All Publications

  • How are students learning to care for people with disabilities?: exploring the curriculum design of a sample of disability electives offered by US health professions schools. Disability and rehabilitation Clarke, L., Tabor, H. K., Gisondi, M. A. 2023: 1-11


    PURPOSE: There is an increased demand among health professions students for disability-focused training. We aimed to characterize the development and structure of a sample of disability electives offered at health professions schools in the United States.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was developed to capture data on the curriculum design of disability electives offered at health professions schools across the United States. The primary outcome measures were elective development, elective structure, learner and instructor demographics, disability inclusion, and evaluation methodologies. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted, during which the survey was distributed to relevant professional societies focused on disability advocacy within healthcare.RESULTS: Data were collected on fifteen disability electives. Most electives were developed within the past four years, and many electives were initiated by students. The structure, duration, and evaluation methodology of electives were highly variable. Most electives took the form of a longer didactic-based course or a shorter clinical experience. All electives involved people with disabilities in some capacity.CONCLUSIONS: Disability electives fill an important gap in disability education at some health professions schools. Elective directors should have an increased focus on assessing student learning and ensuring that people with disabilities are involved in elective design and instruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/09638288.2023.2254694

    View details for PubMedID 37671804

  • The impact of inclusion: Improving medical student confidence in caring for adults with intellectual disabilities through an interactive, narrative-based session JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL & DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY Clarke, L., Tabor, H. K. 2023
  • The impact of autism-related training programs on physician knowledge, self-efficacy, and practice behavior: A systematic review. Autism : the international journal of research and practice Clarke, L., Fung, L. K. 2022: 13623613221102016


    Autism spectrum disorder is estimated to impact 1.5 million children and almost 5.5 million adults. However, most physicians do not receive training on how to provide care to this increasingly large group of people. After performing a systematic review of the literature and screening over 4,500 unique articles focused on the effectiveness of autism-specific training programs designed for physicians and physician trainees, we determined that 17 studies met the pre-determined criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. The results reported by these studies suggest that by completing specialized training programs related to autism, physicians were more knowledgeable on topics related to the condition, more confident in their ability to provide care to autistic individuals, and more likely to screen their patients for autism spectrum disorder. However, further studies with higher quality data are needed to validate these findings and provide additional insight on the ability of these programs to improve physician behavior and patient outcomes. We are therefore advocating that medical educators develop and evaluate specialized autism training programs with an increased focus on improving physician behavior related to all aspects of providing care to autistic people.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/13623613221102016

    View details for PubMedID 35698749

  • The need to include intellectual/developmental disability in medical school curriculum: The perspective of a student advocate Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability Clarke, L. 2022
  • Comparing the prevalence of sexual behaviors and victimization among adolescents based on child welfare system involvement. Child abuse & neglect Kobulsky, J. M., Cederbaum, J. A., Wildfeuer, R., Grest, C. V., Clarke, L., Kordic, T. 2022; 134: 105883


    Sexual behavior presents risks, particularly among vulnerable groups such as adolescents with child welfare system involvement. This study compares the prevalence of sexual behaviors and victimization among adolescents in Los Angeles County with and without child welfare system involvement. It examines associations between online and offline sexual behaviors and victimization.The sample included middle and high school students (N = 2365) and high school students only (N = 1068) participating in the 2015 Los Angeles Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Measures included child welfare system involvement with or without foster care placement, demographics (race, ethnicity, gender, age), in-person sexual behaviors (e.g., unsafe sex), online sexual behaviors (e.g., sent/received sext), and sexual victimization (forced sex, dating physical violence, dating sexual assault). Logistic regressions examined variability in sexual behaviors and victimization based on child welfare involvement, net of demographics. Path analyses associated online sexual behaviors with victimization and offline risk.Greater reported sexual behavior and victimization among foster care youths was found, relative to youths without child welfare system involvement (maximum OR = 9.8). Youth with child welfare system involvement but not placed in foster care reported more unsafe sex, sexting because of pressure, finding a sex partner online, having sex with a partner met online, and forced sex (maximum OR = 10.4). Sexting was associated with forced sex and dating sexual assault, finding a sexual partner online, and physical violence.Targeted prevention is needed for online and offline sexual risks and victimization among youth with child welfare system involvement.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chiabu.2022.105883

    View details for PubMedID 36115325

  • Socio-behavioral dysfunction in disorders of hypothalamic-pituitary involvement: The potential role of disease-induced oxytocin and vasopressin signaling deficits. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews Clarke, L., Zyga, O., Pineo-Cavanaugh, P. L., Jeng, M., Fischbein, N. J., Partap, S., Katznelson, L., Parker, K. J. 2022: 104770


    Disorders involving hypothalamic and pituitary (HPIT) structures-including craniopharyngioma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and intracranial germ cell tumors-can disrupt brain and endocrine function. An area of emerging clinical concern in patients with these disorders is the co-occurring socio-behavioral dysfunction that persists after standard hormone replacement therapy. Although the two neuropeptides most implicated in mammalian social functioning (oxytocin and arginine vasopressin) are of hypothalamic origin, little is known about how disease-induced damage to HPIT structures may disrupt neuropeptide signaling and, in turn, impact patients' socio-behavioral functioning. Here we provide a clinical primer on disorders of HPIT involvement and a review of neuropeptide signaling and socio-behavioral functioning in relevant animal models and patient populations. This collective evidence suggests that neuropeptide signaling disruptions contribute to socio-behavioral deficits experienced by patients with disorders of HPIT involvement. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of patients' socio-behavioral symptoms is now needed to enable the development of the first targeted pharmacological strategies by which to manage patients' socio-behavioral dysfunction.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2022.104770

    View details for PubMedID 35803395

  • A Case Study in Making Ocean Education Accessible for Students with Special Needs Current: The Journal of Marine Education Clarke, L., Kast, D. J. 2020; 34 (2): 28-35

    View details for DOI 10.5334/cjme.29

  • Assessment of Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors by an Interrogation of Signal Transduction Pathways by Antibody Arrays JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS Tiemann, K., Garri, C., Wang, J., Clarke, L., Kani, K. 2018


    Cancer patients with an aberrant regulation of the protein phosphorylation networks are often treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Response rates approaching 85% are common. Unfortunately, patients often become refractory to the treatment by altering their signal transduction pathways. An implementation of the expression profiling with microarrays can identify the overall mRNA-level changes, and proteomics can identify the overall changes in protein levels or can identify the proteins involved, but the activity of the signal transduction pathways can only be established by interrogating post-translational modifications of the proteins. As a result, the ability to identify whether a drug treatment is successful or whether resistance arose, or the ability to characterize any alterations in the signaling pathways, is an important clinical challenge. Here, we provide a detailed explanation of antibody arrays as a tool which can identify system-wide alterations in various post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation). One of the advantages of using antibody arrays includes their accessibility (an array does not require either an expert in proteomics or costly equipment) and speed. The availability of arrays targeting a combination of post-translational modifications is the primary limitation. In addition, unbiased approaches (phosphoproteomics) may be more suitable for the novel discovery, whereas antibody arrays are ideal for the most widely characterized targets.

    View details for DOI 10.3791/57779

    View details for Web of Science ID 000456210900034

    View details for PubMedID 30295648

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6235240