Dr. Bullock received her undergraduate degree with honors and distinction in physiology and psychology from the University of California, San Diego, Revelle College and her medical degree from George Washington University in Washington, DC. She completed an internship in internal medicine at Washington Hospital in D.C. and a psychiatry residency at Stanford University. She is a diplomat in the subspecialties of Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry and Lifestyle Medicine. She is currently appointed Clinical Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences within Stanford’s School of Medicine. Dr. Bullock is the founder and Director of Stanford's Neurobehavioral Clinic and Virtual Reality & Immersive Technologies (VRIT) program and laboratory. She also is a leader and pioneer in telehealth services using XR. She has published many peer-reviewed articles and is a Cambridge and Oxford Press author on the subject of functional neurological disorders. Her primary clinical research interest is exploring the use of technology for trauma treatment and psychiatric illnesses involving disruption of bodily perception and function. She is currently focused on the use and dissemination of immersive technologies for telepsychiatry as well as its use in augmentation of physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and skills acquisition. She treats a multitude of illness domains including trauma, phobias, anxiety, pain, mood disorders, and somatic symptom-related disorders. She also provides support and connects researchers, providers, and developers of immersive technology through the Stanford Psychiatry Immersive Technology Consortium (SPIT-C).
Dr. Bullock currently sees patients, teaches, and performs research. She takes a holistic, customized, and personal approach to each patient and encourages family and community involvement in the treatment process. She is intensively trained and teaches both cognitive behavior therapy and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). She runs weekly DBT groups for friends and family, neuropsychiatric patients, and DBT graduates as well as delivers individual comprehensive DBT and CBT and virtual reality psychotherapies. She presents and speaks on the subject of virtual reality, DBT, and Functional Neurological Disorder internationally and locally.
- Virtual Reality Treatment
- Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder
- Cognitive Behavior Therapy
- Dialectical Behavior Therapy
- Non-epileptic Seizures
- Conversion Disorder
- Emotion regulation
- Sensorymotor intervention
- Somatic Symptom Related Disorders
- XR- Mixed Reality
Clinical Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Director, Virtual Reality Clinic (2016 - Present)
Director, Neurobehavioral Clinic (2012 - Present)
Honors & Awards
Special Thanks and Recognition Award, Palo Alto Veterans Administration (July 1998)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Diplomat, American Board of Lifestyle Medicine (2017 - Present)
diplomat, United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties, Neurology & Neuropsychiatry (2012 - Present)
diplomat, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (2006 - Present)
Founder, Conversion/Functional Disorder Consortium (2012 - Present)
member, American Neuropsychiatric Association (2011 - Present)
Founder, Stanford Virtual Reality Therapy Consortium, (2016 - Present)
Board Certification: American Board of Lifestyle Medicine, Lifestyle Medicine
Internship: Medstar Health Washington Hospital Center Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency (1995) DC
Residency: Stanford University Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (2002) CA
Medical Education: George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences (1994) DC
Certification, American Board of Lifestyle Medicine, Lifestyle Medicine (2017)
Board Certification: United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties, Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry
Residency, Stanford University, Psychiatry (2002)
Internship, Washington Hospital Center, Internal Medicine (1995)
MD, George Washington University, Medicine (1994)
BA, University of California, Animal Physiology (1989)
BA, University of California, Psychology (1989)
Community and International Work
Physician Committe for Responsible Medicine
Plant based nutrition for health
Food for Life
Opportunities for Student Involvement
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
Opportunities for Student Involvement
Peninsula Community Services, San Mateo
families and patients with hoarding behaviors
Opportunities for Student Involvement
Physicians for Social Responsibility
Opportunities for Student Involvement
Team in Training- Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
blood and bonemarrow cancer
Opportunities for Student Involvement
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Director of Virtual Reality & Immersive Techology (VR-IT) Clinic and Lab.
Use of technology to understand the interaction of sensation, embodiment, and emotional/ behavioral regulation.
Virtual reality treatments as a sensory modulating device to treat disorders involving body image, sensation, and control. Exploration of the use of mirrored visual feedback while inhabiting a virtual avatar to treat pain and somatic symptom related disorders.
