Bio


Carstensen is Professor of Psychology and the Fairleigh S. Dickinson Jr. Professor in Public Policy at Stanford University, where she is also the founding director of the Stanford Center on Longevity, which explores innovative ways to solve the problems of people over 50 while improving the well-being of people of all ages. She is best known in academia for socioemotional selectivity theory, a life-span theory of motivation, and with her students and colleagues, has published more than 150 articles on life-span development. Her research has been supported by the National Institute on Aging for more than 20 years and she is currently supported by a MERIT Award. In 2011, she authored A Long Bright Future: Happiness, Health, and Financial Security in an Age of Increased Longevity. She is a member of the MacArthur Foundation’s Research Network on an Aging Society and currently serves on the National Advisory Council on Aging to NIA. She has won numerous awards, including the Kleemeier Award and Distinguished Mentorship Award from the Gerontological Society of America, as well as a Guggenheim Fellowship.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Founding Director, Stanford Center on Longevity (2007 - Present)
  • Chair, Department of Psychology, Stanford University (2004 - 2006)
  • Professor, Department of Psychology, Stanford University (1998 - Present)
  • The Barbara D. Finberg Director, Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Stanford University (1997 - 2001)
  • Vice-chair, Department of Psychology, Stanford University (1997 - 1999)
  • Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Stanford University (1994 - 1998)
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Stanford University (1987 - 1994)
  • Visiting Research Associate, Institute for Human Development, University of California - Berkeley (1986 - 1987)
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Indiana University (1983 - 1987)
  • Clinical Psychology Intern, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center (1982 - 1983)
  • Clinical Psychology Intern, University of Mississippi Medical Center and Jackson Veterans Administration Medical Center (1982 - 1983)

Honors & Awards


  • Kleemeier Award, Gerontological Society of America (2014)
  • Distinguished Mentor Award, Gerontological Society of America (2014)
  • Honorary Lifetime Achievement Award, Center for Optimal Adult Development (2013)
  • Honorary Doctorate, University of Leuven, Belgium (2012)
  • Honorary Member, Stanford University Cap and Gown (2012)
  • Master Mentorship Award, American Psychological Association (Division 20) (2010)
  • Matilda White Riley Award Lecture in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, National Institute on Aging (2010)
  • Fellow, Center for the Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (2009 - 2010)
  • Distinguished Career Contributions Award (Behavioral and Social Sciences Section), Gerontological Society of America (2006)
  • MERIT Award, National Institute on Aging (2005)
  • Guggenheim Fellow, Guggenheim Foundation (2003)
  • National Associate, National Academies of Science, National Research Council (2003)
  • Distinguished Visitor, American Academy in Berlin (2002)
  • Alumni Recognition Award, West Virginia University (2002)
  • Dean's Award for Distinguished Teaching, Stanford University (1997 - 1998)
  • McNamara Faculty Fellow, Stanford University (1997 - 1998)
  • Gordon and Dailey Pattee Faculty Fellow, Stanford University (1995 - 1996)
  • Kalish Innovative Publication Award, Gerontological Society of America (1993)
  • New Investigator Research Award, National Institutes of Health (NIH) (1985 - 1987)
  • Outstanding Young Faculty Award, Indiana University (1986)
  • Fellow, Gerontological Society of America
  • Charter Member and Fellow, American Psychological Society
  • Fellow, American Psychological Association (Divs. 1, 2, 12, 25 & 20)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Charter Member, Society for Affective Science
  • Past-President, Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology
  • Member, National Advisory Council on Aging (NACA) for the National Institute on Aging (2012)
  • Member, National Research Council Committee on Well-being (2012)
  • Member, MacArthur Foundation Network on Aging Societies (2007)
  • Member, Global Agenda Council on Ageing Societies, World Economic Forum (2010 - 2014)
  • Member, Global Agenda Council on Demographic Shifts, World Economic Forum (2009 - 2009)
  • Member, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Advisory Committee, National Academy of Sciences (2008)
  • Member, Grand Challenges for an Aging Society Committee, National Academy of Sciences (2008 - 2009)
  • Member, External Scientific Advisory Board (Fachbeirat), Max Planck Institute on Human Development (2005 - 2009)
  • Chair, Committee on Future Directions in Social Aging Research National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (2003 - 2005)
  • Chair, External Scientific Advisory Board (Fachbeirat), Max Planck Institute on Human Development (2003 - 2005)
  • Member, Behavior and Social Science of Aging Review Committee, National Institute on Aging (2002 - 2004)
  • Program Chair, Gerontological Society of America (2002 - 2002)
  • Director, Terman Gifted Project, Stanford University (2004)
  • Chair, Committee on Future Directions for Cognitive and Neuroscience Research on Aging, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (1999 - 2000)
  • Core Faculty Member, American Psychological Association Minority Fellowship Program: PI: James Jones (1999 - 2003)
  • Core Faculty Member, NIMH, Bay Area University Consortium on Training in Affective Science: PI: Dacher Keltner (1999 - 2001)
  • Grant Review Panel Member, Human Development and Aging Study Section, (HUD-2), National Institute on Aging (1996 - 1999)
  • Associate Director, Terman Gifted Project, Stanford University (1994 - 2004)
  • President, Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology, Section III, Division 12, American Psychological Association (1994 - 1994)
  • Chair, Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Gerontological Society of America (1996 - 1997)
  • Member, Public Policy Committee, Gerontological Society of America (1994 - 1996)
  • Scientific Advisor, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin Aging Study, Berlin, Germany (1992 - 1995)
  • Consulting editor, Behavioral Science and Policy (2013)
  • Series co-editor (with Tom Rando), Handbooks of Aging (Biology, Psychology, Social Science) (2009)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics (2007)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Psychology and Aging (2003 - 2005)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Hallym International Journal of Aging (1999)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences (1996 - 1999)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Psychology and Aging (1995 - 2000)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Gender, Culture & Health (1994 - 2000)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Clinical Geropsychology (1993 - 2001)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1997 - 1998)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Psychology and Aging (1990 - 1992)
  • Guest Associate Editor, Behavior Therapy, (Special Issue on Aging) (1988 - 1988)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1986 - 1989)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Behavioral Interventions (1983 - 1995)
  • Member, Editorial Board, International Journal of Behavioral Geriatrics (1981 - 1983)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., West Virginia University (1983)
  • M.A., West Virginia University (1980)
  • B.S., University of Rochester (1978)

2017-18 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Does Positivity Operate When the Stakes Are High? Health Status and Decision Making Among Older Adults PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING English, T., Carstensen, L. L. 2015; 30 (2): 348-355

    Abstract

    Research and theory suggest that emotional goals are increasingly prioritized with age. Related empirical work has shown that, compared with younger adults, older adults attend to and remember positive information more than negative information. This age-related positivity effect has been eliminated in experiments that have explicitly demanded processing of both positive and negative information. In the present study, we explored whether a reduction of the preference for positive information over negative information appears when the material being reviewed holds personal relevance for the individual. Older participants whose health varied from poor to very good reviewed written material prior to making decisions about health related and non-health-related issues. As predicted, older adults in relatively poor health (compared with those in relatively good health) showed less positivity in review of information while making health-related decisions. In contrast, positivity emerged regardless of health status for decisions that were unrelated to health. Across decision contexts, those individuals who focused more on positive information than negative information reported better postdecisional mood and greater decision satisfaction. Results are consistent with the theoretical argument that the age-related positivity effect reflects goal-directed cognitive processing and, furthermore, suggests that personal relevance and contextual factors determine whether positivity emerges.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0039121

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355839900015

    View details for PubMedID 25894484

  • Positive Messaging Promotes Walking in Older Adults PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Notthoff, N., Carstensen, L. L. 2014; 29 (2): 329-341

    Abstract

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0036748

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337944900015

    View details for PubMedID 24956001

  • Will interventions targeting conscientiousness improve aging outcomes? Developmental psychology English, T., Carstensen, L. L. 2014; 50 (5): 1478-1481

    Abstract

    The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging. Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes. We argue that even though it may be possible to design therapeutic interventions that increase conscientiousness, there may be more effective and efficient ways to improve population health. We ask for evidence that a focus on conscientiousness improves behavior change efforts that target specific health-related behaviors or large-scale environmental modification.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0036073

    View details for PubMedID 24773111

  • Emotional experience in the mornings and the evenings: consideration of age differences in specific emotions by time of day FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY English, T., Carstensen, L. L. 2014; 5

    Abstract

    Considerable evidence points to age-related improvements in emotional well-being with age. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of these apparent shifts in experience, we examined age differences in a range of emotional states in the mornings and evenings in a sample of 135 community-residing participants across 10 consecutive days. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 93 years. Each participant completed a diary in the morning and again in the evening every day for the study period. During each of the assessments, participants reported the degree to which they experienced emotions sampled from all four quadrants of the affective circumplex. Overall, participants felt less positive and more negative in the evenings than in the mornings. As expected, older adults reported a relatively more positive emotional experience than younger adults at both times of day. Importantly, however, age effects varied based on emotion type and time of day. Older adults reported experiencing more positive emotion than relatively younger adults across a range of different positive states (although age differences emerged most consistently for low arousal positive states). Age-related reductions in negative experience were observed only for reports of low arousal negative emotions. There were no age differences in anger, anxiety, or sadness. For some emotions, age differences were stronger in the mornings (e.g., relaxed) whereas for other emotions age differences were more pronounced in the evenings (e.g., enthusiastic). Findings are discussed in the context of adulthood changes in motivation and emotional experience.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00185

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332782500001

    View details for PubMedID 24639663

  • Selective narrowing of social networks across adulthood is associated with improved emotional experience in daily life INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT English, T., Carstensen, L. L. 2014; 38 (2): 195-202
  • Forewarning Reduces Fraud Susceptibility in Vulnerable Consumers BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Scheibe, S., Notthoff, N., Menkin, J., Ross, L., Shadel, D., Deevy, M., Carstensen, L. L. 2014; 36 (3): 272-279
  • The elusiveness of a life-span model of emotion regulation International Society for a Science of Behavioral Development Bulletin Sims, T., Carstensen, L. L. 2014
  • Promoting Safe and Effective Use of OTC Medications: CHPA-GSA National Summit The Gerontologist Albert, S., Bix, L., Bridgeman, M. M., Carstensen, L. L., Chamberlain, M. D., Neafsey, P. J., Wolf, M. S. 2014
  • Our aging population: It may just may save us all The upside of aging Carstensen, L. L. edited by Irving, P. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. 2014: 3–18
  • Exercise Holds Immediate Benefits for Affect and Cognition in Younger and Older Adults PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Hogan, C. L., Mata, J., Carstensen, L. L. 2013; 28 (2): 587-594

