- Emergency Medicine
Clinical Assistant Professor, Emergency Medicine
Emergency Medicine Director of Simulation, Dept. of Emergency Medicine (2019 - Present)
Emergency Medicine Simulation Fellowship Director, Dept. of Emergency Medicine (2016 - Present)
Honors & Awards
Outstanding Educator Award, Stanford Department of Emergency Medicine (2019)
Quarterly Bedside Teaching Award, Stanford-Kaiser Emergency Medicine Residency Program (2011)
Bedside Teaching Award, Stanford-Kaiser Emergency Medicine Residency Program (2014)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Fellow, American College of Emergency Physicians (2012 - Present)
Member, Fellowship Approval Committee, Society for Academic Emergency medicine (2018 - Present)
Board of Directors, Simulation Academy, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (2017 - 2019)
Residency: Stanford University Medical Center (2008) CA
Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2009)
Medical Education: Pennsylvania State University (2005) PA
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Interests include simulation for resident education, crisis management and behavior modification.
Undergraduate Classes - Introduction to the Management of the Ill Patient, Stanford University School of Medicine
Applying Educational Theory and Best Practices to Solve Common Challenges of Simulation-based Procedural Training in Emergency Medicine.
AEM education and training
2020; 4 (Suppl 1): S22–S39
Objectives: Procedural competency is an essential prerequisite for the independent practice of emergency medicine. Multiple studies demonstrate that simulation-based procedural training (SBPT) is an effective method for acquiring and maintaining procedural competency and preferred over traditional paradigms ("see one, do one, teach one"). Although newer paradigms informing SBPT have emerged, educators often face circumstances that challenge and undermine their implementation.The goal of this paper is to identify and report on best practices and theory-supported solutions to some of these challenges as derived using a process of expert consensus building and reviews of the existing literature on SBPT.Methods: The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Simulation Academy SBPT Workgroup convened approximately 8 months prior to the 2019 SAEM Annual Meeting to perform a review of the literature and participate in a consensus-building process to identify solutions (in the form of best practices and educational theory) to these challenges faced by educators engaging in SBPT.Results and Analysis: Thirteen distinct educational challenges to SBPT emerged from the expert group's primary literature reviews and consensus-building processes. Three domains emerged upon further analysis of the 13 challenges: learner, educator, and curriculum. Six challenges within the "learner" domain were selected for comprehensive discussion in this paper, as they were deemed representative of the most common and most significant threats to ideal SBPT. Each of the six challenges aligns with one of the following themes: 1) maximizing active learning, 2) maintaining learner engagement, 3) embracing learner diversity, 4) optimizing cognitive load, 5) promoting mindfulness and reflection, and 6) emphasizing deliberate practice for mastery learning. Over 20 "special treatments" for mitigating the impact of the 13 challenges were derived from the secondary literature search and consensus-building process prior to and during the preconference workshop; 11 of these that best address the six learner-centered challenges are explored, including implications for educators involved in SBPT.Conclusions/Implications for Educators: We propose multiple consensus-generated solutions (in the form of best practices and applied educational theory) that we believe are suitable and well aligned to overcome commonly encountered learner-centered challenges and threats to optimal SBPT.
View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10418
View details for PubMedID 32072105
Mastery Learning Ensures Correct Personal Protective Equipment Use in Simulated Clinical Encounters of COVID-19.
The western journal of emergency medicine
2020; 21 (5): 1089–94
The correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE) limits transmission of serious communicable diseases to healthcare workers, which is critically important in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, prior studies illustrated that healthcare workers frequently err during application and removal of PPE. The goal of this study was to determine whether a simulation-based, mastery learning intervention with deliberate practice improves correct use of PPE by physicians during a simulated clinical encounter with a COVID-19 patient.This was a pretest-posttest study performed in the emergency department at a large, academic tertiary care hospital between March 31-April 8, 2020. A total of 117 subjects participated, including 56 faculty members and 61 resident physicians. Prior to the intervention, all participants received institution-mandated education on PPE use via an online video and supplemental materials. Participants completed a pretest skills assessment using a 21-item checklist of steps to correctly don and doff PPE. Participants were expected to meet a minimum passing score (MPS) of 100%, determined by an expert panel using the Mastery Angoff and Patient Safety standard-setting techniques. Participants that met the MPS on pretest were exempt from the educational intervention. Testing occurred before and after an in-person demonstration of proper donning and doffing techniques and 20 minutes of deliberate practice. The primary outcome was a change in assessment scores of correct PPE use following our educational intervention. Secondary outcomes included differences in performance scores between faculty members and resident physicians, and differences in performance during donning vs doffing sequences.All participants had a mean pretest score of 73.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70.9-75.3%). Faculty member and resident pretest scores were similar (75.1% vs 71.3%, p = 0.082). Mean pretest doffing scores were lower than donning scores across all participants (65.8% vs 82.8%, p<0.001). Participant scores increased 26.9% (95% CI of the difference 24.7-29.1%, p<0.001) following our educational intervention resulting in all participants meeting the MPS of 100%.A mastery learning intervention with deliberate practice ensured the correct use of PPE by physician subjects in a simulated clinical encounter of a COVID-19 patient. Further study of translational outcomes is needed.
View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2020.6.48132
View details for PubMedID 32970559
Disaster Medicine: A Multi-Modality Curriculum Designed and Implemented for Emergency Medicine Residents.
Disaster medicine and public health preparedness
2016; 10 (4): 611-614
Few established curricula are available for teaching disaster medicine. We describe a comprehensive, multi-modality approach focused on simulation to teach disaster medicine to emergency medicine residents in a 3-year curriculum.Residents underwent a 3-year disaster medicine curriculum incorporating a variety of venues, personnel, and roles. The curriculum included classroom lectures, tabletop exercises, virtual reality simulation, high-fidelity simulation, hospital disaster drills, and journal club discussion. All aspects were supervised by specialty emergency medicine faculty and followed a structured debriefing. Residents rated the high-fidelity simulations by using a 10-point Likert scale.Three classes of emergency medicine residents participated in the 3-year training program. Residents found the exercise to be realistic, educational, and relevant to their practice. After participating in the program, residents felt better prepared for future disasters.Given the large scope of impact that disasters potentiate, it is understandably difficult to teach these skills effectively. Training programs can utilize this simulation-based curriculum to better prepare the nation's emergency medicine physicians for future disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;0:1-4).
View details for DOI 10.1017/dmp.2016.8
View details for PubMedID 27040319