Lauren Destino, MD, is the Associate Division Chief of the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Division and Medical Director of Acute Care at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford (LPCHS) and a Clinical Professor at Stanford University. She was a site co-Investigator for the I-PASS study at Stanford and the site Principal Investigator for the PCORI grant, Bringing I-PASS to the Bedside: A Communication Bundle to Improve Patient Safety and Experience. She is involved in a number of quality and process improvement related activities at LPCHS. She is the director for a required quality improvement rotation for residents and co-directs the scholarly concentration for quality and process improvement. Her research interests include communication among the care team (inclusive of patients and families), patient flow throughout the hospital, and value centered improvement.
- Hospital Medicine
Clinical Professor, Pediatrics
Clinical Professor, Emergency Medicine
Clinical Professor, Emergency Medicine
Residency: Medical College Of Wisconsin (2007) WI
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospital Medicine (2019)
Chief Residency, Medical College of Wisconsin, Pediatrics (2008)
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2007)
Medical Education: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (2004) IL
BS, University of Notre Dame, Chemical Engineering (2000)
Implementation of the I-PASS handoff program in diverse clinical environments: A multicenter prospective effectiveness implementation study.
Journal of hospital medicine
Handoff miscommunications are a leading source of medical errors. Harmful medical errors decreased in pediatric academic hospitals following implementation of the I-PASS handoff improvement program. However, implementation across specialties has not been assessed.To determine if I-PASS implementation across diverse settings would be associated with improvements in patient safety and communication.Prospective Type 2 Hybrid effectiveness implementation study.Residents from diverse specialties across 32 hospitals (12 community, 20 academic).External teams provided longitudinal coaching over 18 months to facilitate implementation of an enhanced I-PASS program and monthly metric reviews.Systematic surveillance surveys assessed rates of resident-reported adverse events. Validated direct observation tools measured verbal and written handoff quality.2735 resident physicians and 760 faculty champions from multiple specialties (16 internal medicine, 13 pediatric, 3 other) participated. 1942 error surveillance reports were collected. Major and minor handoff-related reported adverse events decreased 47% following implementation, from 1.7 to 0.9 major events/person-year (p < .05) and 17.5 to 9.3 minor events/person-year (p < .001). Implementation was associated with increased inclusion of all five key handoff data elements in verbal (20% vs. 66%, p < .001, n = 4812) and written (10% vs. 74%, p < .001, n = 1787) handoffs, as well as increased frequency of handoffs with high quality verbal (39% vs. 81% p < .001) and written (29% vs. 78%, p < .001) patient summaries, verbal (29% vs. 78%, p < .001) and written (24% vs. 73%, p < .001) contingency plans, and verbal receiver syntheses (31% vs. 83%, p < .001). Improvement was similar across provider types (adult vs. pediatric) and settings (community vs. academic).
View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.12979
View details for PubMedID 36326255
Family, nurse, and physician beliefs on family-centered rounds: A 21-site study
JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE
Variation exists in family-centered rounds (FCR).We sought to understand patient/family and clinician FCR beliefs/attitudes and practices to support implementation efforts.Patients/families and clinicians at 21 geographically diverse US community/academic pediatric teaching hospitals participated in a prospective cohort dissemination and implementation study.We inquired about rounding beliefs/attitudes, practices, and demographics using a 26-question survey coproduced with family/nurse/attending-physician collaborators, informed by prior research and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research.Out of 2578 individuals, 1647 (64%) responded to the survey; of these, 1313 respondents participated in FCR and were included in analyses (616 patients/families, 243 nurses, 285 resident physicians, and 169 attending physicians). Beliefs/attitudes regarding the importance of FCR elements varied by role, with resident physicians rating the importance of several FCR elements lower than others. For example, on adjusted multivariable analysis, attending physicians (odds ratio [OR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.2-7.8) and nurses (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3-7.4) were much more likely than resident physicians to report family participation on rounds as very/extremely important. Clinician support for key FCR elements was higher than self-reported practice (e.g., 88% believed family participation was important on rounds; 68% reported it often/always occurred). In practice, key elements of FCR were reported to often/always occur only 23%-70% of the time.Support for nurse and family participation in FCR is high among clinicians but varies by role. Physicians, particularly resident physicians, endorse several FCR elements as less important than nurses and patients/families. The gap between attitudes and practice and between clinician types suggests that attitudinal, structural, and cultural barriers impede FCR.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.12962
View details for Web of Science ID 000855975200001
View details for PubMedID 36131598
Intervention, individual, and contextual determinants to high adherence to structured family-centered rounds: a national multi-site mixed methods study.
Implementation science communications
2022; 3 (1): 74
Effective communication in transitions between healthcare team members is associated with improved patient safety and experience through a clinically meaningful reduction in serious safety events. Family-centered rounds (FCR) can serve a critical role in interprofessional and patient-family communication. Despite widespread support, FCRs are not utilized consistently in many institutions. Structured FCR approaches may prove beneficial in increasing FCR use but should address organizational challenges. The purpose of this study was to identify intervention, individual, and contextual determinants of high adherence to common elements of structured FCR in pediatric inpatient units during the implementation phase of a large multi-site study implementing a structured FCR approach.We performed an explanatory sequential mixed methods study from September 2019 to October 2020 to evaluate the variation in structured FCR adherence across 21 pediatric inpatient units. We analyzed 24 key informant interviews of supervising physician faculty, physician learners, nurses, site administrators, and project leaders at 3 sites using a qualitative content analysis paradigm to investigate site variation in FCR use. We classified implementation determinants based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research.Provisional measurements of adherence demonstrated considerable variation in structured FCR use across sites at a median time of 5 months into the implementation. Consistent findings across all three sites included generally positive clinician beliefs regarding the use of FCR and structured rounding approaches, benefits to learner self-efficacy, and potential efficiency gains derived through greater rounds standardization, as well as persistent challenges with nurse engagement and interaction on rounds and coordination and use of resources for families with limited English proficiency.Studies during implementation to identify determinants to high adherence can provide generalizable knowledge regarding implementation determinants that may be difficult to predict prior to implementation, guide adaptation during the implementation, and inform sustainment strategies.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s43058-022-00322-1
View details for PubMedID 35842692
Healthcare utilization in children across the care continuum during the COVID-19 pandemic.