    Abstract

    Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0032634

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320492100028

    View details for PubMedID 23795769

  • Striving to Feel Good: Ideal Affect, Actual Affect, and Their Correspondence Across Adulthood PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Scheibe, S., English, T., Tsai, J. L., Carstensen, L. L. 2013; 28 (1): 160-171

    Abstract

    The experience of positive affect is essential for healthy functioning and quality of life. Although there is a great deal of research on ways in which people regulate negative states, little is known about the regulation of positive states. In the present study we examined age differences in the types of positive states people strive to experience and the correspondence between their desired and actual experiences. Adults aged 18-93 years of age described their ideal positive affect states. Then, using experience-sampling over a 7-day period, they reported their actual positive affect experiences. Two types of positive affect were assessed: low-arousal (calm, peaceful, relaxed) and high-arousal (excited, proud). Young participants valued both types of positive affect equally. Older participants, however, showed increasingly clear preferences for low-arousal over high-arousal positive affect. Older adults reached both types of positive affective goals more often than younger adults (indicated by a smaller discrepancy between actual and ideal affect). Moreover, meeting ideal levels of positive low-arousal affect (though not positive high-arousal affect) was associated with individuals' physical health, over and above levels of actual affect. Findings underscore the importance of considering age differences in emotion-regulatory goals related to positive experience.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0030561

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316591500017

    View details for PubMedID 23106153

  • Shifts in emotional experience and regulation across adulthood Conference on Changing Emotions English, T., Carstensen, L. L. PSYCHOLOGY PRESS. 2013: 31–36
  • Age Differences in Emotional Experience and Regulation Changing Emotions English, T., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Hermans, D., Rime, B., Mesquita, B. Psychology Press. 2013
  • Emotion regulation and aging Handbook of Emotion Regulation Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Gross, J. J. New York, NY: Guilford Press. 2013; 2nd: 203–218
  • When Feeling Bad Can Be Good: Mixed Emotions Benefit Physical Health Across Adulthood SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE Hershfield, H. E., Scheibe, S., Sims, T. L., Carstensen, L. L. 2013; 4 (1): 54-61
  • Differences In Life Expectancy Due To Race And Educational Differences Are Widening, And Many May Not Catch Up HEALTH AFFAIRS Olshansky, S. J., Antonucci, T., Berkman, L., Binstock, R. H., Boersch-Supan, A., Cacioppo, J. T., Carnes, B. A., Carstensen, L. L., Fried, L. P., Goldman, D. P., Jackson, J., Kohli, M., Rother, J., Zheng, Y., Rowe, J. 2012; 31 (8): 1803-1813

    Abstract

    It has long been known that despite well-documented improvements in longevity for most Americans, alarming disparities persist among racial groups and between the well-educated and those with less education. In this article we update estimates of the impact of race and education on past and present life expectancy, examine trends in disparities from 1990 through 2008, and place observed disparities in the context of a rapidly aging society that is emerging at a time of optimism about the next revolution in longevity. We found that in 2008 US adult men and women with fewer than twelve years of education had life expectancies not much better than those of all adults in the 1950s and 1960s. When race and education are combined, the disparity is even more striking. In 2008 white US men and women with 16 years or more of schooling had life expectancies far greater than black Americans with fewer than 12 years of education-14.2 years more for white men than black men, and 10.3 years more for white women than black women. These gaps have widened over time and have led to at least two "Americas," if not multiple others, in terms of life expectancy, demarcated by level of education and racial-group membership. The message for policy makers is clear: implement educational enhancements at young, middle, and older ages for people of all races, to reduce the large gap in health and longevity that persists today.

    View details for DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0746

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307498200018

    View details for PubMedID 22869659

  • The theory behind the age-related positivity effect. Frontiers in psychology Reed, A. E., Carstensen, L. L. 2012; 3: 339-?

    Abstract

    The "positivity effect" refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00339

    View details for PubMedID 23060825

  • Social capital, lifelong learning and social innovation Global population ageing: Peril or promise? Biggs, S., Carstensen, L. L., Hogan, P. 2012: 39–41
  • The meaning of old age Global population ageing: Peril or promise? Carstensen, L. L., Fried, L. P. World Economic Forum. 2012: 15–17
  • The theory behind the age-related positivity effect FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY Reed, A. E., Carstensen, L. L. 2012; 3
  • Knowing Loved Ones' End-of-Life Health Care Wishes: Attachment Security Predicts Caregivers' Accuracy HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY Turan, B., Goldstein, M. K., Garber, A. M., Carstensen, L. L. 2011; 30 (6): 814-818

    Abstract

    At times, caregivers make life-and-death decisions for loved ones. Yet very little is known about the factors that make caregivers more or less accurate as surrogate decision makers for their loved ones. Previous research suggests that in low stress situations, individuals with high attachment-related anxiety are attentive to their relationship partners' wishes and concerns, but get overwhelmed by stressful situations. Individuals with high attachment-related avoidance are likely to avoid intimacy and stressful situations altogether. We hypothesized that both of these insecure attachment patterns limit surrogates' ability to process distressing information and should therefore be associated with lower accuracy in the stressful task of predicting their loved ones' end-of-life health care wishes.Older patients visiting a medical clinic stated their preferences toward end-of-life health care in different health contexts, and surrogate decision makers independently predicted those preferences. For comparison purposes, surrogates also predicted patients' perceptions of everyday living conditions so that surrogates' accuracy of their loved ones' perceptions in nonstressful situations could be assessed.Surrogates high on either type of insecure attachment dimension were less accurate in predicting their loved ones' end-of-life health care wishes. It is interesting to note that even though surrogates' attachment-related anxiety was associated with lower accuracy of end-of-life health care wishes of their loved ones, it was associated with higher accuracy in the nonstressful task of predicting their loved ones' everyday living conditions.Attachment orientation plays an important role in accuracy about loved ones' end-of-life health care wishes. Interventions may target emotion regulation strategies associated with insecure attachment orientations.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0025664

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297029200020

    View details for PubMedID 22081941

  • YOU TAKE THE GOOD, YOU TAKE THE BAD: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND AGE-RELATED CHANGE IN MIXED EMOTIONS Sims, T., Ersner-Hershfield, H., Scheibe, S., Carstensen, L., Tsai, J. L. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2011: 550–550
  • Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Carstensen, L. L., Turan, B., Scheibe, S., Ram, N., Ersner-Hershfield, H., Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Brooks, K. P., Nesselroade, J. R. 2011; 26 (1): 21-33

    Abstract

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0021285

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288590800003

    View details for PubMedID 20973600

  • Age differences in affective forecasting and experienced emotion surrounding the 2008 US presidential election COGNITION & EMOTION Scheibe, S., Mata, R., Carstensen, L. L. 2011; 25 (6): 1029-1044

    Abstract

    In everyday life, people frequently make decisions based on tacit or explicit forecasts about the emotional consequences associated with the possible choices. We investigated age differences in such forecasts and their accuracy by surveying voters about their expected and, subsequently, their actual emotional responses to the 2008 US presidential election. A sample of 762 Democratic and Republican voters aged 20 to 80 years participated in a web-based study; 346 could be re-contacted two days after the election. Older adults forecasted lower increases in high-arousal emotions (e.g., excitement after winning; anger after losing) and larger increases in low-arousal emotions (e.g., sluggishness after losing) than younger adults. Age differences in actual responses to the election were consistent with forecasts, albeit less pervasive. Additionally, among supporters of the winning candidate, but not among supporters of the losing candidate, forecasting accuracy was enhanced with age, suggesting a positivity effect in affective forecasting. These results add to emerging findings about the role of valence and arousal in emotional ageing and demonstrate age differences in affective forecasting about a real-world event with an emotionally charged outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/02699931.2010.545543

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299563600006

    View details for PubMedID 21547760

  • Age differences in striatal delay sensitivity during intertemporal choice in healthy adults FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Mata, R., Radu, P. T., Ballard, I. C., Carstensen, L. L., McClure, S. M. 2011; 5
  • Knowing loved ones’ end-of-life health care wishes: attachment security predicts caregivers’accuracy Health Psychology Turan, B., Goldstein, M., Garber, A., Carstensen, L. L. 2011; 30: 814-818
  • A long bright future: Happiness, health and financial security in an age of increased longevity Carstensen, L. L. Public Affairs. 2011
  • Socioemotional functioning and the aging brain The Handbook of Social Neuroscience Samanez, G. L., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Decety, J., Cacioppo, J. T. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2011: 507–521
  • Age Differences in Striatal Delay Sensitivity during Intertemporal Choice in Healthy Adults. Frontiers in neuroscience Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Mata, R., Radu, P. T., Ballard, I. C., Carstensen, L. L., McClure, S. M. 2011; 5: 126-?

    Abstract

    Intertemporal choices are a ubiquitous class of decisions that involve selecting between outcomes available at different times in the future. We investigated the neural systems supporting intertemporal decisions in healthy younger and older adults. Using functional neuroimaging, we find that aging is associated with a shift in the brain areas that respond to delayed rewards. Although we replicate findings that brain regions associated with the mesolimbic dopamine system respond preferentially to immediate rewards, we find a separate region in the ventral striatum with very modest time dependence in older adults. Activation in this striatal region was relatively insensitive to delay in older but not younger adults. Since the dopamine system is believed to support associative learning about future rewards over time, our observed transfer of function may be due to greater experience with delayed rewards as people age. Identifying differences in the neural systems underlying these decisions may contribute to a more comprehensive model of age-related change in intertemporal choice.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fnins.2011.00126

    View details for PubMedID 22110424

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3217179

  • Increasing Saving Behavior Through Age-Progressed Renderings of the Future Self JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH Hershfield, H. E., Goldstein, D. G., Sharpe, W. F., Fox, J., Yeykelis, L., Carstensen, L. L., Bailenson, J. N. 2011; 48: S23-S37
  • NEURAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING INTERTEMPORAL CHOICE IN YOUNGER AND OLDER ADULTS Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Carstensen, L., McClure, S. M. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2010: 60–60
  • AGE INFLUENCES GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE IN DAILY LIFE Gibbs, S., Turan, B., Hallmayer, J., Carstensen, L. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2010: 192–192
  • Emotional aging: recent findings and future trends. journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences Scheibe, S., Carstensen, L. L. 2010; 65B (2): 135-144

    Abstract

    Contrasting cognitive and physical decline, research in emotional aging suggests that most older adults enjoy high levels of affective well-being and emotional stability into their 70s and 80s. We investigate the contributions of age-related changes in emotional motivation and competence to positive affect trajectories. We give an overview on the recent literature on emotional processing and emotional regulation, combining evidence from correlational and experimental, as well as behavioral and neuroscience studies. In particular, we focus on emotion-cognition interactions, including the positivity effect. Looking forward, we argue that efforts to link levels of emotional functioning with long-term outcomes, combining space- and time-sensitive measures of brain function, and developing interventions to improve life quality for older adults may further refine life-span theories and open promising avenues of empirical investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/geronb/gbp132

