Can static optimization detect changes in peak medial knee contact forces induced by gait modifications?
Journal of biomechanics
2023; 152: 111569
Medial knee contact force (MCF) is related to the pathomechanics of medial knee osteoarthritis. However, MCF cannot be directly measured in the native knee, making it difficult for therapeutic gait modifications to target this metric. Static optimization, a musculoskeletal simulation technique, can estimate MCF, but there has been little work validating its ability to detect changes in MCF induced by gait modifications. In this study, we quantified the error in MCF estimates from static optimization compared to measurements from instrumented knee replacements during normal walking and seven different gait modifications. We then identified minimum magnitudes of simulated MCF changes for which static optimization correctly identified the direction of change (i.e., whether MCF increased or decreased) at least 70% of the time. A full-body musculoskeletal model with a multi-compartment knee and static optimization was used to estimate MCF. Simulations were evaluated using experimental data from three subjects with instrumented knee replacements who walked with various gait modifications for a total of 115 steps. Static optimization underpredicted the first peak (mean absolute error = 0.16 bodyweights) and overpredicted the second peak (mean absolute error = 0.31 bodyweights) of MCF. Average root mean square error in MCF over stance phase was 0.32 bodyweights. Static optimization detected the direction of change with at least 70% accuracy for early-stance reductions, late-stance reductions, and early-stance increases in peak MCF of at least 0.10 bodyweights. These results suggest that a static optimization approach accurately detects the direction of change in early-stance medial knee loading, potentially making it a valuable tool for evaluating the biomechanical efficacy of gait modifications for knee osteoarthritis.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2023.111569
View details for PubMedID 37058768
Changes in foot progression angle during gait reduce the knee adduction moment and do not increase hip moments in individuals with knee osteoarthritis.
Journal of biomechanics
2022; 141: 111204
People with knee osteoarthritis who adopt a modified foot progression angle (FPA) during gait often benefit from a reduction in the knee adduction moment. It is unknown, however, whether changes in the FPA increase hip moments, a surrogate measure of hip loading, which will increase the mechanical demand on the joint. This study examined how altering the FPA affects hip moments. Individuals with knee osteoarthritis walked on an instrumented treadmill with their baseline gait, 10° toe-in gait, and 10° toe-out gait. A musculoskeletal modeling package was used to compute joint moments from the experimental data. Fifty participants were selected from a larger study who reduced their peak knee adduction moment with a modified FPA. In this group, participants reduced the first peak of the knee adduction moment by 7.6% with 10° toe-in gait and reduced the second peak by 11.0% with 10° toe-out gait. Modifying the FPA reduced the early-stance hip abduction moment, at the time of peak hip contact force, by 4.3% ± 1.3% for 10° toe-in gait (p = 0.005, d = 0.49) and by 4.6% ± 1.1% for 10° toe-out gait (p < 0.001, d = 0.59) without increasing the flexion and internal rotation moments (p > 0.15). Additionally, 74% of individuals reduced their total hip moment at time of peak hip contact force with a modified FPA. In summary, when adopting a FPA modification that reduced the knee adduction moment, participants, on average, did not increase surrogate measures of hip loading.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2022.111204
View details for PubMedID 35772243
Assessing inertial measurement unit locations for freezing of gait detection and patient preference.
Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation
2022; 19 (1): 20
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait, a common symptom of Parkinson's disease, presents as sporadic episodes in which an individual's feet suddenly feel stuck to the ground. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) promise to enable at-home monitoring and personalization of therapy, but there is a lack of consensus on the number and location of IMUs for detecting freezing of gait. The purpose of this study was to assess IMU sets in the context of both freezing of gait detection performance and patient preference.METHODS: Sixteen people with Parkinson's disease were surveyed about sensor preferences. Raw IMU data from seven people with Parkinson's disease, wearing up to eleven sensors, were used to train convolutional neural networks to detect freezing of gait. Models trained with data from different sensor sets were assessed for technical performance; a best technical set and minimal IMU set were identified. Clinical utility was assessed by comparing model- and human-rater-determined percent time freezing and number of freezing events.RESULTS: The best technical set consisted of three IMUs (lumbar and both ankles, AUROC=0.83), all of which were rated highly wearable. The minimal IMU set consisted of a single ankle IMU (AUROC=0.80). Correlations between these models and human raters were good to excellent for percent time freezing (ICC=0.93, 0.89) and number of freezing events (ICC=0.95, 0.86) for the best technical set and minimal IMU set, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Several IMU sets consisting of three IMUs or fewer were highly rated for both technical performance and wearability, and more IMUs did not necessarily perform better in FOG detection. We openly share our data and software to further the development and adoption of a general, open-source model that uses raw signals and a standard sensor set for at-home monitoring of freezing of gait.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12984-022-00992-x
View details for PubMedID 35152881