2022; 17 (10): e0276461
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare utilization decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, likely due to reduced transmission of infections and healthcare avoidance. Though various investigations have described these changing patterns in children, most have analyzed specific care settings. We compared healthcare utilization, prescriptions, and diagnosis patterns in children across the care continuum during the first year of the pandemic with preceding years.STUDY DESIGN: Using national claims data, we compared enrollees under 18 years during the pre-pandemic (January 2016 -mid-March 2020) and pandemic (mid-March 2020 through March 2021) periods. The pandemic was further divided into early (mid-March through mid-June 2020) and middle (mid-June 2020 through March 2021) periods. Utilization was compared using interrupted time series.RESULTS: The mean number of pediatric enrollees/month was 2,519,755 in the pre-pandemic and 2,428,912 in the pandemic period. Utilization decreased across all settings in the early pandemic, with the greatest decrease (76.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 72.6-80.5%) seen for urgent care visits. Only well visits returned to pre-pandemic rates during the mid-pandemic. Hospitalizations decreased by 43% (95% CI 37.4-48.1) during the early pandemic and were still 26.6% (17.7-34.6) lower mid-pandemic. However, hospitalizations in non-psychiatric facilities for various mental health disorders increased substantially mid-pandemic.CONCLUSION: Healthcare utilization in children dropped substantially during the first year of the pandemic, with a shift away from infectious diseases and a spike in mental health hospitalizations. These findings are important to characterize as we monitor the health of children, can be used to inform healthcare strategies during subsequent COVID-19 surges and/or future pandemics, and may help identify training gaps for pediatric trainees. Subsequent investigations should examine how changes in healthcare utilization impacted the incidence and outcomes of specific diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0276461
View details for PubMedID 36301947
Patient and Family-Centered I-PASS SCORE Program: Resident and Advanced Care Provider Training Materials.
MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources
2022; 18: 11267
Introduction: Patient and family-centered rounds (PFCRs) are an important element of family-centered care often used in the inpatient pediatric setting. However, techniques and best practices vary, and faculty, trainees, nurses, and advanced care providers may not receive formal education in strategies that specifically enhance communication on PFCRs.Methods: Harnessing the use of structured communication, we developed the Patient and Family-Centered I-PASS Safer Communication on Rounds Every Time (SCORE) Program. The program uses a standardized framework for rounds communication via the I-PASS mnemonic, principles of health literacy, and techniques for patient/family engagement and bidirectional communication. The resident and advanced care provider training materials, a component of the larger SCORE Program, incorporate a flipped classroom approach as well as interactive exercises, simulations, and virtual learning options to optimize learning and retention via a 90-minute workshop.Results: Two hundred forty-six residents completed the training and were evaluated on their knowledge and confidence regarding key elements of the curriculum. Eighty-eight percent of residents agreed/strongly agreed that after training they could activate and engage families and all members of the interprofessional team to create a shared mental model; 90% agreed/strongly agreed that they could discuss the roles/responsibilities of various team members during PFCRs.Discussion: The Patient and Family-Centered I-PASS SCORE Program provides a structured framework for teaching advanced communication techniques that can improve provider knowledge of and confidence with engaging and communicating with patients/families and other members of the interprofessional team during PFCRs.
View details for DOI 10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11267
View details for PubMedID 35990195
Parental Perspectives on Continuous Pulse Oximetry Use in Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations.
BACKGROUND: Because of the impact of continuous pulse oximetry (CPOX) on the overdiagnosis of hypoxemia in bronchiolitis, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Choosing Wisely campaign have issued recommendations for intermittent monitoring. Parental preferences for monitoring may impact adoption of these recommendations, but these perspectives are poorly understood.METHODS: Using this cross-sectional survey, we explored parental perspectives on CPOX monitoring before discharge and 1 week after bronchiolitis hospitalizations. During the 1-week call, half of the participants were randomly assigned to receive a verbal statement on the potential harms of CPOX to determine if conveying the concept of overdiagnosis can change parental preferences on monitoring frequency. An aggregate variable measuring favorable perceptions of CPOX was created to determine CPOX affinity predictors.RESULTS: In-hospital interviews were completed on 357 patients, of which 306 (86%) completed the 1-week follow-up. Although 25% of parents agreed or strongly agreed that hospital monitors made them feel anxious, 98% agreed that the monitors were helpful. Compared to other vital signs, respiratory rate (87%) and oxygen saturation (84%) were commonly rated as "extremely important." Providing an educational statement on CPOX comparatively decreased parental desire for continuous monitoring (40% vs 20%; P < .001). Although there were no significant predictors of CPOX affinity, the effect size of the educational intervention was higher in college-educated parents.CONCLUSIONS: Parents find security in CPOX. A brief statement on the potential harms of CPOX use had an impact on stated monitoring preferences. Parental perspectives are important to consider because they may influence the adoption of intermittent monitoring.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2020-0130
View details for PubMedID 32675334
Comparison of As-Needed and Scheduled Posthospitalization Follow-up for Children Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis: The Bronchiolitis Follow-up Intervention Trial (BeneFIT) Randomized Clinical Trial.