    View details for PubMedID 20054013

  • Following Your Heart or Your Head: Focusing on Emotions Versus Information Differentially Influences the Decisions of Younger and Older Adults JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-APPLIED Mikels, J. A., Loeckenhoff, C. E., Maglio, S. J., Carstensen, L. L., Goldstein, M. K., Garber, A. 2010; 16 (1): 87-95

    Abstract

    Research on aging has indicated that whereas deliberative cognitive processes decline with age, emotional processes are relatively spared. To examine the implications of these divergent trajectories in the context of health care choices, we investigated whether instructional manipulations emphasizing a focus on feelings or details would have differential effects on decision quality among younger and older adults. We presented 60 younger and 60 older adults with health care choices that required them to hold in mind and consider multiple pieces of information. Instructional manipulations in the emotion-focus condition asked participants to focus on their emotional reactions to the options, report their feelings about the options, and then make a choice. In the information-focus condition, participants were instructed to focus on the specific attributes, report the details about the options, and then make a choice. In a control condition, no directives were given. Manipulation checks indicated that the instructions were successful in eliciting different modes of processing. Decision quality data indicate that younger adults performed better in the information-focus than in the control condition whereas older adults performed better in the emotion-focus and control conditions than in the information-focus condition. Findings support and extend extant theorizing on aging and decision making as well as suggest that interventions to improve decision-making quality should take the age of the decision maker into account.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0018500

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276369400007

    View details for PubMedID 20350046

  • You Never Lose the Ages You've Been: Affective Perspective Taking in Older Adults PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Sullivan, S. J., Mikels, J. A., Carstensen, L. L. 2010; 25 (1): 229-234

    Abstract

    Aging appears to be associated with a growing preference for positive over negative information (Carstensen, Mikels, & Mather, 2006). In this study, we investigated potential awareness of the phenomenon by asking older people to recollect material from the perspective of a young person. Young and older participants listened to stories about 25- and 75-year-old main characters and then were asked to retell the stories from the perspective of the main characters. Older adults used relatively more positive than negative words when retelling from the perspective of a 75- versus 25-year-old. Young adults, however, used comparable numbers of positive and negative words regardless of perspective. These findings contribute to a growing literature that points to developmental gains in the emotion domain.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0018383

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275984800020

    View details for PubMedID 20230142

  • Social and Emotional Aging ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L. 2010; 61: 383-409

    Abstract

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity and those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed "paradox" of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, well-being, and emotional distress across adulthood.

    View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100448

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273885200016

    View details for PubMedID 19575618

  • Does being together for years help comprehension? Expressing oneself/Expressing one's self: Communication, cognition, language, and identity Schober, M. F., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Morsella, E. London: Taylor & Francis. 2010
  • Policies and politics for an aging America Contexts Carstensen, L. L. 2010; 9 (1)
  • Correction. "Affect dynamics, affective forecasting, and aging". Emotion Nielsen, L., Knutson, B., Carstensen, L. L. 2009; 9 (5): ii-?

    Abstract

    Reports an error in "Affect dynamics, affective forecasting, and aging" by Lisbeth Nielsen, Brian Knutson and Laura L. Carstensen (Emotion, 2008[Jun], Vol 8[3], 318-330). The first author of the article was listed as being affiliated with both the National Institute on Aging and the Department of Psychology, Stanford University. Dr. Nielsen would like to clarify that the research for this article was conducted while she was a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University; her current affiliation is only with the National Institute on Aging. The copyright notice should also have been listed as "In the Public Domain." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-06717-002.) [Correction Notice: The same erratum for this article was reported in Vol 8(5) of Emotion (see record 2008-13989-013).] Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation. In contrast, older adults reported increased positive arousal during gain anticipation but showed no increase in negative arousal on trials involving loss anticipation. Additionally, younger adults reported large increases in valence after avoiding an anticipated loss, but older adults did not. Younger, but not older, adults exhibited forecasting errors on the arousal dimension, underestimating increases in arousal during anticipation of gains and losses and overestimating increases in arousal in response to gain outcomes. Overall, the findings are consistent with a growing literature suggesting that older people experience less negative emotion than their younger counterparts and further suggest that they may better predict dynamic changes in affect.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0015739

    View details for PubMedID 19803581

  • Selective Attention to Emotion in the Aging Brain PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Robertson, E. R., Mikels, J. A., Carstensen, L. L., Gotlib, I. H. 2009; 24 (3): 519-529

    Abstract

    A growing body of research suggests that the ability to regulate emotion remains stable or improves across the adult life span. Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that this pattern of findings reflects the prioritization of emotional goals. Given that goal-directed behavior requires attentional control, the present study was designed to investigate age differences in selective attention to emotional lexical stimuli under conditions of emotional interference. Both neural and behavioral measures were obtained during an experiment in which participants completed a flanker task that required them to make categorical judgments about emotional and nonemotional stimuli. Older adults showed interference in both the behavioral and neural measures on control trials but not on emotion trials. Although older adults typically show relatively high levels of interference and reduced cognitive control during nonemotional tasks, they appear to be able to successfully reduce interference during emotional tasks.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0016952

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269933600001

    View details for PubMedID 19739908

  • Replicating the Positivity Effect in Picture Memory in Koreans: Evidence for Cross-Cultural Generalizability PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Kwon, Y., Scheibe, S., Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Tsai, J. L., Carstensen, L. L. 2009; 24 (3): 748-754

    Abstract

    Older adults' relatively better memory for positive over negative material (positivity effect) has been widely observed in Western samples. This study examined whether a relative preference for positive over negative material is also observed in older Koreans. Younger and older Korean participants viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), were tested for recall and recognition of the images, and rated the images for valence. Cultural differences in the valence ratings of images emerged. Once considered, the relative preference for positive over negative material in memory observed in older Koreans was indistinguishable from that observed previously in older Americans.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0016054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269933600024

    View details for PubMedID 19739932

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2775417

  • Socioemotional selectivity theory Encyclopedia of Human Relationships Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Reis, H., Sprecher, S. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 2009: 1578–1581
  • A long bright future Carstensen, L. L. Random House. 2009
  • AFFECTIVE SELF-REGULATION ACROSS ADULTHOOD AND OLD AGE: INVESTIGATING INTRA-INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES OVERTIME Brose, A., Riediger, M., Scheibe, S., Carstensen, L., Schmiedek, F., Lindenberger, U., Sliwinski, M., Smyth, J., Tsai, J. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2008: 501–501
  • THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL COMPLEXITY ON ATTENTIONAL PATTERNS, LONG-TERM HEALTH, AND WELL-BEING Ersner-Hershfield, H., Carvel, D., Scheibe, S., Sims, T., Isaacowitz, D., Carstensen, L. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2008: 400–400
  • Unpleasant situations elicit different emotional responses in younger and older adults PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L. 2008; 23 (3): 495-504

    Abstract

    Older adults report less distress in response to interpersonal conflicts than do younger adults, yet few researchers have examined factors that may contribute to these age differences. Emotion regulation is partially determined by the initial cognitive and emotional reactions that events elicit. The authors examined reported thoughts and emotions of younger and older adults (N = 195) while they listened to 3 different audiotaped conversations in which people were ostensibly making disparaging remarks about them. At 4 points during each scenario, the tape paused and participants engaged in a talk-aloud procedure and rated their level of anger and sadness. Findings reveal that older adults reported less anger but equal levels of sadness compared to younger adults, and their comments were judged by coders as less negative. Older adults made fewer appraisals about the people speaking on the tape and expressed less interest in learning more about their motives. Together, findings are consistent with age-related increases in processes that promote disengagement from offending situations.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0013284

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259422200002

    View details for PubMedID 18808240

  • Affect dynamics, affective forecasting, and aging EMOTION Nielsen, L., Knutson, B., Carstensen, L. L. 2008; 8 (3): 318-330

    Abstract

    Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation. In contrast, older adults reported increased positive arousal during gain anticipation but showed no increase in negative arousal on trials involving loss anticipation. Additionally, younger adults reported large increases in valence after avoiding an anticipated loss, but older adults did not. Younger, but not older, adults exhibited forecasting errors on the arousal dimension, underestimating increases in arousal during anticipation of gains and losses and overestimating increases in arousal in response to gain outcomes. Overall, the findings are consistent with a growing literature suggesting that older people experience less negative emotion than their younger counterparts and further suggest that they may better predict dynamic changes in affect.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.318

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256512900002

    View details for PubMedID 18540748

  • Individual differences in insular sensitivity during loss anticipation predict avoidance learning PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Hollon, N. G., Carstensen, L. L., Knutson, B. 2008; 19 (4): 320-323

    Abstract

    The anterior insula has been implicated in both the experience and the anticipation of negative outcomes. Although individual differences in insular sensitivity have been associated with self-report measures of chronic anxiety, previous research has not examined whether individual differences in insular sensitivity predict learning to avoid aversive stimuli. In the present study, insular sensitivity was assessed as participants anticipated monetary losses while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that insular responsiveness to anticipated losses predicted participants' ability to learn to avoid losses (but not to approach gains) in a behavioral test several months later. These findings suggest that in addition to correlating with self-reported anxiety, heightened insular sensitivity may promote learning to avoid loss.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254792000003

    View details for PubMedID 18399882

  • Decision strategies in health care choices for self and others: Older but not younger adults make adjustments for the age of the decision target JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Loeckenhoff, C. E., Carstensen, L. L. 2008; 63 (2): P106-P109

    Abstract

    Participants (N = 142 younger and older adults) made health care choices for themselves, a social partner of similar age, or a social partner substantially younger or older than themselves. Using computer-based decision scenarios, participants reviewed positive, negative, or neutral choice criteria before choosing. Older adults who chose for themselves reviewed a greater proportion of positive choice criteria, recalled their choices more positively, and showed more positive emotional responses than did younger adults. Comparable results were found when participants chose for another person of similar age. Older adults who were asked to choose for a young person, however, showed a reduced focus on positive information; in addition, their emotional experience during the review process was less positive. Younger adults' performance was not influenced by the decision target.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255449800007

    View details for PubMedID 18441264

  • Poignancy: Mixed emotional experience in the face of meaningful endings JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Ersner-Hershfield, H., Mikels, J. A., Sullivan, S. J., Carstensen, L. L. 2008; 94 (1): 158-167

    Abstract

    The experience of mixed emotions increases with age. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that mixed emotions are associated with shifting time horizons. Theoretically, perceived constraints on future time increase appreciation for life, which, in turn, elicits positive emotions such as happiness. Yet, the very same temporal constraints heighten awareness that these positive experiences come to an end, thus yielding mixed emotional states. In 2 studies, the authors examined the link between the awareness of anticipated endings and mixed emotional experience. In Study 1, participants repeatedly imagined being in a meaningful location. Participants in the experimental condition imagined being in the meaningful location for the final time. Only participants who imagined "last times" at meaningful locations experienced more mixed emotions. In Study 2, college seniors reported their emotions on graduation day. Mixed emotions were higher when participants were reminded of the ending that they were experiencing. Findings suggest that poignancy is an emotional experience associated with meaningful endings.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.158

