Honors & Awards

  • Joshua Lederberg Award for Academic Excellence in Human Biology, Stanford University (2018)
  • Firestone Medal for Excellence in Undergraduate Research, Stanford University (2018)
  • Dean’s Award for Academic Achievement, Stanford University (2018)

Education & Certifications

  • Bachelor of Arts, Stanford University, HUMBI-BAH (2018)
  • BA with Honors, with Distinction, Stanford University, Human Biology (2018)

All Publications

  • Predicting pediatric healthcare provider use of virtual reality using a technology acceptance model. JAMIA open Wang, E. Y., Kennedy, K. M., Zhang, L., Qian, D., Forbes, T., Zuniga-Hernandez, M., Li, B. S., Domingue, B., Caruso, T. J. 2023; 6 (3): ooad076


    The primary aim of this study was to apply a novel technology acceptance model (TAM) for virtual reality (VR) in healthcare. The secondary aim was to assess reliability of this model to evaluate factors that predict the intentions of pediatric health providers' use of VR as an anxiolytic for hospitalized pediatric patients.Healthcare providers that interacted with pediatric patients participated in a VR experience available as anxiolysis for minor procedures and then completed a survey evaluating attitudes, behaviors, and technology factors that influence adoption of new technologies.Reliability for all domain measurements were good, and all confirmatory factor analysis models demonstrated good fit. Usefulness, ease of use, curiosity, and enjoyment of the VR experience all strongly predict intention to use and purchase VR technologies. Age of providers, past use, and cost of technology did not influence future purchase or use, suggesting that VR technologies may be broadly adopted in the pediatric healthcare setting.Previous VR-TAM models in non-healthcare consumers formulated that age, past use, price willing to pay, and curiosity impacted perceived ease of use. This study established that age, past use, and cost may not influence use in healthcare. Future studies should be directed at evaluating the social influences and facilitating conditions within healthcare that play a larger influence on technology adoption.The VR-TAM model demonstrated validity and reliability for predicting intent to use VR in a pediatric hospital.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jamiaopen/ooad076

    View details for PubMedID 37693368

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10483581

  • Assessing Pediatric Perioperative Affect: A Concise Review of Research and Clinically Relevant Scales. Paediatric anaesthesia Yun, R., Hess, O., Kennedy, K., Stricker, P. A., Blake, L., Caruso, T. J. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.14568

    View details for PubMedID 36178764

  • Exploration of Clinician Perspectives on Multidisciplinary Tumor Board Function Beyond Clinical Decision-making. JAMA oncology Wong, B. O., Blythe, J. A., Wu, A., Batten, J. N., Kennedy, K. M., Kouaho, A. S., Wren, S. M. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.1763

    View details for PubMedID 35653129

  • Perioperative Pediatric Anxiety: A Cry for Universal Scale Adoption. Pediatric quality & safety Yun, R., Kennedy, K. M., Caruso, T. J. 2022; 7 (2): e542

    View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000542

    View details for PubMedID 35369415

  • Development and assessment of an efficient pediatric affect and cooperation scale. Journal of clinical anesthesia Kennedy, K., Wang, E., Rodriguez, S. T., Qian, J., Khoury, M., Kist, M. N., Jackson, C., Yun, R., Caruso, T. J. 2021; 76: 110569


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: HRAD± was developed to quickly evaluate pediatric preprocedural affect and cooperativity during mask induction of anesthesia and peripheral intravenous (PIV) placement. HRAD± represents: Happy, Relaxed, Anxious, Distressed, with a yes/no answer to cooperativity. The primary aim of this study was to compare HRAD± to previously published scales.DESIGN: We conducted an observational study.SETTING: Videos of pediatric patients were collected in the perioperative environment.PATIENTS: Twenty-four children, twenty-one pediatric anesthesiologists and twenty pediatric perioperative providers were included.INTERVENTIONS: To assess the reliability of HRAD±, standard patient videos were created. Children underwent mask induction or PIV placement, and these interventions were video recorded. Mask induction and PIV placement videos were rated by pediatric anesthesiologists and perioperative non-physician providers respectively using HRAD±.MEASUREMENTS: Two trained researchers provided the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD), and Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC) scores, and we calculated correlations to HRAD±, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability.MAIN RESULTS: HRAD± scores strongly correlated with mYPAS (r=0.846, p<0.0001) and OSBD scores (r=0.723, p<0.0001). Cooperativity scores correlated strongly with ICC scores in the mask induction group (r=-0.715, p<0.0001) and in the PIV group (r=-0.869, p<0.0001). HRAD± inter-rater reliability for mask induction was 0.414 (p<0.0001) and for PIV assessment was 0.378 (p<0.0001). Inter-rater reliability for cooperativity on mask induction was 0.797 (p<0.0001) and PIV assessment was 0.683 (p<0.0001). Intra-rater reliability for mask induction was 0.675 and PIV assessments was 0.678. Intra-rater reliability for cooperativity for mask induction was 0.894 and for PIV assessments was 0.765.CONCLUSIONS: HRAD± is an efficient and reliable scale that serves as a practical alternative for measuring pediatric affect during mask induction and PIV placement. The results demonstrate strong correlation with commonly utilized yet more complex affect scales.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2021.110569

    View details for PubMedID 34739949

  • Development and Validation of an Efficient Pediatric Affect Scale Kennedy, K. M., Khoury, M., Kist, M., Wang, E., Rodriguez, S., Jackson, C., Yuan, J. C., Caruso, T. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: 751-752
  • Virtual reality for pediatric periprocedural care. Current opinion in anaesthesiology Wang, E. n., Thomas, J. J., Rodriguez, S. T., Kennedy, K. M., Caruso, T. J. 2021; 34 (3): 284–91


    Commercial availability of virtual reality headsets and software has exponentially grown over the last decade as it has become more sophisticated, less expensive, and portable. Although primarily used by the general public for entertainment, virtual reality has been adopted by periprocedural clinicians to improve patient experiences and treatments. The purpose of this review is to explore recently reported evidence for virtual reality effectiveness for pediatric periprocedural care and discuss considerations for clinical implementation.In the preprocedure setting, practitioners use virtual reality to introduce children to periprocedural environments, distract attention from preprocedural vascular access, and increase cooperation with anesthesia induction. Intraprocedure, virtual reality decreases sedation requirements, and in some instances, eliminates anesthesia for minor procedures. Virtual reality also augments pain reduction therapies in the acute and extended rehabilitation periods, resulting in faster recovery and improved outcomes. Virtual reality seems to be well treated for pediatric use, given close clinical care and carefully curated content.Given the multiple clinical applications of virtual reality to supplement pediatric periprocedural care, practitioners should consider developing clinical programs that reliably provide access to virtual reality. Future research should focus on identification of patient characteristics and types of software that yield optimal patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000983

    View details for PubMedID 33935176