Importance: Posthospitalization follow-up visits are prescribed frequently for children with bronchiolitis. The rationale for this practice is unclear, but prior work has indicated that families value these visits for the reassurance provided. The overall risks and benefits of scheduled visits have not been evaluated.Objective: To assess whether an as-needed posthospitalization follow-up visit is noninferior to a scheduled posthospitalization follow-up visit with respect to reducing anxiety among parents of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis.Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, noninferiority randomized clinical trial, performed between January 1, 2018, and April 31, 2019, assessed children younger than 24 months of age hospitalized for bronchiolitis at 2 children's hospitals (Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Palo Alto, California) and 2 community hospitals (Intermountain Riverton Hospital, Riverton, Utah, and Packard El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, California). Data analysis was performed in an intention-to-treat manner.Interventions: Randomization (1:1) to a scheduled (n=151) vs an as-needed (n=153) posthospitalization follow-up visit.Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was parental anxiety 7 days after hospital discharge, measured using the anxiety portion of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, which ranged from 0 to 28 points, with higher scores indicating greater anxiety. Fourteen prespecified secondary outcomes were assessed.Results: Among 304 children randomized (median age, 8 months; interquartile range, 3-14 months; 179 [59%] male), the primary outcome was available for 269 patients (88%). A total of 106 children (81%) in the scheduled follow-up group attended a scheduled posthospitalization visit compared with 26 children (19%) in the as-needed group (absolute difference, 62%; 95% CI, 53%-71%). The mean (SD) 7-day parental anxiety score was 3.9 (3.5) among the as-needed posthospitalization follow-up group and 4.2 (3.5) among the scheduled group (absolute difference, -0.3 points; 95% CI, -1.0 to 0.4 points), with the upper bound of the 95% CI within the prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.1 points. Aside from a decreased mean number of clinic visits (absolute difference, -0.6 visits per patient; 95% CI, -0.4 to -0.8 visits per patient) among the as-needed group, there were no significant between-group differences in secondary outcomes, including readmissions (any hospital readmission before symptom resolution: absolute difference, -1.6%; 95% CI, -5.7% to 2.5%) and symptom duration (time from discharge to cough resolution: absolute difference, -0.6 days; 95% CI, -2.4 to 1.2 days; time from discharge to child reported "back to normal": absolute difference, -0.8 days; 95% CI, -2.7 to 1.0 days; and time from discharge to symptom resolution: absolute difference, -0.6 days; 95% CI, -2.5 to 1.3 days).Conclusions and Relevance: Among parents of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis, an as-needed posthospitalization follow-up visit is noninferior to a scheduled posthospitalization follow-up visit with respect to reducing parental anxiety. These findings support as-needed follow-up as an effective posthospitalization follow-up strategy.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03354325.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1937
View details for PubMedID 32628250
Day of Illness and Outcomes in Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations.
Bronchiolitis is often described to follow an expected clinical trajectory, with a peak in severity between days 3 and 5. This predicted trajectory may influence anticipatory guidance and clinical decision-making. We aimed to determine the association between day of illness at admission and outcomes, including hospital length of stay, receipt of positive-pressure ventilation, and total cough duration.We compiled data from 2 multicenter prospective studies involving bronchiolitis hospitalizations in patients <2 years. Patients were excluded for complex conditions. We assessed total cough duration via weekly postdischarge phone calls. We used mixed-effects multivariable regression models to test associations between day of illness and outcomes, with adjustment for age, sex, insurance (government versus nongovernment), race, and ethnicity.The median (interquartile range) day of illness at admission for 746 patients was 4 (2-5) days. Day of illness at admission was not associated with length of stay (coefficient 0.01 days, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.05 to 0.08 days), positive-pressure ventilation (adjusted odds ratio: 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.1), or total cough duration (coefficient 0.33 days, 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.67 days). Additionally, there was no significant difference in day of illness at discharge in readmitted versus nonreadmitted patients (5.9 vs 6.4 days, P = .54). The median cough duration postdischarge was 6 days, with 65 (14.3%) patients experiencing cough for 14+ days.We found no associations between day of illness at admission and outcomes in bronchiolitis hospitalizations. Practitioners should exercise caution when making clinical decisions or providing anticipatory guidance based on symptom duration.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2020-1537
View details for PubMedID 33093138
An Improvement Effort to Optimize Electronically Generated Hospital Discharge Instructions.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of hospital discharge instructions (HDIs) is to facilitate safe patient transitions home, but electronic health records can generate lengthy documents filled with irrelevant information. When our institution changed electronic health records, a cumbersome electronic discharge workflow produced low-value HDI and contributed to a spike in discharge delays. Our aim was to decrease these delays while improving family and provider satisfaction with HDI.METHODS: We used quality improvement methodology to redesign the electronic discharge navigator and HDI to address the following issues: (1) difficulty preparing discharge instructions before time of discharge, (2) suboptimal formatting of HDI, (3) lack of standard templates and language within HDI, and (4) difficulties translating HDI into non-English languages. Discharge delays due to HDI were tracked before and after the launch of our new discharge workflow. Parents and providers evaluated HDI and the electronic discharge workflow, respectively, before and after our intervention. Providers audited HDI for content.RESULTS: Discharge delays due to HDI errors decreased from a mean of 3.4 to 0.5 per month after our intervention. Parents' ratings of how understandable our HDIs were improved from 2.35 to 2.74 postintervention (P = .05). Pediatric resident agreement that the electronic discharge process was easy to use increased from 9% to 67% after the intervention (P < .001).CONCLUSIONS: Through multidisciplinary collaboration we facilitated advance preparation of more standardized HDI and decreased related discharge delays from the acute care units at a large tertiary care hospital.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2018-0251
View details for PubMedID 31243058
Family-Centered Rounds: Past, Present, and Future.
