4 week baseline followed by a 5-7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively.Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated a faster timed sprint following sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P < 0.001). Shooting accuracy improved, with free throw percentage increasing by 9% and 3-point field goal percentage increasing by 9.2% (P < 0.001). Mean PVT reaction time and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores decreased following sleep extension (P < 0.01). POMS scores improved with increased vigor and decreased fatigue subscales (P < 0.001). Subjects also reported improved overall ratings of physical and mental well-being during practices and games.Improvements in specific measures of basketball performance after sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance.

    View details for DOI 10.5665/SLEEP.1132

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292926500022

    View details for PubMedID 21731144

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3119836