Embodied Virtual Reality Therapy for Functional Neurological Symptom/ Conversion Disorder
The purpose of this study is to design and test the safety and feasibility of virtual reality technologies and experiences of egocentric avatar embodiment in the application of physical and cognitive behavior therapy in functional neurological symptom/conversion disorder. Investigators hypothesize that patients will safely use and accept this modality of treatment and will show evidence of a decrease in symptom frequency.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kim Bullock, MD, 650-498-9111.
Virtual Reality Behavioral Activation: An Intervention for Major Depressive Disorder
The primary purpose of this study is to test the safety and feasibility of virtual reality (VR) technology in the use of behavioral activation (BA) as a treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). The secondary purpose of this study is to examine whether any evidence of clinical efficacy exists for VR delivered BA.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Margot Paul, M.S., 415-625-3127.
Independent Studies (5)
- Directed Reading in Psychiatry
PSYC 299 (Win, Spr)
- Graduate Research
PSYC 399 (Win, Spr)
- Medical Scholars Research
PSYC 370 (Win, Spr)
- Teaching in Psychiatry
PSYC 290 (Win, Spr)
- Undergraduate Research
PSYC 199 (Win, Spr)
- Directed Reading in Psychiatry
Graduate and Fellowship Programs
Virtual Reality Behavioral Activation for Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: Feasibility and Randomized Controlled Trial.
JMIR mental health
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a global crisis with increasing incidence and prevalence. There are many established evidence-based psychotherapies (EBP's) for depression, but numerous barriers still exist, most notably access and dissemination. Virtual reality (VR) may offer some solutions to existing constraints of EBP's for MDD.OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and tolerability of using VR as a method of delivering behavioral activation (BA) for adults diagnosed with MDD during a global pandemic. To explore for signs of clinical efficacy by comparing VR enhanced BA (VR BA) to (1) a standard BA treatment and (2) a treatment as usual (TAU) group for individuals diagnosed with MDD.METHODS: A feasibility trial using a three-armed, unblinded, randomized controlled pilot design was conducted. The study took place remotely via Zoom telehealth visits between April 8, 2020 and January 15, 2021. This study employed a three-week, four-session protocol, in which VR BA participants used a VR headset to complete their BA homework. Feasibility was measured by dropout rates, serious adverse events, completion of homework, an adapted telepresence scale, a simulator sickness questionnaire, a brief agitation measure, and an adapted technology acceptance model. Efficacy was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9).RESULTS: Of the 35 participants assessed for eligibility, 13 were randomized to VR BA (n=5), traditional BA (n=4), or a TAU control (n=4). The mean age of the 13 participants (5 male, 7 female, 1 non-binary/third gender) was 35.4 (SD = 12.3). This study demonstrated VR BA feasibility in subjects with MDD by documented high levels of acceptability and tolerability while engaging in VR induced pleasurable activities in conjunction with a brief BA protocol. No adverse events were reported. This study also illustrated that VR BA may have potential clinical utility for treating MDD, as the average VR BA participant's clinical severity decreased by 5.67 points, signifying a clinically meaningful change in severity from a moderate to a mild level of depression, as per PHQ-9 scoring.CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrate that VR BA is safe and feasible to explore for the treatment of MDD. This study documented evidence that VR BA may be efficacious, and it justifies examining further in an adequately powered RCT. This pilot highlights the potential utility that VR technology may offer patients with MDD, especially those who have difficulty accessing real-world pleasant activities. VR may also be a viable alternative to psychiatric medications for MDD, given its high tolerability and lack of side effects. Additionally, for those having difficulty accessing care, VR BA could be adapted as a first step to help people improve mood and increase motivation while waiting to connect with a healthcare professional for other EBP's.CLINICALTRIAL: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04268316.INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT: RR2-10.2196/24331.
View details for DOI 10.2196/35526
View details for PubMedID 35404830
Translating Virtual Reality Cue Exposure Therapy for Binge Eating into a Real-World Setting: An Uncontrolled Pilot Study.