Pediatric clinics of North America
2019; 66 (4): 827–37
Bedside rounds have evolved concurrently with hospitalist medicine and patient-centered care. Family-centered rounds are the foundation of effective communication in the in-patient pediatric setting. Participant perspectives (family members, patients, nurses, faculty, and trainees) on family-centered rounds differ and goals may not always align. Further, the practical components of how rounds are conducted varies and have continued opportunities for improvement. This article summarizes the most recent experience with rounds in an attempt to identify unified and effective strategies moving forward.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pcl.2019.03.008
View details for PubMedID 31230625
Improving Patient Flow: Analysis of an Initiative to Improve Early Discharge
JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE
2019; 14 (1): 22–27
View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3133
View details for Web of Science ID 000457470100004
Patient safety after implementation of a coproduced family centered communication programme: multicenter before and after intervention study.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
2018; 363: k4764
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medical errors, family experience, and communication processes improved after implementation of an intervention to standardize the structure of healthcare provider-family communication on family centered rounds.DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter before and after intervention study.SETTING: Pediatric inpatient units in seven North American hospitals, 17 December 2014 to 3 January 2017.PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted to study units (3106 admissions, 13171 patient days); 2148 parents or caregivers, 435 nurses, 203 medical students, and 586 residents.INTERVENTION: Families, nurses, and physicians coproduced an intervention to standardize healthcare provider-family communication on ward rounds ("family centered rounds"), which included structured, high reliability communication on bedside rounds emphasizing health literacy, family engagement, and bidirectional communication; structured, written real-time summaries of rounds; a formal training programme for healthcare providers; and strategies to support teamwork, implementation, and process improvement.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Medical errors (primary outcome), including harmful errors (preventable adverse events) and non-harmful errors, modeled using Poisson regression and generalized estimating equations clustered by site; family experience; and communication processes (eg, family engagement on rounds). Errors were measured via an established systematic surveillance methodology including family safety reporting.RESULTS: The overall rate of medical errors (per 1000 patient days) was unchanged (41.2 (95% confidence interval 31.2 to 54.5) pre-intervention v 35.8 (26.9 to 47.7) post-intervention, P=0.21), but harmful errors (preventable adverse events) decreased by 37.9% (20.7 (15.3 to 28.1) v 12.9 (8.9 to 18.6), P=0.01) post-intervention. Non-preventable adverse events also decreased (12.6 (8.9 to 17.9) v 5.2 (3.1 to 8.8), P=0.003). Top box (eg, "excellent") ratings for six of 25 components of family reported experience improved; none worsened. Family centered rounds occurred more frequently (72.2% (53.5% to 85.4%) v 82.8% (64.9% to 92.6%), P=0.02). Family engagement 55.6% (32.9% to 76.2%) v 66.7% (43.0% to 84.1%), P=0.04) and nurse engagement (20.4% (7.0% to 46.6%) v 35.5% (17.0% to 59.6%), P=0.03) on rounds improved. Families expressing concerns at the start of rounds (18.2% (5.6% to 45.3%) v 37.7% (17.6% to 63.3%), P=0.03) and reading back plans (4.7% (0.7% to 25.2%) v 26.5% (12.7% to 7.3%), P=0.02) increased. Trainee teaching and the duration of rounds did not change significantly.CONCLUSIONS: Although overall errors were unchanged, harmful medical errors decreased and family experience and communication processes improved after implementation of a structured communication intervention for family centered rounds coproduced by families, nurses, and physicians. Family centered care processes may improve safety and quality of care without negatively impacting teaching or duration of rounds.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02320175.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.k4764
View details for PubMedID 30518517
I-PASS Handoff Program: Use of a Campaign to Effect Transformational Change.
Pediatric quality & safety
2018; 3 (4): e088
Background: Behavior change is notoriously difficult to achieve within health care systems. Successful implementation of the I-PASS handoff bundle with subsequent decreases in medical errors and preventable adverse events represents an example of successful transformational change within academic medical centers.Objective: We designed a campaign to support and enhance uptake of the I-PASS handoff bundle at 9 study sites from 2011 to 2013.Methods: Following Kotter's model of transformational change, we established urgency using local data and institutional mandates, and site leaders built local guiding coalitions with institutional leaders, key faculty, and Chief Residents. We created and communicated our vision using a branded campaign and empowered others to act by soliciting and acting on feedback and supporting systems changes. Site leaders planned for and created short-term wins by recognizing residents who engaged with I-PASS, consolidated improvements, and institutionalized new approaches.Results: Implementation of I-PASS was successful, with achievement of substantial improvements in rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events. Data from the initial I-PASS study have continued to drive a national campaign that has included national recognition by leaders in the field of patient safety and pediatrics. Momentum has increased significantly to support mentored implementation of the I-PASS handoff program at over 35 academic medical centers across North America.Conclusions: I-PASS provides an example of transformational change achieved through a combination of educational interventions and change management to address resistance/barriers, supported by a robust campaign. We encourage others in academic medicine to consider using change models, including campaigns, to support health care improvement programs.