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251826500012

    View details for PubMedID 18179325

  • Decision strategies in healthcare choices for self and others: Older adults make adjustments for the age of the decision target, younger adults do no Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences Lockenhoff, C. E., Carstensen, L. L. 2008; 63: 106 - 109
  • Lifelong learning and technology. Prepared for the National Research Council's Report on Learning Science in Informal Environments A Review of the Research Past, Present, and Future Lindberg, C., Carstensen, E. L., Carstensen, L. L. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. 2008
  • From static to dynamic: The on-going dialectic about human development Social Structures and Aging Individuals: Continuing Challenges Ram, N., Morelli, S., Lindberg, C., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Schaie, K. W., Abeles, R. New York: Springer. 2008
  • Anticipation of monetary gain but not loss in healthy older adults (vol 10, pg 787, 2007) NATURE NEUROSCIENCE Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Gibbs, S. E., Khanna, K., Nielsen, L., Carstensen, L. L., Knutson, B. 2007; 10 (9): 1222-1222
  • Anticipation of monetary gain but not loss in healthy older adults NATURE NEUROSCIENCE Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Gibbs, S. E., Khanna, K., Nielsen, L., Carstensen, L. L., Knutson, B. 2007; 10 (6): 787-791

    Abstract

    Although global declines in structure have been documented in the aging human brain, little is known about the functional integrity of the striatum and prefrontal cortex in older adults during incentive processing. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether younger and older adults differed in both self-reported and neural responsiveness to anticipated monetary gains and losses. The present study provides evidence for intact striatal and insular activation during gain anticipation with age, but shows a relative reduction in activation during loss anticipation. These findings suggest that there is an asymmetry in the processing of gains and losses in older adults that may have implications for decision-making.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nn1894

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246799800022

    View details for PubMedID 17468751

  • Aging, emotion, and health-related decision strategies: Motivational manipulations can reduce age differences PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Lockenhoff, C. E., Carstensen, L. L. 2007; 22 (1): 134-146

    Abstract

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, age-related constraints on time horizons are associated with motivational changes that increasingly favor goals related to emotional well-being. Such changes have implications for emotionally taxing tasks such as making decisions, especially when decisions require consideration of unpleasant information. This study examined age differences in information acquisition and recall in the health care realm. Using computer-based decision scenarios, 60 older and 60 young adults reviewed choice criteria that contained positive, negative, and neutral information about different physicians and health care plans. As predicted, older adults reviewed and recalled a greater proportion of positive than of negative information compared with young adults. Age differences were eliminated when motivational manipulations elicited information-gathering goals or when time perspective was controlled statistically. Implications for improving decision strategies in older adults are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0882-7974.22.1.134

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245060300015

    View details for PubMedID 17385990

  • Growing old or living long: Take your pick ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Carstensen, L. L. 2007; 23 (2): 41-50
  • Emotion regulation and aging. Handbook of Emotion Regulation Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Gross, J. J. New York, NY: Guilford Press. 2007
  • The influence of a sense of time on human development SCIENCE Carstensen, L. L. 2006; 312 (5782): 1913-1915

    Abstract

    The subjective sense of future time plays an essential role in human motivation. Gradually, time left becomes a better predictor than chronological age for a range of cognitive, emotional, and motivational variables. Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that constraints on time horizons shift motivational priorities in such a way that the regulation of emotional states becomes more important than other types of goals. This motivational shift occurs with age but also appears in other contexts (for example, geographical relocations, illnesses, and war) that limit subjective future time.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1127488

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238848100048

    View details for PubMedID 16809530

  • Goals change when life's fragility is primed: Lessons learned from older adults, the september 11 attacks and SARS SOCIAL COGNITION Fung, H. H., Carstensen, L. L. 2006; 24 (3): 248-278
  • When I'm 64 edited by Carstensen, L. L., Hartel, C. R. 2006
  • Social structures, aging and self-regulation in the elderly edited by Schaie, K. W., Carstensen, L. L. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. 2006
  • Aging and the intersection of cognition, motivation and emotion Handbook of the Psychology of Aging Carstensen, L. L., Mikels, J. A., Mather, M. edited by Birren, J., Schaie, K. W. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 2006; 6: 343–362
  • Divergent trajectories in the aging mind: Changes in working memory for affective versus visual information with age PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Mikels, J. A., Larkin, G. R., Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., Carstensen, L. L. 2005; 20 (4): 542-553

    Abstract

    Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0882-7974.20.4.542

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234623100002

    View details for PubMedID 16420130

  • Aging and motivated cognition: the positivity effect in attention and memory TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES Mather, M., Carstensen, L. L. 2005; 9 (10): 496-502

    Abstract

    As people get older, they experience fewer negative emotions. Strategic processes in older adults' emotional attention and memory might play a role in this variation with age. Older adults show more emotionally gratifying memory distortion for past choices and autobiographical information than younger adults do. In addition, when shown stimuli that vary in affective valence, positive items account for a larger proportion of older adults' subsequent memories than those of younger adults. This positivity effect in older adults' memories seems to be due to their greater focus on emotion regulation and to be implemented by cognitive control mechanisms that enhance positive and diminish negative information. These findings suggest that both cognitive abilities and motivation contribute to older adults' improved emotion regulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tics.2005.08.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232739000012

    View details for PubMedID 16154382

  • At the intersection of emotion and cognition - Aging and the positivity effect CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Carstensen, L. L., Mikels, J. A. 2005; 14 (3): 117-121
  • The good, the bad Aging Today Ersner-Hershfield, H., Rice, C., Lindberg, C., Carstensen, L., 2005; 26: 7 - 8
  • Reactive and proactive motivational changes across adulthood The adaptive self: Personal Continuity and Intentional Self-Development Fung, H. L., Rice, C., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Greve, W., Rothermund, K., Wentura, D. New York, NY: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. 2005: 171–183
  • Socioemotional selectivity theory, aging, and health: The increasingly delicate balance between regulating emotions and making tough choices JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY Lockenhoff, C. E., Carstensen, L. L. 2004; 72 (6): 1395-1424

    Abstract

    After providing an introductory overview of socioemotional selectivity theory, we review empirical evidence for its basic postulates and consider the implications of the predicted cognitive and behavioral changes for physical health. The main assertion of socioemotional selectivity theory is that when boundaries on time are perceived, present-oriented goals related to emotional meaning are prioritized over future-oriented goals aimed at acquiring information and expanding horizons. Such motivational changes, which are strongly correlated with chronological age, systematically influence social preferences, social network composition, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. On the one hand, there is considerable reason to believe that such changes are good for well-being and social adjustment. On the other hand, the very same motivational changes may limit health-related information-seeking and influence attention, memory, and decision-making such that positive material is favored over negative information. Grounding our arguments in socioemotional selectivity theory, we consider possible ways to tailor contexts such that disadvantages are avoided.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224756300011

    View details for PubMedID 15509287

  • Experiencing art: A comparison between younger adults'and older adults' responses to paintings Kircanski, K., Carstensen, L., Mikels, J. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2004: 275–275
  • Amygdala responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in older and younger adults PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Mather, M., Canli, T., English, T., Whitfield, S., Wais, P., Ochsner, K., Gabrieli, J. D., Carstensen, L. L. 2004; 15 (4): 259-263

    Abstract

    As they age, adults experience less negative emotion, come to pay less attention to negative than to positive emotional stimuli, and become less likely to remember negative than positive emotional materials. This profile of findings suggests that, with age, the amygdala may show decreased reactivity to negative information while maintaining or increasing its reactivity to positive information. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess whether amygdala activation in response to positive and negative emotional pictures changes with age. Both older and younger adults showed greater activation in the amygdala for emotional than for neutral pictures; however, for older adults, seeing positive pictures led to greater amygdala activation than seeing negative pictures, whereas this was not the case for younger adults.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220383500008

    View details for PubMedID 15043644

  • The role of motivation in the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical memory PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Kennedy, Q., Mather, M., Carstensen, L. L. 2004; 15 (3): 208-214

    Abstract

    This study reveals that older adults have a positivity effect in long-term autobiographical memory and that a positivity bias can be induced in younger adults by a heightened motivation to regulate current emotional well-being. Three hundred nuns, ages 47 to 102 years, recalled personal information originally reported 14 years earlier. They did so under experimental conditions that repeatedly primed them to focus on their current emotional states or on their memory accuracy, or that provided no instructional focus (control condition). Both older control participants and participants who were focused on emotional states showed a tendency to remember the past more positively than they originally reported in 1987. In contrast, both younger control participants and participants who were focused on accuracy tended to remember the past more negatively than originally reported.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188991700011

    View details for PubMedID 15016294

  • Motivational changes in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time: Testing alternatives to socioemotional selectivity theory PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Fung, H. H., Carstensen, L. L. 2004; 19 (1): 68-78

    Abstract

    Socioemotional selectivity theory contends that when people perceive time as limited, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. Although empirical support for the theory has been found in several studies, 2 alternative explanations for the pattern of findings remain: (a) emotional goals are pursued by default because nonemotional goals are blocked, and (b) emotional goals are pursued in search of emotional support rather than emotional meaning. This study tested these alternatives by examining social goals in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time. Findings reveal distinct motivational patterns, as reflected in social preferences and self-reported social goals, in response to the 2 types of constraints.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0882-7974.19.1.68

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220156400006

    View details for PubMedID 15065932

  • Emotion in the second half of life Current Directions Readers Carstensen, L. L., Charles, S. T. 2004
  • Facial EMG discriminates gain and loss anticipation and outcome in a monetary incentive delay task 44th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Psychophysiological-Research NIELSEN, L., Knutson, B., Kaufman, M., Weinstein, L., Carstensen, L. L. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2004: S80–S80
  • The role of motivation in the age-related positive memory Psychological Science Kennedy, Q., Mather, M., Carstensen, L. L. 2004; 14: 208 - 214
  • A life-span view of emotional functioning in adulthood and old age Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology Series Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Costa, P. T., Siegler, I. C. 2004: 133–162
  • Aging, Emotion and Evolution: The Bigger Picture Emotions Inside Out: 130 Years after Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Carstensen, L. L., Löckenhoff, C. E. edited by Ekman, P., Campos, J. J., Davidson, R. J., de Waal, F. B. New York Academy of Science. 2004
  • Aging and attentional biases for emotional faces PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Mather, M., Carstensen, L. L. 2003; 14 (5): 409-415