Journal of clinical medicine
2021; 10 (7)
Binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have adverse psychological and medical consequences. Innovative interventions, like the integration of virtual reality (VR) with cue-exposure therapy (VR-CET), enhance outcomes for refractory patients compared to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of translating VR-CET into real-world settings. To investigate this question, adults previously treated for BED or BN with at least one objective or subjective binge episode/week were recruited from an outpatient university eating disorder clinic to receive up to eight weekly one-hour VR-CET sessions. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) eligible patients were enrolled; nine (82%) completed treatment; and 82% (9/11) provided follow-up data 7.1 (SD = 2.12) months post-treatment. Overall, participant and therapist acceptability of VR-CET was high. Intent-to-treat objective binge episodes (OBEs) decreased significantly from 3.3 to 0.9/week (p < 0.001). Post-treatment OBE 7-day abstinence rate for completers was 56%, with 22% abstinent for 28 days at follow-up. Among participants purging at baseline, episodes decreased from a mean of one to zero/week, with 100% abstinence maintained at follow-up. The adoption of VR-CET into real-world clinic settings appears feasible and acceptable, with a preliminary signal of effectiveness. Findings, including some loss of treatment gains during follow-up may inform future treatment development.
View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm10071511
View details for PubMedID 33916374
Embodied Virtual Reality Mirror Visual Feedback for an Adult with Cerebral Palsy
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
2021; 9 (2): 59-67
View details for DOI 10.11648/j.ajpn.20210902.16
COVID-19 and mental health: A review and the role of telehealth and virtual reality.
2020; 6 (2): 53-66
On March 12, 2020, with more than 20,000 confirmed cases and almost 1000 deaths in the European Region, the World Health Organization classified the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic. As of August 15, 2020, there are 21.5 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and over 766,000 deaths from the virus, worldwide. Most governments have imposed quarantine measures of varied degrees of strictness on their populations in attempts to stall the spread of the infection in their communities. However, the isolation may have inflicted long-term psychological injury to the general population and, in particular, to at-risk groups such as the elderly, the mentally ill, children, and frontline healthcare staff. In this article, we offer the most up-to-date review of the effects of COVID-19 confinement on all the disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. We make data-driven predictions of the impact of COVID-19 confinement on mental health outcomes and discuss the potential role of telemedicine and virtual reality in mental health screening, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring, thus improving the above outcomes in such a difficult time.
View details for DOI 10.4103/digm.digm_22_20
View details for PubMedID 35663234
Bringing Virtual Reality From Clinical Trials to Clinical Practice for the Treatment of Eating Disorders: An Example Using Virtual Reality Cue Exposure Therapy.
Journal of medical Internet research
2020; 22 (4): e16386
Novel treatment options for eating disorders (EDs) are critically needed to enhance treatment outcomes and reduce the rates of treatment dropouts. On average, only 50% of individuals receiving evidence-based care remit, whereas 24% drop out before treatment completion. One particularly promising direction involves integrating virtual reality (VR) with existing evidence-based treatments (EBTs) such as cue exposure therapy (CET). Across psychiatric disorders, VR-based interventions are demonstrating at least preliminary efficacy and noninferiority to traditional treatments. Furthermore, VR technology has become increasingly portable, resulting in improved acceptance, increased access, and reductions in cost. However, more efficient research processes may be needed to uncover the potential benefits of these rapid technological advances. This viewpoint paper reviews existing empirical support for integrating VR with EBTs (with a focus on its use with EDs) and proposes key next steps to more rapidly bring this innovative technology-based intervention into real-world clinic settings, as warranted. VR-CET for EDs is used to illustrate a suggested process for developing such treatment enhancements. We recommend following a deployment-focused model of intervention development and testing to enable rapid implementation of robust, practice-ready treatments. In addition, our review highlights the need for a comprehensive clinical protocol that supports clinicians and researchers in the implementation and testing of VR-CET and identifies key missing protocol components with rationale for their inclusion. Ultimately, this work may lead to a more complete understanding of the full potential of the applications and integrations of VR into mental health care globally.
View details for DOI 10.2196/16386
View details for PubMedID 32324145
Case Report: Virtual Reality Behavioral Activation as an Intervention for Major Depressive Disorder.