View details for PubMedID 30229199
Multisite Emergency Department Inpatient Collaborative to Reduce Unnecessary Bronchiolitis Care
2018; 141 (2)
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2017-.0830
View details for Web of Science ID 000424817500006
Outcomes of Follow-up Visits After Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations.
View details for PubMedID 29379947
Implementing Parental Tobacco Dependence Treatment Within Bronchiolitis QI Collaboratives.
2018; 141 (6)
We sought to implement systematic tobacco dependence interventions for parents and/or caregivers as secondary aims within 2 multisite quality improvement (QI) collaboratives for bronchiolitis. We hypothesized that iterative improvements in tobacco dependence intervention strategies would result in improvement in outcomes between collaboratives.This study involved 2 separate yearlong, multisite QI collaboratives that were focused on care provided to inpatients with a primary diagnosis of bronchiolitis. In each collaborative, we provided tools and training in tobacco dependence treatment and expert coaching on interventions for parents as a secondary aim. Data were collected by chart review and results analyzed by using analysis of means and statistical process control analysis. Outcomes between collaboratives were compared by using relative risks.Between both collaboratives, 56 hospitals participated and 6258 inpatient charts were reviewed. In the first collaborative, 22% of identified parents who smoke received tobacco dependence interventions at baseline. This rate increased to 51% during the postintervention period, with special cause revealed by analysis of means. In the second collaborative, 31% of parents who smoke received baseline interventions. This rate increased to 53% by the conclusion of the collaborative, with special cause revealed by statistical process control analysis. The relative risk for providing any cessation intervention in 1 collaborative versus the other was 0.9 (confidence interval 0.8-1.1).Tobacco dependence treatment of parents and/or caregivers can be integrated into bronchiolitis QI by using relatively low-resource strategies. Using a more intensive QI intervention did not alter the rates of screening or intervention for caregivers who smoke.
View details for PubMedID 29769242
Integrating Research, Quality Improvement, and Medical Education for Better Handoffs and Safer Care: Disseminating, Adapting, and Implementing the I-PASS Program.
Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety
2017; 43 (7): 319-329
In 2009 the I-PASS Study Group was formed by patient safety, medical education, health services research, and clinical experts from multiple institutions in the United States and Canada. When the I-PASS Handoff Program, which was developed by the I-PASS Study Group, was implemented in nine hospitals, it was associated with a 30% reduction in injuries due to medical errors and significant improvements in handoff processes, without any adverse effects on provider work flow.To effectively disseminate and adapt I-PASS for use across specialties and disciplines, a series of federally and privately funded dissemination and implementation projects were carried out following the publication of the initial study. The results of these efforts have informed ongoing initiatives intended to continue adapting and scaling the program.As of this writing, I-PASS Study Group members have directly worked with more than 50 hospitals to facilitate implementation of I-PASS. To further disseminate I-PASS, Study Group members delivered hundreds of academic presentations, including plenaries at scientific meetings, workshops, and institutional Grand Rounds. Some 3,563 individuals, representing more than 500 institutions in the 50 states in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 57 other countries, have requested access to I-PASS materials. Most recently, the I-PASS(SM) Patient Safety Institute has developed a virtual immersion training platform, mobile handoff observational tools, and processes to facilitate further spread of I-PASS.Implementation of I-PASS has been associated with substantial improvements in patient safety and can be applied to a variety of disciplines and types of patient handoffs. Widespread implementation of I-PASS has the potential to substantially improve patient safety in the United States and beyond.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcjq.2017.04.001
View details for PubMedID 28648217
Inpatient Hospital Factors and Resident Time With Patients and Families
2017; 139 (5)
To define hospital factors associated with proportion of time spent by pediatric residents in direct patient care.We assessed 6222 hours of time-motion observations from a representative sample of 483 pediatric-resident physicians delivering inpatient care across 9 pediatric institutions. The primary outcome was percentage of direct patient care time (DPCT) during a single observation session (710 sessions). We used one-way analysis of variance to assess a significant difference in the mean percentage of DPCT between hospitals. We used the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis to determine within- versus between-hospital variations. We compared hospital characteristics of observation sessions with ≥12% DPCT to characteristics of sessions with <12% DPCT (12% is the DPCT in recent resident trainee time-motion studies). We conducted mixed-effects regression analysis to allow for clustering of sessions within hospitals and accounted for correlation of responses across hospital.Mean proportion of physician DPCT was 13.2% (SD = 8.6; range, 0.2%-49.5%). DPCT was significantly different between hospitals (P < .001). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.25, indicating more within-hospital than between-hospital variation. Observation sessions with ≥12% DPCT were more likely to occur at hospitals with Magnet designation (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, P = .006), lower medical complexity (OR = 2.57, P = .04), and higher patient-to-trainee ratios (OR = 2.48, P = .05).On average, trainees spend <8 minutes per hour in DPCT. Variation exists in DPCT between hospitals. A less complex case mix, increased patient volume, and Magnet designation were independently associated with increased DPCT.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2016-3011
View details for PubMedID 28557735
Respiratory Scores as a Tool to Reduce Bronchodilator Use in Children Hospitalized With Acute Viral Bronchiolitis.