    Abstract

    We examined age differences in attention to and memory for faces expressing sadness, anger, and happiness. Participants saw a pair of faces, one emotional and one neutral, and then a dot probe that appeared in the location of one of the faces. In two experiments, older adults responded faster to the dot if it was presented on the same side as a neutral face than if it was presented on the same side as a negative face. Younger adults did not exhibit this attentional bias. Interactions of age and valence were also found for memory for the faces, with older adults remembering positive better than negative faces. These findings reveal that in their initial attention, older adults avoid negative information. This attentional bias is consistent with older adults' generally better emotional well-being and their tendency to remember negative less well than positive information.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185037600004

    View details for PubMedID 12930469

  • Age and emotional experience during mutual reminiscing PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Pasupathi, M., Carstensen, L. L. 2003; 18 (3): 430-442

    Abstract

    In the present article, the authors examined age differences in the emotional experiences involved in talking about past events. In Study 1, 129 adults in an experience-sampling study reported whether they were engaged in mutual reminiscing and their concurrent experience of positive and negative emotion. Their experiences of positive and negative emotion during mutual reminiscing were compared with emotional experience during other social activities. Age was associated with increasing positive emotion during mutual reminiscing. In Study 2 (n = 132), the authors examined emotions during reminiscing for specific positive and negative events. In this case, age was associated with improved emotional experiences but only during reminiscing about positive experiences. Findings are discussed in terms of socioemotional selectivity theory and the literature on reminiscence and life review.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0882-7974.18.3.430

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185419700008

    View details for PubMedID 14518806

  • Sending memorable messages to the old: Age differences in preferences and memory for advertisements JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Fung, H. H., Carstensen, L. L. 2003; 85 (1): 163-178

    Abstract

    Socioemotional selectivity theory holds that people of different ages prioritize different types of goals. As people age and increasingly perceive time as finite, they attach greater importance to goals that are emotionally meaningful. Because the goals that people pursue so centrally influence cognition, the authors hypothesize that persuasive messages, specifically advertisements, would be preferred and better remembered by older adults when they promise to help realize emotionally meaningful goals, whereas younger adults would not show this bias. The authors also predict that modifying time perspective would reduce age differences. Findings provide qualified support for each of these predictions.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0022-3514.85.1.163

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183814300012

    View details for PubMedID 12872892

  • Socioemotional selectivity theory and the regulation of emotion in the second half of life MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Carstensen, L. L., Fung, H. H., Charles, S. T. 2003; 27 (2): 103-123
  • Aging and emotional memory: The forgettable nature of negative images for older adults JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL Charles, S. T., Mather, M., Carstensen, L. L. 2003; 132 (2): 310-324

    Abstract

    Two studies examined age differences in recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral stimuli. In Study 1, younger, middle-aged, and older adults were shown images on a computer screen and, after a distraction task, were asked first to recall as many as they could and then to identify previously shown images from a set of old and new ones. The relative number of negative images compared with positive and neutral images recalled decreased with each successively older age group. Recognition memory showed a similar decrease with age in the relative memory advantage for negative pictures. In Study 2, the largest age differences in recall and recognition accuracy were also for the negative images. Findings are consistent with socioemotional selectivity theory, which posits greater investment in emotion regulation with age.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0096-3445.132.2.310

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183188200008

    View details for PubMedID 12825643

  • Aging, emotion, and evolution the bigger picture Conference on Emotions Inside Out: 130 Years after Darwins The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Carstensen, L. L., Lockenhoff, C. E. NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES. 2003: 152–179

    Abstract

    Ample empirical evidence shows that basic cognitive processes integral to learning and memory suffer with age. Explanations for age-related loss typically cite the absence of evolutionary selection pressures during the postreproductive years, which consequently failed to optimize functioning during old age. In this paper, we suggest that evolutionary pressures did operate at older ages and that an evolutionary account is entirely consistent with the pattern of findings currently available in the psychological literature on aging. Cognitive loss is limited primarily to new learning, yet integrated world knowledge increases with age. In addition, socioemotional regulation improves with age, which is associated with increased investment in emotionally meaningful others (most notably kin). In this chapter, we argue that this profile of late-life characteristics contributes to the reproductive success of kin. We consider how the uniquely human ability to monitor place in the life cycle and the consequent motivational shifts that occur when boundaries in time are perceived contribute to the adaptive value of long life. Finally, we suggest that joint consideration of evolutionary theory and life-span psychology can lead to fruitful advances in the understanding of human aging.

    View details for DOI 10.1196/annals.1280.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189443500012

    View details for PubMedID 14766629

  • Socioemotional selectivity and mental health among trauma survivors in old age Ageing International Issacowitz, D., Smith, T. B., Carstensen, L. L. 2003; 28: 181 - 199
  • Life-span personality development and emotion Handbook of Affective Sciences Carstensen, L. L., Charles, S. T., Isaacowitz, D., Kennedy, Q. edited by Davidson, R. J., Scherer, K., Goldsmith, H. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2003: 726–746
  • Age and ethnicity differences in storytelling to young children: Emotionality, relationality, and socialization PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Pasupathi, M., Henry, R. M., Carstensen, L. L. 2002; 17 (4): 610-621

    Abstract

    Research has shown that age and ethnicity are associated with individuals' motivations for emotional regulation and social interaction. The authors proposed that these age and ethnicity-related motives would be reflected in storytelling. Women representing 2 age and 2 ethnic groups (young adulthood, oldage, African American, European American) told stories to young girls. Stories were coded for emotional, relational, and socialization focus. They predicted that older adults would selectively emphasize positive over negative emotions and would direct more utterances toward their interaction with their listener. The authors expected that African Americans would be more likely to emphasize socialization themes. Results suggest that older adults positively modulate emotional content while storytelling; qualified support was found for hypotheses concerning socialization and interrelational emphasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0882-7974.17.4.610

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179823900007

    View details for PubMedID 12507358

  • Time counts: Future time perspective, goals, and social relationships PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Lang, F. R., Carstensen, L. L. 2002; 17 (1): 125-139

    Abstract

    On the basis of postulates derived from socioemotional selectivity theory, the authors explored the extent to which future time perspective (FTP) is related to social motivation, and to the composition and perceived quality of personal networks. Four hundred eighty German participants with ages ranging from 20 to 90 years took part in the study. In 2 card-sort tasks, participants indicated their partner preference and goal priority. Participants also completed questionnaires on personal networks and social satisfaction. Older people, as a group, perceived their future time as more limited than younger people. Individuals who perceived future time as being limited prioritized emotionally meaningful goals (e.g., generativity, emotion regulation), whereas individuals who perceived their futures as open-ended prioritized instrumental or knowledge-related goals. Priority of goal domains was found to be differently associated with the size, composition, and perceived quality of personal networks depending on FTP. Prioritizing emotion-regulatory goals was associated with greater social satisfaction and less perceived strain with others when participants perceived their future as limited. Findings underscore the importance of FTP in the self-regulation of social relationships and the subjective experience associated with them.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0882-7974.17.1.125

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174439300010

    View details for PubMedID 11931281

  • Looking for independence and productivity: how Western culture influences individual and scientific accounts of aging REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE PSICOLOGIA Rice, C. J., Lockenhoff, C. E., Carstensen, L. L. 2002; 34 (1-2): 133-154
  • The process of successful ageing Understanding human development: Dialogues with life-span psychology Baltes, M. M., Cartensen, L. L. edited by Staudinger, U., Lindenberger, U. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2002: 81–104
  • Inside the American Couple: New thinking, new challenges edited by Yalom, M., Carstensen, L. L. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 2002
  • The knowledge of our years: Time so limited, life so precious Aging Today Fung, H. H., Carstensen, L. L. 2002; 23 (2): 9, 11
  • Marriage in old age Inside the American couple: New thinking, new challenges Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Yalom, M., Carstensen, L. L. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 2002: 236–254
  • Is the life-span theory of control a theory of development or a theory of coping? Personal control in social and life contexts Löckenhoff, C. E., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Zarit, S., Pearlin, L., Schaie, K. W. New York, NY: Springer Publishing. 2002
  • Human Aging: Why is even good news taken as bad? A psychology of human strengths: Perspectives on an emerging field Carstensen, L. L., Charles, S. T. edited by Aspinwall, L., Staudinger, U. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2002: 75–86
  • En busca de independencia y productividad: cómo influyen las culturas occidentales en las explicaciones individuales y científicas del envejecimiento Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología Rice, C. J., Lockenhoff, C. E., Carstensen, L. L. 2002; 34: 133 - 154
  • Age-related patterns in social networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for socioemotional selectivity across the life span INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGING & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Fung, H. H., Carstensen, L. L., Lang, F. R. 2001; 52 (3): 185-206

    Abstract

    Socioemotional selectivity theory contends that as people become increasingly aware of limitations on future time, they are increasingly motivated to be more selective in their choice of social partners, favoring emotionally meaningful relationships over peripheral ones. The theory hypothesizes that because age is negatively associated with time left in life, the social networks of older people contain fewer peripheral social partners than those of their younger counterparts. This study tested the hypothesis among African Americans and European Americans, two ethnic groups whose social structural resources differ. Findings confirm the hypothesis. Across a wide age range (18 to 94 years old) and among both ethnic groups, older people report as many emotionally close social partners but fewer peripheral social partners in their networks as compared to their younger counterparts. Moreover, a greater percentage of very close social partners in social networks is related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group, but not among the older age groups. Implications of findings for adaptive social functioning across the life span are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169070500002

    View details for PubMedID 11407486

  • Psychopathology in the aged Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology Fisher, J. E., Zeis, A. M., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Sutker, P. B., Adams, H. E. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 2001; 3: 921–951
  • Emotion and aging Encyclopedia of Aging Carstensen, L. L. edited by Maddox, G. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.. 2001; 3: 327–329
  • Problem solving in the nursing home environment: Age and experience differences in emotional reactions and responses Journal of Clinical Geropsychology Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L., McFall, R. M. 2001; 7: 319 - 330
  • Emotion in the second half of life Annual Editions: Human Development Carstensen, L. L., Charles, S. T. Sluice Dock: CT: Dushkin/McGraw Hill. 2001: 213–217
  • Aging, time estimation and emotion: An multidisciplinary exploration Aging and the meaning of time Kennedy, Q., Fung, H., Carstensen, L. L. edited by McFadden, S. H., Atchley, R. C. New York, NY: Springer. 2001: 51–74
  • Adult personality development International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences Carstensen, L. L. edited by Smelzer, N. J., Balters, P. B. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Ltd. 2001: 11290–11295
  • Margret M. Baltes: Dependency and success in aging Contemporary Gerontology Carstensen, L. L. 2001; 8: 42-45
  • Autonomic, subjective, and expressive responses to emotional films in older and younger Chinese Americans and European Americans PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Tsai, J. L., Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L. 2000; 15 (4): 684-693