JMIR mental health
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a global problem with an increasing incidence and prevalence. There has additionally been an increase in depression due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Behavioral activation is considered an evidence-based treatment for MDD. However, there are many barriers that could hinder one's ability to engage in behavioral activation, with COVID-19 "shelter-in-place" and social distancing orders being current and large impediments. Virtual reality has been successfully used to help treat a variety of mental health conditions, but it has not yet been used as a method of administering behavioral activation to a clinical population. Using virtual reality to engage in behavioral activation could eliminate barriers that pandemic precautions place and help decrease symptoms of depression that are especially exacerbated in these times.The following case report examines the feasibility, acceptability, and tolerability of virtual reality behavioral activation for an adult with MDD during a global pandemic. This participant was part of a larger pilot study and the case serves as a description of the VR intervention.The participant engaged in a weekly 50-minute psychotherapy Zoom session for four weeks, in which a modified behavioral activation protocol was administered using a virtual reality headset. Data on mood ratings, homework compliance, and headset use were obtained from the headset. Acceptability, tolerability, and depression symptoms were obtained using self-report rating scales.The intervention was feasible, acceptable, and tolerable, as reported by this participant. The participant's depressive symptoms decreased by five-points on the PHQ-9 over a month, with a beginning score of a 10 (moderate depression) and a final score of a 5 (mild depression).The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04268316.
View details for DOI 10.2196/24331
View details for PubMedID 33031046
Virtual Reality-Delivered Mirror Visual Feedback and Exposure Therapy for FND: A Midpoint Report of a Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study.
The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide preliminary feasibility, safety, and efficacy data for a personalized virtual reality-delivered mirror visual feedback (VR-MVF) and exposure therapy (VR-ET) intervention for functional neurological disorder (FND).METHODS: Midpoint results of a single-blind, randomized controlled pilot are presented. Fourteen adults were randomly assigned to eight weekly 30-minute VR sessions-seven in the treatment arm and seven in the control arm. The treatment arm consisted of an immersive avatar-embodied VR-MVF treatment, plus optional weekly VR-ET starting at session 4 if participants had identifiable FND triggers. The control arm received equally immersive nonembodied sessions involving exploration of a virtual interactive space. Feasibility was measured by acceptability of randomization, completion rates, side effects, adverse events, and integrity of blinding procedures. Exploratory primary and secondary outcome measures were weekly symptom frequency and the Oxford Handicap Scale, respectively.RESULTS: Two early dropouts occurred in the treatment arm, resulting in an 86% completion rate (N=12/14). No side effects or adverse events were reported. Blind assessment at study end indicated that two of the seven treatment arm and three of the seven control arm participants incorrectly guessed their assignment. Changes in mean symptom frequency and disability were reported, but data will not be statistically analyzed until study end.CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report on MVF and VR for treatment of FND. Results generated thus far support feasibility and justify continuation of the study and further investigation into the efficacy of VR interventions for FND.
View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.19030071
View details for PubMedID 31687867
Recommendations for Methodology of Virtual Reality Clinical Trials in Health Care by an International Working Group: Iterative Study.
JMIR mental health
2019; 6 (1): e11973
Therapeutic virtual reality (VR) has emerged as an efficacious treatment modality for a wide range of health conditions. However, despite encouraging outcomes from early stage research, a consensus for the best way to develop and evaluate VR treatments within a scientific framework is needed.We aimed to develop a methodological framework with input from an international working group in order to guide the design, implementation, analysis, interpretation, and communication of trials that develop and test VR treatments.A group of 21 international experts was recruited based on their contributions to the VR literature. The resulting Virtual Reality Clinical Outcomes Research Experts held iterative meetings to seek consensus on best practices for the development and testing of VR treatments.The interactions were transcribed, and key themes were identified to develop a scientific framework in order to support best practices in methodology of clinical VR trials. Using the Food and Drug Administration Phase I-III pharmacotherapy model as guidance, a framework emerged to support three phases of VR clinical study designs-VR1, VR2, and VR3. VR1 studies focus on content development by working with patients and providers through the principles of human-centered design. VR2 trials conduct early testing with a focus on feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and initial clinical efficacy. VR3 trials are randomized, controlled studies that evaluate efficacy against a control condition. Best practice recommendations for each trial were provided.Patients, providers, payers, and regulators should consider this best practice framework when assessing the validity of VR treatments.
View details for DOI 10.2196/11973
View details for PubMedID 30702436
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6374734
SUPERVISION IN PSYCHIATRIC PRACTICE: PRACTICAL APPROACHES ACROSS VENUES AND PROVIDERS
View details for Web of Science ID 000550978200007
Key Considerations for Incorporating Conversational AI in Psychotherapy.
