Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Associate Program Director, Pediatric Critical Care Fellowship Program (2017 - Present)
  • Associate Program Director, Pediatric Residency Program (2017 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Teacher of the Year, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Program, Stanford University (2018)
  • Golden Apple Teaching Award-Selected by Pediatric Residents as Faculty Teacher of the Year, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University (2018)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Faculty, University of Michigan Masters of Health Professions Education Program (2018 - Present)
  • Member, Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) (2011 - Present)
  • Member, Society of Critical Care Medicine (2011 - Present)
  • Member, American Academy of Pediatrics (2008 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Residency:Stanford University Pediatric Residency (2011) CA
  • MHPE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Master's in Health Professions Education (2017)
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (2014)
  • Fellowship:University of Michigan Health System (2014) MI
  • Medical Education:Harvard Medical School (2008) MA

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (Fellowship Program)

All Publications


  • Evaluating Mortality Risk Adjustment Among Children Receiving Extracorporeal Support for Respiratory Failure. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) Barbaro, R. P., Boonstra, P. S., Kuo, K. W., Selewski, D. T., Bailly, D. K., Stone, C. L., Chow, C. Y., Annich, G. M., Moler, F. W., Paden, M. L. 2018

    Abstract

    This study evaluates whether three commonly used pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) severity of illness scores, pediatric risk of mortality score (PRISM) III, pediatric index of mortality (PIM) 2, and pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD), are the appropriate tools to discriminate mortality risk in children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for respiratory failure. This study also evaluates the ability of the Pediatric Risk Estimate Score for Children Using Extracorporeal Respiratory Support (Ped-RESCUERS) to discriminate mortality risk in the same population, and whether Ped-RESCUERS' discrimination of mortality is improved by additional clinical and laboratory measures of renal, hepatic, neurologic, and hematologic dysfunction. A multi-institutional retrospective cohort study was conducted on children aged 29 days to 17 years with respiratory failure requiring respiratory ECMO support. Discrimination of mortality was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC); model calibration was measured by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test and Brier score. Admission PRISM-III, PIM-2, and PELOD were found to have poor ability to discriminate mortality with an AUC of 0.56 [0.46-0.66], 0.53 [0.43-0.62], and 0.57 [0.47-0.67], respectively. Alternatively, Ped-RESCUERS performed better with an AUC of 0.68 [0.59-0.77]. Higher alanine aminotransferase, ratio of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen the fraction of inspired oxygen, and lactic acidosis were independently associated with mortality and, when added to Ped-RESCUERS, resulted in an AUC of 0.75 [0.66-0.82]. Admission PRISM-III, PIM-2, and PELOD should not be used for pre-ECMO risk adjustment because they do not discriminate death. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation population-derived scores should be used to risk adjust ECMO populations as opposed to general PICU population-derived scores.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000813

    View details for PubMedID 29746311

  • Should Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Be Offered? An International Survey JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Kuo, K. W., Barbaro, R. P., Gadepalli, S. K., Davis, M. M., Bartlett, R. H., Odetola, F. O. 2017; 182: 107-113

    Abstract

    To assess the current attitudes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) program directors regarding eligibility for ECMO among children with cardiopulmonary failure.Electronic cross-sectional survey of ECMO program directors at ECMO centers worldwide within the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization directory (October 2015-December 2015).Of 733 eligible respondents, 226 (31%) completed the survey, 65% of whom routinely cared for pediatric patients. There was wide variability in whether respondents would offer ECMO to any of the 5 scenario patients, ranging from 31% who would offer ECMO to a child with trisomy 18 to 76% who would offer ECMO to a child with prolonged cardiac arrest and indeterminate neurologic status. Even physicians practicing the same specialty sometimes held widely divergent opinions, with 50% of pediatric intensivists stating they would offer ECMO to a child with severe developmental delay and 50% stating they would not. Factors such as quality of life and neurologic status influenced decision making and were used to support decisions for and against offering ECMO.ECMO program directors vary widely in whether they would offer ECMO to various children with cardiopulmonary failure. This heterogeneity in physician decision making underscores the need for more evidence that could eventually inform interinstitutional guidelines regarding patient selection for ECMO.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.12.025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396252400019

    View details for PubMedID 28041665

  • The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease PERFUSION-UK Kuo, K. W., Cornell, T. T., Shanley, T. P., Odetola, F. O., Annich, G. M. 2013; 28 (5): 424-432

    Abstract

    Previous reports have described the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute chest syndrome of sickle cell disease (SCD). However, there have been no reports of venoarterial (VA) ECMO for cardiac dysfunction in patients with SCD. We describe a patient with SCD and life-threatening cardiogenic shock who was successfully treated with VA ECMO. Furthermore, SCD patients have unique comorbidities that warrant particular consideration when utilizing ECMO. We discuss these considerations and review the documented experience with ECMO for pediatric SCD patients from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry. From 1990 until 2012, 52% of the 65 pediatric patients with SCD placed on ECMO survived, with 85% of those receiving venovenous (VV) ECMO surviving and 43% of those receiving VA ECMO surviving. However, significant complications, such as bleeding, neurological injury and kidney injury, also occurred with both VV and VA ECMO. Ten percent of SCD patients receiving VA ECMO experienced either a cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; our patient suffered a cerebrovascular accident while on ECMO, though she survived with good neurologic outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pediatric patient with SCD and cardiogenic shock successfully managed with VA ECMO. In conjunction with the ELSO registry review, this case report suggests that, while VA ECMO can be successfully used in patients with SCD and severe cardiovascular dysfunction, clinicians should also be aware of the potential for serious complications in this high-risk population.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0267659113485873