    Abstract

    Previously, the authors found that during idiosyncratic emotional events (relived emotions, discussions about marital conflict), older European American adults demonstrated smaller changes in cardiovascular responding than their younger counterparts (R. W. Levenson, L. L. Carstensen, W. V. Friesen, & P. Ekman, 1991; R. W. Levenson, L. L. Carstensen, & J. M. Gottman, 1994). This study examined whether such differences held when the emotional events were standardized, and whether they extend to another cultural group. Forty-eight old (70-85 years) and 48 young (20-34 years) European Americans and Chinese Americans viewed sad and amusing film clips in the laboratory while their cardiovascular, subjective (online and retrospective), and behavioral responses were measured. Consistent with previous findings, older participants evidenced smaller changes in cardiovascular responding than did younger participants during the film clips. Consistent with earlier reports, old and young participants did not differ in most subjective and behavioral responses to the films. No cultural differences were found.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0882-7974.15.4.684

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165765000010

    View details for PubMedID 11144327

  • Keeping aging minds sharp SCIENTIST Carstensen, L. L. 2000; 14 (22): 6-6
  • Emotional experience in everyday life across the adult life span JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Carstensen, L. L., Pasupathi, M., Mayr, U., Nesselroade, J. R. 2000; 79 (4): 644-655

    Abstract

    Age differences in emotional experience over the adult life span were explored, focusing on the frequency, intensity, complexity, and consistency of emotional experience in everyday life. One hundred eighty-four people, age 18 to 94 years, participated in an experience-sampling procedure in which emotions were recorded across a 1-week period. Age was unrelated to frequency of positive emotional experience. A curvilinear relationship best characterized negative emotional experience. Negative emotions declined in frequency until approximately age 60, at which point the decline ceased. Individual factor analyses computed for each participant revealed that age was associated with more differentiated emotional experience. In addition, periods of highly positive emotional experience were more likely to endure among older people and periods of highly negative emotional experience were less stable. Findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of socioemotional selectivity theory.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0022-3514.79.4.644

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089712600011

    View details for PubMedID 11045744

  • Applying science to human behavior AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Carstensen, L. L., Charles, S. T., Isaacowitz, D. M. 2000; 55 (3): 343-343

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088124000011

    View details for PubMedID 10743257

  • Psychology's contributions to gerontology Conference on Gerontological Prism - Developing Interdisciplinary Bridges Carstensen, L. L., Graff, J., Lang, F. BAYWOOD PUBLISHING CO INC. 2000: 29–48
  • Social gerontological theories Encyclopedia of Psychology Carstensen, L. L. edited by Kazdin, A. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. 2000
  • Emotion and cognition Handbook of aging and cognition Isaacowitz, D., Charles, S., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Garik, G., Salthouse, T. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers. 2000; 2: 593–631
  • The aging mind: Opportunities in cognitive research edited by Stern, P., Carstensen, L. L. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2000
  • Autonomic, expressive and subjective responses to emotional films in younger and older adults of European American and Chinese descent Psychology and Aging Tsai, J. L., Leverson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., , 2000; 15: 684 - 693
  • Marriage in old age U.S.-Japan Women's Journal Carstensen, L. L. 2000; 27: 3 - 18
  • Influence of time on social preferences: Implications for life-span development PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Fung, H. H., Carstensen, L. L., Lutz, A. M. 1999; 14 (4): 595-604

    Abstract

    Socioemotional selectivity theory holds that the reliable decline in social contact in later life is due, in part, to older people's preferences for emotionally meaningful social partners and that such preferences are due not to age, per se, but to perceived limitations on time. Confirming the theory, in both the United States and Hong Kong, older people showed a preference for familiar social partners, whereas younger people did not show this preference. However, when asked to imagine an expansive future, older people's bias for familiar social partners disappeared. Conversely, in the face of a hypothesized constraint on time, both younger and older people preferred familiar social partners. Moreover, social preferences in Hong Kong differed before and after the 1997 handover of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China, which was construed as a sociopolitical time constraint. One year prior to the handover, only older people displayed preferences for familiar partners. Two months before the handover, both age groups showed such preferences. One year after the handover, once again, only older Hong Kong people preferred familiar social partners.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084694400005

    View details for PubMedID 10632147

  • Responsive listening in long-married couples: A psycholinguistic perspective JOURNAL OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR Pasupathi, M., Carstensen, L. L., Levenson, R. W., Gottman, J. M. 1999; 23 (2): 173-193
  • Taking time seriously - A theory of socioemotional selectivity AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., Charles, S. T. 1999; 54 (3): 165-181

    Abstract

    Socioemotional selectivity theory claims that the perception of time plays a fundamental role in the selection and pursuit of social goals. According to the theory, social motives fall into 1 of 2 general categories--those related to the acquisition of knowledge and those related to the regulation of emotion. When time is perceived as open-ended, knowledge-related goals are prioritized. In contrast, when time is perceived as limited, emotional goals assume primacy. The inextricable association between time left in life and chronological age ensures age-related differences in social goals. Nonetheless, the authors show that the perception of time is malleable, and social goals change in both younger and older people when time constraints are imposed. The authors argue that time perception is integral to human motivation and suggest potential implications for multiple subdisciplines and research interests in social, developmental, cultural, cognitive, and clinical psychology.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079364700001

    View details for PubMedID 10199217

  • Psychological control in later life: Implications for life-span development Action and development: Origins and functions of intentional self development Fung, H. H., Abeles, R. P., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Lerner, M., Brandtstadter, J. Hillsdale, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. . 1999: 345–372
  • Emotion in the second half of life Current Directions in Psychological Science Carstensen, L. L., Charles, S. T. 1999
  • Social psychological theories and their applications to aging: From individual to collective Handbook of theories of aging Baltes, M. M., Cartensen, L. L. edited by Bengston, V., Schaie, K. W. New York: Springer. 1999: 209–226
  • The role of time in the setting of social goals across the life span Social cognition and aging Charles, S. T., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Blanchar-Fields, F., Hess, T. New York: Academic Press. 1999: 319–342
  • Implications for life-span development Action and development: Origins and functions of intentional self development Fung, H. H., Abeles, R. P., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Lerner, M., Brandtstädter, J. Hillsdale, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1999: 345–372
  • Influence of HIV status and age on cognitive representations of others HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY Carstensen, L. L., Fredrickson, B. L. 1998; 17 (6): 494-503

    Abstract

    In 2 studies the postulate that the perception of time left in life influences the ways that people conceptualize social relationships was explored. It was hypothesized that when time is limited, emotional aspects of relationships are highly salient. In Study 1, a card-sort paradigm involving similarity judgments demonstrated, for a sample of persons 18 to 88 years old, that the prominence of affect in the mental representations of prospective social partners is positively associated with age. In Study 2, the same experimental approach was applied to a sample of young gay men similar to one another in age, but notably different in their health status (that is, HIV negative; HIV positive, asymptomatic; and HIV positive, symptomatic). It was found that, with age held constant, increasing closeness to the end of life is also associated with an increasing prominence of affect in the mental representations of social partners. The results suggest that the perception of limited time, rather than chronological age, is the critical variable influencing mental representations of social partners.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077222200003

    View details for PubMedID 9848799

  • Emotion in the second half of life CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Carstensen, L. L., Charles, S. T. 1998; 7 (5): 144-149
  • Perspectives on socioemotional selectivity in late life: How personality and social context do (and do not) make a difference JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Lang, F. R., Staudinger, U. M., Carstensen, L. L. 1998; 53 (1): P21-P30

    Abstract

    This research extends earlier cross-sectional findings suggesting that although social network sizes were smaller in very old age as compared to old age, the number of emotionally close relationships in the network did not distinguish age groups. In a representative sample of community dwelling and institutionalized adults, aged 70 to 104 years, we explored whether such indication of socioemotional selectivity was related to personality characteristics and family status. Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Neuroticism as assessed by the NEO-PI were related to overall network size but unrelated to the average emotional closeness of social partners in the network (i.e., our indicator of socioemotional selectivity). Family status, in contrast, was related to average emotional closeness to network members. Moreover, family status moderates the relationship between average emotional closeness to network members and feelings of social embeddedness. Findings suggest a stronger influence of contextual rather than personality factors on social functioning in late life.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071780300002

    View details for PubMedID 9469168

  • A life-span approach to social motivation Motivation and self-regulation across the life span Carstensen, L. L. edited by Heckhausen, J., Dweck, C. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1998: 341–364
  • Social relationships and adaptation in late life Comprehensive Clinical psychology: Clinical geropsychology Lang, F., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Eldelstein, B. A. Oxford: Elsevier Science. 1998: 55–72
  • Emotion and aging Encyclopedia of mental health Pasupathi, M., Carstensen, L. L., Tur-Charles, S., Tsai, J. edited by Friedman, H. San Diego: Academic Press. 1998: 91–101
  • Emotion and aging: Experience, expression, and control PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Gross, J. J., Carstensen, L. L., Pasupathi, M., Tsai, J., Skorpen, C. G., Hsu, A. Y. 1997; 12 (4): 590-599

    Abstract

    Age differences in emotional experience, expression, and control were investigated in 4 studies. A community sample of 127 African Americans and European Americans (ages 19-96 years) was used in Study 1; a community sample of 82 Chinese Americans and European Americans (ages 20-85 years) was used in Study 2; a community sample of 49 Norwegians drawn from 2 age groups (ages 20-35 years and 70+ years) was used in Study 3; and a sample of 1,080 American nuns (ages 24-101 years) was used in Study 4. Across studies, a consistent pattern of age differences emerged. Compared with younger participants, older participants reported fewer negative emotional experiences and greater emotional control. Findings regarding emotional expressivity were less consistent, but when there were age differences, older participants reported lesser expressivity. Results are interpreted in terms of increasingly competent emotion regulation across the life span.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YK91800005