Frontiers in psychiatry
2019; 10: 746
Conversational artificial intelligence (AI) is changing the way mental health care is delivered. By gathering diagnostic information, facilitating treatment, and reviewing clinician behavior, conversational AI is poised to impact traditional approaches to delivering psychotherapy. While this transition is not disconnected from existing professional services, specific formulations of clinician-AI collaboration and migration paths between forms remain vague. In this viewpoint, we introduce four approaches to AI-human integration in mental health service delivery. To inform future research and policy, these four approaches are addressed through four dimensions of impact: access to care, quality, clinician-patient relationship, and patient self-disclosure and sharing. Although many research questions are yet to be investigated, we view safety, trust, and oversight as crucial first steps. If conversational AI isn't safe it should not be used, and if it isn't trusted, it won't be. In order to assess safety, trust, interfaces, procedures, and system level workflows, oversight and collaboration is needed between AI systems, patients, clinicians, and administrators.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00746
View details for PubMedID 31681047
Training in Treatment of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures
GATES AND ROWAN'S NONEPILEPTIC SEIZURES, 4TH EDITION
View details for Web of Science ID 000606976000034
Group Treatments for Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures
GATES AND ROWAN'S NONEPILEPTIC SEIZURES, 4TH EDITION
View details for Web of Science ID 000606976000032
- Psychiatric Factors in Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures: Towards the Integration of Care edited by Dworetzky, B., Baslet, G. Oxford University Press. 2017; 1
- Group Psychotherapy Treatment for Psychogentic Nonepileptic Seizures Gates and Rowan’s Non-Epileptic Seizures edited by Schachter, S. C., LaFrance, C. Cambridge Press. 2017; 4
Documentation Bias in Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: Comparing the Prevalence and Documentation of Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder and Parkinson's Disease
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2016
View details for Web of Science ID 000411328602166
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Presenting as Gender Dysphoria/Gender Incongruence: A Case Report and Literature Review
AACE Clinical Case Reports
2016; Summer 2016, 2 (3): e268-e271
View details for DOI 10.4158/EP161223.CR
Group Dialectical-Behavior Therapy Skills Training for Conversion Disorder With Seizures.
journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
2015; 27 (3): 240-243
Neuroimaging evidence suggests deficits in affective regulation in conversion disorder (CD). Dialectical-behavior therapy skills training (DBT-ST) was developed to target emotion dysregulation. This study was aimed to test the feasibility of stand-alone DBT-ST for CD using Linehan's manual for borderline personality disorder. In a prospective naturalistic design, 19 adult outpatients diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed seizure type CD were recruited and received weekly group DBT. Seventeen out of 19 subjects finished an average of 20.5 weeks of treatment. The mean seizure rate decreased by 66%. Cessation of seizures occurred in 35% of the sample. Completion rates reached 90%.
View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.13120359
View details for PubMedID 25959039
Ethical Considerations in Caring for People Living with Addictions
APPLIED ETHICS IN MENTAL HEALTH CARE: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY READER
View details for Web of Science ID 000327644300020
- Ethical Considerations in Caring for People Living with Addiction Applied Ethics in Mental Health Care, An Interdisciplinary Reader MIT Press. 2013
- Ethics Commentary: Ethical Considerations in Caring for People Living With Addictions Focus 2011; 9: 66-69
- Group Psychotherapy Treatment for Psychogentic Nonepileptic Seizures Gates and Rowan’s Non-Epileptic Seizures, Third Edition Cambridge University Press. 2010; 3rd
Group therapy for patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: A pilot study
58th Annual Meeting of the American-Epilepsy-Society
ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2008: 624–29
Great advances have been made in the diagnosis of people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) since the advent of video/EEG monitoring. However, treatment options for this population have lagged significantly. This pilot study was undertaken to evaluate whether group therapy done with a psychodynamic focus would offer a useful intervention. Twelve patients entered the study and seven completed at least 75% of the 32 weekly sessions. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Global Severity Index of the Symptom Checklist-90 showed improvement as well as an overall decrease in PNES frequency. The data suggest that group therapy focusing on interpersonal issues may benefit patients with PNES.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.06.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000260701500008
View details for PubMedID 18621147