2017; 7 (5): 279-286
Adoption of clinical respiratory scoring as a quality improvement (QI) tool in bronchiolitis has been temporally associated with decreased bronchodilator usage. We sought to determine whether documented use of a clinical respiratory score at the patient level was associated with a decrease in either the physician prescription of any dose of bronchodilator or the number of doses, if prescribed, in a multisite QI collaborative.We performed a secondary analysis of data from a QI collaborative involving 22 hospitals. The project enrolled patients aged 1 month to 2 years with a primary diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis and excluded those with prematurity, other significant comorbid diseases, and those needing intensive care. We assessed for an association between documentation of any respiratory score use during an episode of care, as well as the method in which scores were used, and physician prescribing of any bronchodilator and number of doses. Covariates considered were phase of the collaborative, hospital length of stay, steroid use, and presence of household smokers.A total of 1876 subjects were included. There was no association between documentation of a respiratory score and the likelihood of physician prescribing of any bronchodilator. Score use was associated with fewer doses of bronchodilators if one was prescribed (P = .05), but this association disappeared with multivariable analysis (P = .73).We found no clear association between clinical respiratory score use and physician prescribing of bronchodilators in a multicenter QI collaborative.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2016-0090
View details for PubMedID 28442541
Families as Partners in Hospital Error and Adverse Event Surveillance.
Medical errors and adverse events (AEs) are common among hospitalized children. While clinician reports are the foundation of operational hospital safety surveillance and a key component of multifaceted research surveillance, patient and family reports are not routinely gathered. We hypothesized that a novel family-reporting mechanism would improve incident detection.To compare error and AE rates (1) gathered systematically with vs without family reporting, (2) reported by families vs clinicians, and (3) reported by families vs hospital incident reports.We conducted a prospective cohort study including the parents/caregivers of 989 hospitalized patients 17 years and younger (total 3902 patient-days) and their clinicians from December 2014 to July 2015 in 4 US pediatric centers. Clinician abstractors identified potential errors and AEs by reviewing medical records, hospital incident reports, and clinician reports as well as weekly and discharge Family Safety Interviews (FSIs). Two physicians reviewed and independently categorized all incidents, rating severity and preventability (agreement, 68%-90%; κ, 0.50-0.68). Discordant categorizations were reconciled. Rates were generated using Poisson regression estimated via generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures on the same patient.Error and AE rates.Overall, 746 parents/caregivers consented for the study. Of these, 717 completed FSIs. Their median (interquartile range) age was 32.5 (26-40) years; 380 (53.0%) were nonwhite, 566 (78.9%) were female, 603 (84.1%) were English speaking, and 380 (53.0%) had attended college. Of 717 parents/caregivers completing FSIs, 185 (25.8%) reported a total of 255 incidents, which were classified as 132 safety concerns (51.8%), 102 nonsafety-related quality concerns (40.0%), and 21 other concerns (8.2%). These included 22 preventable AEs (8.6%), 17 nonharmful medical errors (6.7%), and 11 nonpreventable AEs (4.3%) on the study unit. In total, 179 errors and 113 AEs were identified from all sources. Family reports included 8 otherwise unidentified AEs, including 7 preventable AEs. Error rates with family reporting (45.9 per 1000 patient-days) were 1.2-fold (95% CI, 1.1-1.2) higher than rates without family reporting (39.7 per 1000 patient-days). Adverse event rates with family reporting (28.7 per 1000 patient-days) were 1.1-fold (95% CI, 1.0-1.2; P = .006) higher than rates without (26.1 per 1000 patient-days). Families and clinicians reported similar rates of errors (10.0 vs 12.8 per 1000 patient-days; relative rate, 0.8; 95% CI, .5-1.2) and AEs (8.5 vs 6.2 per 1000 patient-days; relative rate, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.8-2.2). Family-reported error rates were 5.0-fold (95% CI, 1.9-13.0) higher and AE rates 2.9-fold (95% CI, 1.2-6.7) higher than hospital incident report rates.Families provide unique information about hospital safety and should be included in hospital safety surveillance in order to facilitate better design and assessment of interventions to improve safety.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.4812
View details for PubMedID 28241211
Improving Communication with Primary Care Physicians at the Time of Hospital Discharge.
Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety
2017; 43 (2): 80-88
Communication with primary care physicians (PCPs) at the time of a patient's hospital discharge is important to safely transition care to home. The goal of this quality improvement initiative was to increase discharge communication to PCPs at an academic children's hospital.A multidisciplinary team at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford used Lean A3 problem solving methodology to address the problem of inadequate discharge communication with PCPs. Emphasis was placed on frontline provider (resident physicians) involvement in the improvement process, creating standards, and error proofing. Root cause analysis identified several key drivers of the problem, and successive countermeasures were implemented beginning in August 2013 aimed at achieving the target of 80% attempted verbal communication within seven days before or after (usually 24-48 hours) on the pediatric medical services. Run charts were generated tracking the outcome of PCP communication.On the pediatric medical services, the goal of 80% communication was met and sustained during a seven-month period starting October 2013, a statistically significant improvement. In the eight months prior to October 2013, hospitalwide PCP communication prior to discharge averaged 59.1% (n = 5,397) and improved to 76.7% (n = 4,870) in the seven months after (p <0.001). Fifteen of 19 specialty services had a significant increase in discharge communication after October 2013.Lean improvement methodology (including structured problem solving using A3 thinking), intensive frontline provider involvement, and process-oriented electronic health record work flow redesign led to increased verbal PCP communication at around the time of a patient's discharge.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcjq.2016.11.005
View details for PubMedID 28334566
Expanding the phenotype of hawkinsinuria: new insights from response to N-acetyl-L-cysteine.