    View details for PubMedID 9416628

  • Social support in context and as context: Comments on social support and the maintenance of competence in old age Societal mechanisms for maintaining competence in old age Carstensen, L. L., Lang, F. edited by Willis, S., Schaie, K. W. New York: Springer Publishing. 1997: 207–222
  • The social context of emotion Annual Review of Geriatrics and Gerontology Carstensen, L. L., Gross, J., Fung, H. edited by Lawton, M. P., Schaie, K. W. New York: Springer. 1997: 325–352
  • Aging well: Thoughts about a process-oriented metamodel of successful aging PSYCHOLOGISCHE RUNDSCHAU Baltes, M. M., Carstensen, L. L. 1996; 47 (4): 199-215
  • The process of successful ageing AGEING AND SOCIETY Baltes, M. M., Carstensen, L. L. 1996; 16: 397-422
  • The process of successful ageing Intersections of aging: Readings in social gerontology Baltes, M. M., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Markson, E. W., Hollis-Sawyer, L. A. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Co.. 1996: 65–81
  • Affect in intimate relationships: The developmental course of marriage Handbook of emotion, adult development and aging Carstensen, L. L., Graff, J., Levenson, R. W., Gottman, J. M. edited by Magai, C., McFadden, S. Orlando: Academic Press. 1996: 227–247
  • The role of ethnicity in clinical work with the elderly The practical handbook of clinical gerontology Tsai, J. L., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Carstensen, L. L., Eldestein, B. A., Dornbrand, L. Hillsdale, CA: Sage Publications. 1996: 76–106
  • Geschlechtsunterschiede der Berliner Altersstudie Der Berliner Altersstudie Baltes, M., Horgas, A., Klingespor, B., Freund, A., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Mayer, K. U., Baltes, P. B. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. 1996: 573–598
  • Socioemotional selectivity: A life-span developmental account of social behavior The developmental psychologists: Research across the life span Carstensen, L. L. edited by Merrens, M. R., Brannigan, G. G. New York: McGraw Hill. 1996: 250–271
  • Interactive minds from a developmental perspective Interactive minds: Life-span perspectives on the social foundation of cognition Carstensen, L. L. edited by Baltes, P. B., Staudinger, U. NewYork: Cambridge University Press. 1996: 420–424
  • The second half of life: Studying the strengths of older Americans The Chronicle of Higher Education Carstensen, L. L. 1996; XLIII (6): B3-B4
  • Gutes Leben im Alter. Überlegungen zu einem prozeßorientierten Metamodel gelingenden, erfolgreichen Alters Psychologische Rundschau Baltes, M. M., Carstensen, L. L. 1996; 47: 199 - 215
  • The practical handbook of clinical gerontology edited by Carstensen, L. L., Edelstein, B. A., Dombrand, L. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 1996
  • EVIDENCE FOR A LIFE-SPAN THEORY OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Carstensen, L. L. 1995; 4 (5): 151-156
  • EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR IN LONG-TERM MARRIAGE PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Carstensen, L. L., Gottman, J. M., Levenson, R. W. 1995; 10 (1): 140-149

    Abstract

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction. In older couples, the resolution of conflict was less emotionally negative and more affectionate than in middle-aged marriages. Differences between husbands and wives and between happy and unhappy marriages were also found. Wives were more affectively negative than husbands, whereas husbands were more defensive than wives, and unhappy marriages involved greater exchange of negative affect than happy marriages.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QN04500014

    View details for PubMedID 7779311

  • The social construction of the disempowered elderly: Ageism in interpersonal settings The social psychology of interpersonal discrimination Pasupathi, M., Carstensen, L. L., Tsai, J. L. edited by Lott, B., Maluso, D. New York: Guilford Publications. 1995: 160–182
  • Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 12) (Review) Contemporary Gerontology Carstensen, L. L. 1995; 2: 11-12
  • Selection and compensation in adulthood Psychological compensation: Managing losses and promoting gains Carstensen, L. L., Hanson, K., Freund, A. edited by Dixon, R. A., Backman, L. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Publications. 1995: 106–126
  • Cognitive and affective characteristics of socially withdrawn nursing home residents Journal of Clinical Geropsychology Carstensen, L. L., Fisher, J. E., Malloy, P. 1995; 1: 207 - 218
  • The social construction of the disempowered elderly: Ageism in interpersonal settings Contemporary Gerontology Carstensen, L. L. 1995: 11–12
  • The social construction of the disempowered elderly: Ageism in interpersonal settings Life-span development and behavior Carstensen, L. L. edited by Featherman, D. L., Lerner, R., Perlmutter, M. 1995
  • THE INFLUENCE OF AGE AND GENDER ON AFFECT, PHYSIOLOGY, AND THEIR INTERRELATIONS - A STUDY OF LONG-TERM MARRIAGES JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., Gottman, J. M. 1994; 67 (1): 56-68

    Abstract

    Self-reported affect and autonomic and somatic physiology were studied during three 15-min conversations (events of the day, problem area, pleasant topic) in a sample of 151 couples in long-term marriages. Couples differed in age (40-50 or 60-70) and marital satisfaction (satisfied or dissatisfied). Marital interaction in older couples was associated with more affective positivity and lower physiological arousal (even when controlling for affective differences) than in middle-age couples. As has previously been found with younger couples, marital dissatisfaction was associated with less positive affect, greater negative affect, and greater negative affect reciprocity. In terms of the relation between physiological arousal and affective experience, husbands reported feeling more negative the more they were physiologically aroused; for wives, affect and arousal were not correlated. These findings are related to theories of socioemotional change with age and of gender differences in marital behavior and health.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NU58800006

    View details for PubMedID 8046584

  • THE SALIENCE OF EMOTION ACROSS THE ADULT LIFE-SPAN PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Carstensen, L. L., TURKCHARLES, S. 1994; 9 (2): 259-264

    Abstract

    Recent research on emotion has rendered equivocal traditional views of diminished emotionality in late life. This study focused on the salience of emotion in 83 Ss age 20 to 83 years. Using an incidental memory paradigm, Ss read a narrative containing equivalent amounts of emotional and neutral information. Salience was measured by the proportion of emotional versus neutral phrases recalled at the end of a 1-hr experimental session. Contrary to models of diminished emotionality, results suggest that the relative salience of emotion increases linearly with age and cohort. Results are discussed within the framework of cognitive theories of adult development and socioemotional selectivity theory.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NR16500010

    View details for PubMedID 8054174

  • CLOSE EMOTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN LATE-LIFE - FURTHER SUPPORT FOR PROACTIVE AGING IN THE SOCIAL DOMAIN PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Lang, F. R., Carstensen, L. L. 1994; 9 (2): 315-324

    Abstract

    The idea that age-related reductions in network size are proactively managed by older people is explored by examining the interrelationships among chronological age, network composition, social support, and feelings of social embeddedness (FSE) in a representative sample of 156 community-dwelling and institutionalized adults ages 70-104 years. Comparisons between people with and without nuclear families are made to explore the influence of opportunity structures on network size. Social networks of very old people are nearly half as large as those of old people, but the number of very close relationships does not differentiate age groups. Among Ss without living nuclear family members, the number of emotionally close social partners predicted FSE better than among Ss with nuclear family members. Findings provide evidence for proactive selection, compensation, and optimization toward the goal of emotional enhancement and social functioning in old age.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NR16500015

    View details for PubMedID 8054179

  • THE RESILIENCE OF THE AGING SELF DEVELOPMENTAL REVIEW Carstensen, L. L., Freund, A. M. 1994; 14 (1): 81-92
  • Marital interaction in old and middle-aged long-term marriages: Physiology, affect and their interrelations Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., Gottman, J. M. 1994; 67: 56 - 68
  • LONG-TERM MARRIAGE - AGE, GENDER, AND SATISFACTION PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., Gottman, J. M. 1993; 8 (2): 301-313

    Abstract

    Long-term marriages (N = 156) varying in spouses' age (40-50 years or 60-70 years) and relative marital satisfaction (satisfied and dissatisfied) were studied. Spouses independently completed demographic, marital, and health questionnaires and then participated in a laboratory-based procedure focused on areas of conflict and sources of pleasure. Findings supported a positive view of older marriages. Compared with middle-aged marriages, older couples evidenced (a) reduced potential for conflict and greater potential for pleasure in several areas (including children), (b) equivalent levels of overall mental and physical health, and (c) lesser gender differences in sources of pleasure. The relation between marital satisfaction and health was stronger for women than for men. In satisfied marriages, wives' and husbands' health was equivalent; in dissatisfied marriages, wives reported more mental and physical health problems than did their husbands.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LG91800016

    View details for PubMedID 8323733

  • MOTIVATION FOR SOCIAL CONTACT ACROSS THE LIFE-SPAN - A THEORY OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY 1992 NEBRASKA SYMP ON MOTIVATION : DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION Carstensen, L. L. UNIV NEBRASKA PRESS. 1993: 209–254
  • MOTIVATION FOR SOCIAL CONTACT ACROSS THE LIFE-SPAN - A THEORY OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY NEBRASKA SYMPOSIUM ON MOTIVATION Carstensen, L. L. 1993; 40: 209-254
  • Women of a certain age Critical issues facing women in the '90s Carstensen, L. L., Pasupathi, M. edited by Matteo, S. Boston: Northeastern University Press. 1993: 66–78
  • Geriatric patients Handbook of behavior therapy in the psychiatric setting Fisher, J. E., Carstensen, L. L., Turk, S. E., Noll, J. edited by Bellack, A. S., Hernsen, M. New York: Plenum. 1993: 355–369
  • Psychopathology in the aged Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology Fisher, J. E., Zeiss, A. M., Carstensen, L. L. edited by Sutker, B. P., Adams, H. E. New York: Plenum Press. 1993; 2: 815–842
  • SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL PATTERNS IN ADULTHOOD - SUPPORT FOR SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY THEORY PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Carstensen, L. L. 1992; 7 (3): 331-338

    Abstract

    This investigation explored 2 hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory: (a) Selective reductions in social interaction begin in early adulthood and (b) emotional closeness to significant others increases rather than decreases in adulthood even when rate reductions occur. Transcribed interviews with 28 women and 22 men from the Child Guidance Study, conducted over 34 years, were reviewed and rated for frequency of interaction, satisfaction with the relationship, and degree of emotional closeness in 6 types of relationships. Interaction frequency with acquaintances and close friends declined from early adulthood on. Interaction frequency with spouses and siblings increased across the same time period and emotional closeness increased throughout adulthood in relationships with relatives and close friends. Findings suggest that individuals begin narrowing their range of social partners long before old age.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JN08600001

    View details for PubMedID 1388852

  • Motivation for social contact across the life span: a theory of socioemotional selectivity. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation Carstensen, L. L. 1992; 40: 209-254

    Abstract

    Older people engage in social interaction less frequently than their younger counterparts. As I mentioned at the start, the change has been interpreted in largely negative terms. Yet when asked about their social relationships, older people describe them as satisfying, supportive, and fulfilling. Marriages are less negative and more positive. Close relationships with siblings are renewed, and relationships with children are better than ever before. Even though older people interact with others less frequently than younger people do, old age is not a time of misery, rigidity, or melancholy. Rather than present a paradox, I argue here that decreasing rates of contact reflect a reorganization of the goal hierarchies that underlie motivation for social contact and lead to greater selectivity in social partners. This reorganization does not occur haphazardly. Self-definition, information seeking, and emotion regulation are ranked differently depending not only on past experiences, but on place in the life cycle and concomitant expectations about the future. I contend that the emphasis on emotion in old age results from a recognition of the finality of life. In most people's lives this does not appear suddenly in old age but occurs gradually across adulthood. At times, however, life events conspire to bring about endings more quickly. Whether as benign as a geographical relocation or as sinister as a fatal disease, endings heighten the salience of surrounding emotions. When each interaction with a grandchild or good-bye kiss to a spouse may be the last, a sense of poignancy may permeate even the most casual everyday experiences. When the regulation of emotion assumes greatest priority among social motives, social partners are carefully chosen. The most likely choices will be long-term friends and loved ones, because they are most likely to provide positive emotional experiences and affirm the self. Information seeking will motivate some social behavior, but for reasons discussed previously, this will also require judicious choices of social partners. Narrowing the range of social partners allows people to conserve physical and cognitive resources, freeing time and energy for selected social relationships. As such, SST is highly consistent with the selective optimization with compensation model of successful aging formulated by P. Baltes and M. Baltes (1990) described above. SST is meant to describe and explain the underlying mechanisms for age-related changes in social behavior. It is not intended to be prescriptive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for PubMedID 1340521