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323311800009

    View details for PubMedID 23630196

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4414397

  • Early Outcomes After Extracardiac Conduit Fontan Operation Without Cardiopulmonary Bypass PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY McCammond, A. N., Kuo, K., Parikh, V. N., Abdullah, K., Balise, R., Hanley, F. L., Roth, S. J. 2012; 33 (7): 1078-1085

    Abstract

    Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. The authors hypothesized that avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass would lead to improved postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing the extracardiac Fontan operation, the final stage in surgical palliation of univentricular congenital heart defects. A review of the Children's Heart Center Database showed a total of 73 patients who underwent an initial Fontan operation at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford between 1 November 2001 and 1 November 2006. These patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 26) and those who avoided cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 47). Preoperative demographics, hemodynamics, and early postoperative outcomes were analyzed. The two groups had comparable preoperative demographic characteristics and hemodynamics except that the average weight of the off-bypass group was greater (17.9 ± 9.1 vs 14.2 ± 2.7 kg; P = 0.01). Intraoperatively, the off-bypass group trended toward a lower rate of Fontan fenestration (4.3 vs 19.2%; P = 0.09), had lower common atrial pressures (4.6 ± 1.4 vs 5.5 ± 1.5 mmHg; P = 0.05), and Fontan pressures (11.9 ± 2.1 vs 14.2 ± 2.4 mmHg; P ≤ 0.01), and required less blood product (59.1 ± 37.6 vs 91.9 ± 49.4 ml/kg; P ≤ 0.01). Postoperatively, there were no significant differences in hemodynamic parameters, postoperative colloid requirements, duration of mechanical ventilation, volume or duration of pleural drainage, or duration of cardiovascular intensive care unit or hospital stay. Avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass influenced intraoperative hemodynamics and the incidence of fenestration but did not have a significant impact on the early postoperative outcomes of children undergoing the Fontan procedure.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-012-0228-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308828200011

    View details for PubMedID 22349678

  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Acute Liver Injury from Ethanol Embolization of an Arteriovenous Malformation. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR Hage, A., Chick, J. F., Srinivasa, R. N., Kuo, K. W., Kohne, J. G., Campbell, A. D., Gemmete, J. J. 2018; 29 (3): 437–39

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2017.09.021

    View details for PubMedID 29455883

  • High-volume bilateral chylothorax presenting with hypoxemia and shock in a pediatric patient following tracheostomy revision: a case report. Journal of medical case reports Thatcher, A. L., Yu, J., Kuo, K. W. 2015; 9: 235-?

    Abstract

    Chylothorax is a rare complication of surgical neck dissection. This is the first reported pediatric case of bilateral chylothorax following cervical surgery and the first to occur after tracheoplasty. Chylothorax can lead to significant complications, including hypoxemia and shock, and requires timely treatment. This case report discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of our patient and reviews possible pathophysiologic mechanisms to explain the development of postoperative bilateral chylous effusions.An 18-month-old white baby girl with a complex past medical history including choanal atresia, atrioventricular septal defect, failure to thrive, developmental delay, and tracheostomy dependence developed significant hypoxemia and shock following a routine tracehostomy revision. She was subsequently found to have developed massive bilateral chylothorax, requiring escalation of mechanical ventilation, thoracostomy tube drainage, vasoactive support, and eventual surgical ligation of her thoracic duct.Massive bilateral chylothorax is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication following tracheoplasty. Clinicians caring for this patient population postoperatively should be aware of this potential complication and its management.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13256-015-0721-6

    View details for PubMedID 26493840

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4618843

  • Refractory hypoxemia caused by hepatopulmonary syndrome: a case report. Journal of medical case reports Govindan, M. L., Kuo, K. W., Mahani, M. G., Shanley, T. P. 2014; 8: 418-?

    Abstract

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a clinical syndrome that can affect patients of all ages with liver disease and is more common in children with biliary atresia. Contrast echocardiography is the test of choice to diagnose the presence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatation. The established treatment for hepatopulmonary syndrome is liver transplantation.We present the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian baby boy with a history of biliary atresia, polysplenia, and interrupted inferior vena cava who presented with hypoxemia and cyanosis that progressed rapidly. A chest computed tomography angiogram revealed significant dilatation of the pulmonary vasculature, prompting further evaluation and diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome with contrast echocardiography. He was maintained on a milrinone infusion while awaiting liver transplantation. His hypoxemia improved slowly following liver transplantation, requiring tracheostomy and prolonged ventilator dependence.Hepatopulmonary syndrome should be included in the differential for progressive hypoxemia in children with liver disease, particularly those with biliary atresia. Imaging with chest computed tomography angiogram and contrast echocardiography should be considered in cases of unexplained refractory hypoxemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1752-1947-8-418

    View details for PubMedID 25491238

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4295258