Journal of inherited metabolic disease
2016; 39 (6): 821-829
Hawkinsinuria is a rare disorder of tyrosine metabolism that can manifest with metabolic acidosis and growth arrest around the time of weaning off breast milk, typically followed by spontaneous resolution of symptoms around 1 year of age. The urinary metabolites hawkinsin, quinolacetic acid, and pyroglutamic acid can aid in identifying this condition, although their relationship to the clinical manifestations is not known. Herein we describe clinical and laboratory findings in two fraternal twins with hawkinsinuria who presented with failure to thrive and metabolic acidosis. Close clinical follow-up and laboratory testing revealed previously unrecognized hypoglycemia, hypophosphatemia, combined hyperlipidemia, and anemia, along with the characteristic urinary metabolites, including massive pyroglutamic aciduria. Treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) restored normal growth and normalized or improved most biochemical parameters. The dramatic response to NAC therapy supports the idea that glutathione depletion plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hawkinsinuria.
View details for PubMedID 27488560
Engaging Pediatric Resident Physicians in Quality Improvement Through Resident-Led Morbidity and Mortality Conferences.
Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources
2016; 42 (3): 99-106
Increasingly, medical disciplines have used morbidity and mortality conferences (MMCs) to address quality improvement and patient safety (QI/PS), as well as teach systems-based improvement to graduate trainees. The goal of this educational intervention was to establish a pediatric resident physician–led MMC that not only focused on QI/PS principles but also engaged resident physicians in QI/ PS endeavors in their clinical learning environments.Following a needs assessment, pediatric resident physicians at the Stanford University School of Medicine (Stanford, California) established a new MMC model in February 2010 as part of a required QI rotation. Cases were identified, explored, analyzed, and presented by resident physicians using the Johns Hopkins Learning from Defects tool. Discussions during the MMCs were resident physician– directed and systems-based, and resulted in projects to address care delivery. Faculty advisors assessed resident physician comprehension of QI/PS. Conferences were evaluated through the end of the 2012–2013 academic year and outcomes tracked through the 2013–2014 academic year to determine trainee involvement in systems change resulting from the MMCs.The MMC was well received and the number of MMCs increased over time. By the end of the 2013–2014 academic year, resident physicians were involved in address ing 14 systems-based issues resulting from 25 MMCs. Examples of the resident physician–initiated improvement work included increasing use of the rapid response team, institution of a gastrostomy (g)-tube order set, and establishing a face-to-face provider handoff for pediatric ICU–to-acute-care-floor transfers.A resident physician–run MMC exposes resident physicians to QI/PS concepts and principles, enables direct faculty assessment of QI/PS knowledge, and can propel resident physicians into real-time engagement in the culture of safety in a complex hospital environment.
View details for PubMedID 26892704
Intern and Resident Workflow Patterns on Pediatric Inpatient Units: A Multicenter Time-Motion Study
2015; 169 (12): 1175-1177
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2471
View details for PubMedID 26501753
Variation in printed handoff documents: Results and recommendations from a multicenter needs assessment
JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE
2015; 10 (8): 517-524
Handoffs of patient care are a leading root cause of medical errors. Standardized techniques exist to minimize miscommunications during verbal handoffs, but studies to guide standardization of printed handoff documents are lacking.To determine whether variability exists in the content of printed handoff documents and to identify key data elements that should be uniformly included in these documents.Pediatric hospitalist services at 9 institutions in the United States and Canada.Sample handoff documents from each institution were reviewed, and structured group interviews were conducted to understand each institution's priorities for written handoffs. An expert panel reviewed all handoff documents and structured group-interview findings, and subsequently made consensus-based recommendations for data elements that were either essential or recommended, including best overall printed handoff practices.Nine sites completed structured group interviews and submitted data. We identified substantial variation in both the structure and content of printed handoff documents. Only 4 of 23 possible data elements (17%) were uniformly present in all sites' handoff documents. The expert panel recommended the following as essential for all printed handoffs: assessment of illness severity, patient summary, action items, situation awareness and contingency plans, allergies, medications, age, weight, date of admission, and patient and hospital service identifiers. Code status and several other elements were also recommended.Wide variation exists in the content of printed handoff documents. Standardizing printed handoff documents has the potential to decrease omissions of key data during patient care transitions, which may decrease the risk of downstream medical errors.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.2380
View details for Web of Science ID 000358693600007
View details for PubMedID 26014471
Changes in Medical Errors after Implementation of a Handoff Program
NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
2014; 371 (19): 1803-1812
Miscommunications are a leading cause of serious medical errors. Data from multicenter studies assessing programs designed to improve handoff of information about patient care are lacking.We conducted a prospective intervention study of a resident handoff-improvement program in nine hospitals, measuring rates of medical errors, preventable adverse events, and miscommunications, as well as resident workflow. The intervention included a mnemonic to standardize oral and written handoffs, handoff and communication training, a faculty development and observation program, and a sustainability campaign. Error rates were measured through active surveillance. Handoffs were assessed by means of evaluation of printed handoff documents and audio recordings. Workflow was assessed through time-motion observations. The primary outcome had two components: medical errors and preventable adverse events.In 10,740 patient admissions, the medical-error rate decreased by 23% from the preintervention period to the postintervention period (24.5 vs. 18.8 per 100 admissions, P<0.001), and the rate of preventable adverse events decreased by 30% (4.7 vs. 3.3 events per 100 admissions, P<0.001). The rate of nonpreventable adverse events did not change significantly (3.0 and 2.8 events per 100 admissions, P=0.79). Site-level analyses showed significant error reductions at six of nine sites. Across sites, significant increases were observed in the inclusion of all prespecified key elements in written documents and oral communication during handoff (nine written and five oral elements; P<0.001 for all 14 comparisons). There were no significant changes from the preintervention period to the postintervention period in the duration of oral handoffs (2.4 and 2.5 minutes per patient, respectively; P=0.55) or in resident workflow, including patient-family contact and computer time.Implementation of the handoff program was associated with reductions in medical errors and in preventable adverse events and with improvements in communication, without a negative effect on workflow. (Funded by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and others.).