Double-blind treatment with oral morphine in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY
2005; 66 (3): 353-359
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often responds inadequately to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). A case series reported substantial response to once-weekly oral morphine. We conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to investigate whether once-weekly oral morphine is effective in SRI-resistant OCD.Subjects with DSM-IV-defined OCD for > or =3 years who had failed > or =2 adequate SRI trials and had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of > or =20 were recruited. Current medications were continued. Subjects were randomly assigned to random-order, 2-week blocks of once-weekly morphine, lorazepam, and placebo. Week 2 dosage was increased, decreased, or maintained depending on response and side effects.We enrolled 23 subjects, who had failed 2 to 6 SRI trials. The median screening Y-BOCS score was 29. The median Y-BOCS score after morphine (highest dose) was 25 (median decrease = 13%). Seven subjects (30%) were responders (Y-BOCS decreases > or =25%). The median Y-BOCS score after lorazepam (highest dose) was 27 (median decrease = 6%). Four subjects (17%) responded to lorazepam; 1 was a morphine responder. The median Y-BOCS score after placebo (highest dose) was 27 (median decrease = 7%), and no subject responded. Responses differed significantly among the 3 conditions (Friedman 2-way analysis of variance, chir(2) = 13.92, df = 2, p = .01). Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests (T = 56.5, p = .05) showed significance for morphine versus placebo but not lorazepam versus placebo.Our results support the hypothesis that once-weekly oral morphine can reduce symptoms in some treatment-resistant OCD patients. The mechanism of action is unknown. Further studies of mu-agonists and glutamate antagonists are warranted.
View details for PubMedID 15766302
Current status of the utilization of antiepileptic treatments in mood, anxiety and aggression: Drugs and devices
CLINICAL EEG AND NEUROSCIENCE
2004; 35 (1): 4-13
Interventions that have been utilized to control seizures in people with epilepsy have been employed by the psychiatric community to treat a variety of disorders. The purpose of this review will be to give an overview of the most prominent uses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and devices like the Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of psychiatric disease states. By far, the most prevalent use of these interventions is in the treatment of mood disorders. AEDs have become a mainstay in the effective treatment of Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of valproic acid for acute mania, and lamotrigine for BAD maintenance therapy. AEDs are also effectively employed in the treatment of anxiety and aggressive disorders. Finally, VNS and TMS are emerging as possibly useful tools in the treatment of more refractory depressive illness.
View details for Web of Science ID 000223764000002
View details for PubMedID 15112459
- Group psychotherpy for patients with non-epileptic seizures: a pilot study (abstract). Epilepsia 2004; 45 (Suppl. 7): 57-8
Citalopram for compulsive shopping disorder: An open-label study followed by double-blind discontinuation
40th Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology
PHYSICIANS POSTGRADUATE PRESS. 2003: 793–98
Open-label trials suggested that fluvoxamine and citalopram may be effective for compulsive shopping disorder, but 2 double-blind fluvoxamine trials failed to confirm this. To test the hypothesis that citalopram is a safe, effective treatment for this disorder, we conducted a 7-week, open-label trial followed by a 9-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled discontinuation trial.From Jan. 2001 to Jan. 2002, we enrolled adult outpatients meeting diagnostic criteria suggested in a prior study for compulsive shopping disorder and having a score of >/= 17 on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV). Open-label citalopram was started at 20 mg/day and increased, absent marked response and limiting side effects, to 60 mg/day. Responders (subjects rated "much improved" or "very much improved" on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale [CGI-I] and having a >/= 50% decrease in YBOCS-SV score) were randomized to double-blind citalopram treatment at the week 7 dose or placebo for 9 weeks.We enrolled 24 subjects (23 women and 1 man). Mean +/- SD YBOCS-SV scores decreased significantly from 24.3 +/- 4.6 at baseline to 8.2 +/- 8.1 at week 7 (Wilcoxon signed rank: z = 4.20, p <.001). Fifteen of 24 subjects (63%) met the responder criteria. Three subjects (13%) discontinued for adverse events (1 each for headache, rash, and insomnia). Of the 15 responders who entered the double-blind treatment phase, 5 of 8 (63%) randomized to placebo relapsed (YBOCS-SV score >/= 17 and "minimally improved" or less on the CGI-I) compared with none of 7 randomized to continue taking citalopram (Fisher exact test p =.019).Citalopram appears to be a safe and effective treatment for compulsive shopping disorder. Further trials of citalopram and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are warranted.