  • Perspectives on research with older families: Contributions of older adults to families and to family therapy Family, self and society: Towards a new agenda for family research Carstensen, L. L. edited by Cowan, P., Field, D., Hansen, D., Skolnick, A., Swanson, E. Los Angeles: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1992: 353–360
  • EMOTION, PHYSIOLOGY, AND EXPRESSION IN OLD-AGE PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Levenson, R. W., Friesen, W. V., Ekman, P., Carstensen, L. L. 1991; 6 (1): 28-35

    Abstract

    Emotion-specific autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was studied in 20 elderly people (age 71-83 years, M = 77) who followed muscle-by-muscle instructions for constructing facial prototypes of emotional expressions and relived past emotional experiences. Results indicated that (a) patterns of emotion-specific ANS activity produced by these tasks closely resembled those found in other studies with younger Ss, (b) the magnitude of change in ANS measures was smaller in older than in younger Ss, (c) patterns of emotion-specific ANS activity showed generality across the 2 modes of elicitation, (d) emotion self-reports and spontaneous production of emotional facial expressions that occurred during relived emotional memories were comparable with those found in younger Ss, (e) elderly men and women did not differ in emotional physiology or facial expression, and (f) elderly women reported experiencing more intense emotions when reliving emotional memories than did elderly men.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FA55300004

    View details for PubMedID 2029364

  • Psychology: The study of human experience Carstensen, L. L., Ornstein, R. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. 1991
  • Selectivity theory: Social activity in life-span context Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics Carstensen, L. L., Schaie, K. W. New York: Springer. 1991: 195–217
  • Possible selves and their fertility in the process of successful aging: A commentary on Cross and Markus Human Development Baltes, M. M., Carstensen, L. L. 1991; 34: 256 - 260
  • Treatment applications for psychological and behavioral problems of the elderly in nursing homes Handbook of clinical behavior therapy with the elderly clien Carstensen, L. L., Fisher, J. E. edited by Wisocki, P. A. New York: Plenum. 1991: 337–362
  • CHOOSING SOCIAL PARTNERS - HOW OLD-AGE AND ANTICIPATED ENDINGS MAKE PEOPLE MORE SELECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Fredrickson, B. L., Carstensen, L. L. 1990; 5 (3): 335-347

    Abstract

    Carstensen's selectivity theory, which explains age-related change in social behavior in terms of emotion conservation and increasing discrimination among social partners, was investigated in 2 studies. In Study 1, 80 people aged 14 to 95 classified descriptions of people according to their similarities as social partners in terms of affect anticipated in the interaction and that this dimension was most important to older people. Study 2 showed how anticipated social endings influence partner selection: 380 people aged 11 to 92 chose familiar or novel partners under unspecified and ending conditions. Overall, older people chose familiar partners most frequently; yet when social endings were salient, younger people patterned the preferences of the elderly. These results suggest that social partner selectivity functions to conserve emotion resources in the face of limited future opportunities.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DY44500003

    View details for PubMedID 2242238

  • MENTAL-HEALTH NEEDS OF THE CHRONICALLY MENTALLY-ILL ELDERLY PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING Meeks, S., Carstensen, L. L., Stafford, P. B., Brenner, L. L., Weathers, F., Welch, R., Oltmanns, T. F. 1990; 5 (2): 163-171

    Abstract

    The treatment histories and current social, financial, and clinical status of 111 chronically mentally ill (CMI) persons over the age of 60 were examined. Information was obtained from Ss, family, mental health records, and mental health professionals familiar with Ss. Psychiatric symptoms were observed in 74% of Ss. Many Ss experienced long periods without acute episodes of illness. Recurring episodes eventually appeared in most Ss, however, and ongoing deficits in daily functioning and social contacts were prototypical. Two thirds of the Ss were living in the community, relying heavily on family contacts; the rest lived primarily in nursing homes (23.4%) or psychiatric hospitals (7.2%). Social support was the best predictor of level of functioning. Findings suggest that failure of CMI elderly to use mental health services is not due to lack of need. Mental health services currently do not appear to be meeting the needs of this population.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DH07000001

    View details for PubMedID 2378681

  • BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT OF THE DEMENTIAS CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW Fisher, J. E., Carstensen, L. L. 1990; 10 (6): 611-629
  • Generalized effects of skills training among older adults The Clinical Gerontologist Fisher, J. E., Carstensen, L. L. 1990; 9: 91 - 107
  • Choosing social partners: How old age and anticipated endings make us more selective Essential papers on the psychology of aging Fredrickson, B. L., Carstensen, L. L. NYU Press. 1990: 511–538
  • Mechanisms of psychological influence on physical health, with special attention to the elderly edited by Carstensen, L. L., Neale, J. M. New York: Plenum. 1989
  • Peril in the prediction of psychopathology with longitudinal research Contemporary Psychology Carstensen, L. L. 1989; 34: 344 - 345
  • AGE-DIFFERENCES IN COPING - DOES LESS MEAN WORSE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGING & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Meeks, S., Carstensen, L. L., Tamsky, B. F., Wright, T. L., Pellegrini, D. 1989; 28 (2): 127-140

    Abstract

    Previous research suggests that elderly people utilize fewer coping strategies than younger people. Some researchers suggest that these quantitative changes reflect decreases in the use of maladaptive strategies; others contend that they reflect decreases in the use of adaptive strategies by older adults. The present article reports the findings of three studies of coping in older people, two addressing coping with health problems, and the other addressing coping with moving. In all three studies, the number of self-reported coping strategies decreases with age. Results do not support the idea that decreases in the number of strategies imply decrements in the quality of coping, however: in two studies, age was unrelated to the effectiveness of strategies, in the third, effectiveness ratings were higher for older subjects. The need for evaluation of specific outcomes of coping strategies is discussed, along with the need for task-specific measurement of coping. It is proposed that decreases in the number of coping strategies reflect improved coping efficiency, rather than a deterioration of adaptational skills.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T475100003

    View details for PubMedID 2714867

  • THE EMERGING FIELD OF BEHAVIORAL GERONTOLOGY BEHAVIOR THERAPY Carstensen, L. L. 1988; 19 (3): 259-281
  • BEHAVIOR-THERAPY MINI-SERIES - AGING - CLINICAL NEEDS AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES BEHAVIOR THERAPY Rosenthal, T. L., Carstensen, L. L. 1988; 19 (3): 257-258
  • The influence of social anxiety and mental status on social withdrawal among the elderly in nursing homes Behavioral Residential Treatment Carstensen, L. L., Fremouw, J. 1988; 3: 63 - 80
  • Perspectives from the inside: Mental health needs of the elderly in nursing homes Behavioral Residential Treatment Carstensen, L. L., Fisher, J. E. 1988; 3: 183 - 192
  • Situational assessment of alcohol-related coping skills in wives of alcoholics Psychology of Addictive Behavior Rychtaric, R. G., Carstensen, L. L., Alford, G. S., Schludt, D. G., Scott, W. O. 1988; 2: 66 - 73
  • CARE OF THE ELDERLY - A FAMILY APPROACH - PINKSTON,EM, LINSK,NL (Book Review) SOCIAL SERVICE REVIEW Book Review Authored by: Carstensen, L. L. 1987; 61 (3): 537-538
  • Age-related changes in social activity among the elderly Handbook of clinical gerontology Carstensen, L. L. edited by Carstensen, L. L., Eldestein, B. A. New York: Pergamon Press. 1987
  • Handbook of Clinical Gerontology edited by Carstensen, L. L., Edelstein, B. A. New York: Pergamon Press. 1987
  • Increasing rates of social interactions among elderly nursing home residents: Are high rates enough? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Carstensen, L. L., Erickson, R. J. 1986; 19: 349 - 355
  • Treatment of depression in an elderly nursing home resident Clinical Gerontologist Goddard, P., Carstensen, L. L. 1986; 4: 13 - 20
  • Social support among the elderly: Limitations of behavioral interventions Behavior Therapist Carstensen, L. L. 1986; 6: 111 - 113
  • Life satisfaction and social desirability: Clarifying earlier findings Journal of Gerontology Cone, J. D., Carstensen, L. L. 1985; 40: 126 - 128
  • Treatment effectiveness for early and late-onset elderly alcoholics Addictive Behaviors: An International Quarterly Carstensen, L. L., Rychtarik, R. G., Prue, D. M. 1985; 10: 307 - 311
  • Generalized effects of increasing the availability of choice among institutionalized elderly International Journal of Behavioral Geriatrics Hutchison, W., Carstensen, L. L., Silberman, D. 1983; 1: 21 - 32
  • Organizational behavior management, 1978-1982: An annotated bibliography Journal of Organizational Behavior Management Rapp, S., Carsten, L. L., Prue, D. M. 1983; 5: 5 - 50
  • SOCIAL DESIRABILITY AND THE MEASUREMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN ELDERLY PERSONS JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY Carstensen, L. L., Cone, J. D. 1983; 38 (6): 713-715

    Abstract

    The discriminant validity of two commonly used measures of life satisfaction was investigated. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, the Life Satisfaction Index-B, and two theoretically unrelated self-report measures were completed by 60 alumni of West Virginia University, aged 66 to 86 years. Convergent validity of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index-B was established (r = .64, p less than .0001), but both also correlated significantly with a measure of social desirability (r = .70 and .58, respectively, p less than .0001). The need for more basic work on measurement of life satisfaction in elderly persons was discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RQ44200013

    View details for PubMedID 6630907

  • CHILDRENS ATTITUDES TOWARD THE ELDERLY - AN INTERGENERATIONAL TECHNIQUE FOR CHANGE EDUCATIONAL GERONTOLOGY Carstensen, L., Mason, S. E., Caldwell, E. C. 1982; 8 (3): 291-301
  • THE DEMONSTRATION OF A BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR LATE LIFE PARANOIA GERONTOLOGIST Carstensen, L. L., Fremouw, W. J. 1981; 21 (3): 329-333

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LR91400018

    View details for PubMedID 7239262