View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMsa1405556
View details for Web of Science ID 000344170300009
Development, Implementation, and Dissemination of the I-PASS Handoff Curriculum: A Multisite Educational Intervention to Improve Patient Handoffs
2014; 89 (6): 876-884
Patient handoffs are a key source of communication failures and adverse events in hospitals. Despite Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for residency training programs to provide formal handoff skills training and to monitor handoffs, well-established curricula and validated skills assessment tools are lacking. Developing a handoff curriculum is challenging because of the need for standardized processes and faculty development, cultural resistance to change, and diverse institution- and unit-level factors. In this article, the authors apply a logic model to describe the process they used from June 2010 to February 2014 to develop, implement, and disseminate an innovative, comprehensive handoff curriculum in pediatric residency training programs as a fundamental component of the multicenter Initiative for Innovation in Pediatric Education-Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Accelerating Safe Sign-outs (I-PASS) Study. They describe resources, activities, and outputs, and report preliminary learner outcomes using data from resident and faculty evaluations of the I-PASS Handoff Curriculum: 96% of residents and 97% of faculty agreed or strongly agreed that the curriculum promoted acquisition of relevant skills for patient care activities. They also share lessons learned that could be of value to others seeking to adopt a structured handoff curriculum or to develop large-scale curricular innovations that involve redesigning firmly established processes. These lessons include the importance of approaching curricular implementation as a transformational change effort, assembling a diverse team of junior and senior faculty to provide opportunities for mentoring and professional development, and linking the educational intervention with the direct measurement of patient outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000264
View details for PubMedID 24871238
Placing Faculty Development Front and Center in a Multisite Educational Initiative: Lessons From the I-PASS Handoff Study
2014; 14 (3): 221-224
View details for Web of Science ID 000335368000002
View details for PubMedID 24767774
Validity of respiratory scores in bronchiolitis.
2012; 2 (4): 202-209
The primary objective of this study was to establish the validity and reliability of 2 respiratory scores, the Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (RDAI) and the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Respiratory Score (CHWRS), in bronchiolitis. A secondary objective was to identify the respiratory score components that most determine overall respiratory status.This was a prospective cohort study in infants aged < 1 year seen at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin for bronchiolitis. We evaluated: (1) discriminative validity (the score's ability to discriminate between 2 different outcomes) of the respiratory scores to identify emergency department (ED) disposition by using receiver operating characteristic curves; and (2) construct validity (the score's ability to measure what it is thought to measure, overall respiratory status) by using length of stay (LOS) as a proxy for disease severity and comparing correlations between changes in respiratory scores and LOS. Interrater reliability was established by using intraclass correlation. The contribution of individual respiratory score components to determine ED disposition was studied by using multivariate logistic regression.A total of 195 infants were included. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.68 for CHWRS versus 0.51 for RDAI in predicting disposition. There was no correlation between initial respiratory scores or change in respiratory scores over the first 24 hours and LOS. Item analysis revealed that oxygen delivery, subcostal retractions, and respiratory rate were independently correlated with ED disposition. The CHWRS was more reliable than the RDAI.The CHWRS had modest discriminative validity in predicting ED disposition. Neither the CHWRS nor the RDAI had good construct validity. Respiratory rate, oxygen need, and presence of retractions were most useful in predicting ED disposition.
View details for PubMedID 24313026
I-PASS, a Mnemonic to Standardize Verbal Handoffs
2012; 129 (2): 201-204
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2011-2966
View details for PubMedID 22232313
Establishing a Multisite Education and Research Project Requires Leadership, Expertise, Collaboration, and an Important Aim
2010; 126 (4): 619-622
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-1793
View details for Web of Science ID 000282526100030
View details for PubMedID 20876168
Severe osteomyelitis caused by Myceliophthora thermophila after a pitchfork injury.
Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials
2006; 5: 21-?
Traumatic injuries occurring in agricultural settings are often associated with infections caused by unusual organisms. Such agents may be difficult to isolate, identify, and treat effectively.A 4-year-old boy developed an extensive infection of his knee and distal femur following a barnyard pitchfork injury. Ultimately the primary infecting agent was determined to be Myceliophthora thermophila, a thermophilic melanized hyphomycete, rarely associated with human infection, found in animal excreta. Because of resistance to standard antifungal agents including amphotericin B and caspofungin, therapy was instituted with a prolonged course of terbinafine and voriconazole. Voriconazole blood levels demonstrated that the patient required a drug dosage (13.4 mg/kg) several fold greater than that recommended for adults in order to attain therapeutic blood levels.Unusual pathogens should be sought following traumatic farm injuries. Pharmacokinetic studies may be of critical importance when utilizing antifungal therapy with agents for which little information exists regarding drug metabolism in children.
View details for PubMedID 16961922