View details for Web of Science ID 000184233600009
View details for PubMedID 12934980
- Psychopharmacology of compulsive buying Drugs of Today 2003; 39 (9): 695-700
Citalopram treatment of compulsive shopping: An open-label study
41st Annual Meeting of the New-Clinical-Drug-Evaluation-Unit
PHYSICIANS POSTGRADUATE PRESS. 2002: 704–8
Compulsive shopping, a DSM-IV impulse-control disorder not otherwise specified, is characterized by preoccupation with shopping and inability to resist buying unneeded items, with resulting marked distress, social or occupational impairment, and financial and/or familial problems. Because an open-label trial suggested that fluovaxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is effective for this disorder, we tested the effectiveness of the SSRI citalopram.We enrolled adults meeting formal diagnostic criteria (as defined by McElroy and colleagues) in a 12-week open-label trial. We excluded subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, substance abuse or dependence, or psychotic disorders. Citalopram treatment was begun at 20 mg/day and increased every 2 weeks by 20 mg/day, absent marked response and limiting side effects, to 60 mg/day. At endpoint, all subjects were asked to give written informed consent for follow-up telephone interviews at 3-month intervals for 12 months.We enrolled 24 subjects, 22 women and 2 men, whose mean +/- SD age was 43.7 +/- 8.1 years; most had been shopping compulsively for 2 decades or more. Citalopram (mean +/- SD endpoint dose = 35.4 +/- 21.4 mg/day) produced rapid, marked, sustained improvements on both the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale in subjects with and without comorbid conditions. Seventeen subjects (71%) were responders, achieving ratings of much or very much improved on the CGI-I, including 2 of the 3 subjects who discontinued for adverse events (sedation or agitation). During a 6-month follow-up period, those continuing citalopram therapy were less likely to relapse than those discontinuing the medication.Citalopram appears to be a safe and effective treatment for compulsive shopping. Acute and long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of citalopram and other SSRIs for the treatment of this disorder are indicated.
View details for PubMedID 12197451
REDUCED MORTALITY RISK IN ALCOHOLICS WHO ACHIEVE LONG-TERM ABSTINENCE
JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
1992; 267 (5): 668-672
To determine if alcoholic men who achieved stable abstinence experienced fewer deaths than those who relapsed and to develop a model predictive of premature mortality.A cohort of alcoholic men recruited into a prospective study of neurocognitive effects of alcoholism was followed up from 1 through 11 years. A demographically equated group of nonalcoholic men was also followed up. Alcoholics were classified as stable abstainers or relapsers.Alcoholics were patients or ex-patients from a Department of Veterans Affairs Alcoholism Treatment Program and/or members of local chapters of Alcoholics Anonymous.There were 234 alcoholic men who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, criteria for alcohol dependence. Follow-up status regarding relapse and mortality was obtained for 199 alcoholic subjects (85%). Of these, 101 had relapsed and 98 had abstained. Ninety-eight nonalcoholic controls equated for age, education, and sex also participated. Mortality status was obtained for 92 subjects in this group (94%).Major medical and psychiatric illness and history of nonalcoholic drug abuse.Death during a follow-up period of 1 through 11 years. Death was ascertained through the National Death Index, the California State Department of Health and Vital Statistics, the State Department of Motor Vehicles, and through personal contact with informants, relatives, and significant others of the subjects.There were 19 deaths among relapsed alcoholics compared with the expected number of 3.83 (99% confidence interval (CI), 9.64 to 33.38). Among abstinent alcoholics there were four deaths (expected = 3.21; 99% CI, 0.67 to 12.59). The standardized mortality ratio for relapsed alcoholics was 4.96, which significantly exceeded the expected ratio (P less than .001), whereas the standardized mortality ratio for abstinent alcoholics (1.25) was indistinguishable from the expected. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to determine if any of several demographic, medical, cognitive, or drinking history variables (in addition to relapse) helped predict mortality among alcoholics. Only relapse was significantly related to increased mortality (chi 2 = 9.15, P = .003).Alcoholic men who achieve stable abstinence do not differ from nonalcoholic men in mortality experience; however, alcoholics who relapse die at a rate 4.96 times that of an age-, sex-, and race-matched representative sample from the US Bureau of the Census.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HB35400023
View details for PubMedID 1731133