Clinical Focus

  • Pain Medicine

Professional Education

  • Internship: Kennedy Krieger Institute Dept of Behavioral Psychology (2018) MD
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Child Psychology Postdoctoral Fellowship (2021) CA
  • Internship, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine/Kennedy Krieger Institute, Pediatric Rehabilitation Psychology (2018)
  • PhD Training: Eastern Michigan University Registrar (2018) MI

Clinical Trials

  • Agile Development of a Digital Exposure Treatment for Youth With Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Recruiting

    This project proposes to systematically develop and evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a digitally delivered, graded exposure treatment for youth with chronic musculoskeletal pain, utilizing a sequential replicated and randomized single-case experimental design (SCED). SCED provides the opportunity to rigorously evaluate treatment effectiveness at the individual level. Development of iGET Living will be based on a series of short iterations, with alpha testing (Aim 1) on a small sample of adolescents with chronic pain (N = 15) and their parents (N = 15). For Aim 1, participants will participate in three, two hour focus groups (one per week over the course of three weeks), resulting in 6 total hours of participation per participant for Aim 1. Aim 2 will involve a sample (N = 20 youth, N = 20 parents) of naïve end-users. Participants will be enrolled in a baseline period ranging from 7-25 days (done to support SCED methodology) after which they will be enrolled in the online intervention program, lasting 6-weeks. Patients will be contacted 3-months post-discharge from treatment (week 22 of enrollment) and will complete self-report outcome measures at this time.

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Lab Affiliations

All Publications

  • A randomized controlled trial of graded exposure treatment (GET living) for adolescents with chronic pain. Pain Simons, L. E., Harrison, L. E., Boothroyd, D. B., Parvathinathan, G., Van Orden, A. R., O'Brien, S. F., Schofield, D., Kraindler, J., Shrestha, R., Vlaeyen, J. W., Wicksell, R. K. 2023


    Graded exposure treatment (GET) is a theory-driven pain treatment that aims to improve functioning by exposing patients to activities previously feared and avoided. Combining key elements of GET with acceptance-based exposure, GET Living (GL) was developed for adolescents with chronic pain (GL). Based on robust treatment effects observed in our single-case experimental design pilot trial of GL (NCT01974791), we conducted a 2-arm randomized clinical trial comparing GL with multidisciplinary pain management (MPM) comprised of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical therapy for pain management (NCT03699007). A cohort of 68 youth with chronic musculoskeletal pain (M age 14.2 years; 81% female) were randomized to GL or MPM. Owing to COVID-19 restrictions, 54% of participants received zoom video delivered care. Assessments were collected at baseline, discharge, as well as at 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were self-reported pain-related fear and avoidance. Secondary outcomes were child functional disability and parent protective responses to child pain. As hypothesized, GL improved in primary and secondary outcomes at 3-month follow-up. Contrary to our superiority hypothesis, there was no significant difference between GL and MPM. Patients reported both GL and MPM (in person and video) as credible and were highly satisfied with the treatment experience. Next steps will involve examining the single-case experimental design data embedded in this trial to facilitate an understanding of individual differences in treatment responses (eg, when effects occurred, what processes changed during treatment within the treatment arm). The current findings support GET Living and MPM for youth with chronic pain.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000003010

    View details for PubMedID 37624900

  • Characterizing disordered eating behaviors in youth with chronic pain: A retrospective chart review Jehl, N., Harrison, L., Cheney-Makens, E., Simons, L. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2023: 146
  • Enhancing Exposure Treatment for Youths With Chronic Pain: Co-design and Qualitative Approach. Journal of participatory medicine Schemer, L., Hess, C. W., Van Orden, A. R., Birnie, K. A., Harrison, L. E., Glombiewski, J. A., Simons, L. E. 2023; 15: e41292


    Increasing the access to and improving the impact of pain treatments is of utmost importance, especially among youths with chronic pain. The engagement of patients as research partners (in contrast to research participants) provides valuable expertise to collaboratively improve treatment delivery.This study looked at a multidisciplinary exposure treatment for youths with chronic pain through the lens of patients and caregivers with the aim to explore and validate treatment change processes, prioritize and develop ideas for improvement, and identify particularly helpful treatment elements.Qualitative exit interviews were conducted with patients and caregivers at their discharge from 2 clinical trials ( NCT01974791 and NCT03699007). Six independent co-design meetings were held with patients and caregivers as research partners to establish a consensus within and between groups. The results were validated in a wrap-up meeting.Patients and caregivers described that exposure treatment helped them better process pain-related emotions, feel empowered, and improve their relationship with each other. The research partners developed and agreed upon 12 ideas for improvement. Major recommendations include that pain exposure treatment should be disseminated more not only among patients and caregivers but also among primary care providers and the general public to facilitate an early referral for treatment. Exposure treatment should allow flexibility in terms of duration, frequency, and delivery mode. The research partners prioritized 13 helpful treatment elements. Most of the research partners agreed that future exposure treatments should continue to empower patients to choose meaningful exposure activities, break long-term goals into smaller steps, and discuss realistic expectations at discharge.The results of this study have the potential to contribute to the refinement of pain treatments more broadly. At their core, they suggest that pain treatments should be disseminated more, flexible, and transparent.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/41292

    View details for PubMedID 36892929

  • Innovative treatment formats, technologies, and clinician trainings that improve access to behavioral pain treatment for youth and adults. Frontiers in pain research (Lausanne, Switzerland) Darnall, B. D., Edwards, K. A., Courtney, R. E., Ziadni, M. S., Simons, L. E., Harrison, L. E. 2023; 4: 1223172


    Chronic pain is prevalent across the life span and associated with significant individual and societal costs. Behavioral interventions are recommended as the gold-standard, evidence-based interventions for chronic pain, but barriers, such as lack of pain-trained clinicians, poor insurance coverage, and high treatment burden, limit patients' ability to access evidenced-based pain education and treatment resources. Recent advances in technology offer new opportunities to leverage innovative digital formats to overcome these barriers and dramatically increase access to high-quality, evidenced-based pain treatments for youth and adults. This scoping review highlights new advances. First, we describe system-level barriers to the broad dissemination of behavioral pain treatment. Next, we review several promising new pediatric and adult pain education and treatment technology innovations to improve access and scalability of evidence-based behavioral pain treatments. Current challenges and future research and clinical recommendations are offered.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpain.2023.1223172

    View details for PubMedID 37547824

  • Targeting Pain Science Education in Youth with Chronic Pain: What are the Sticking Points for Youth and Their Parents? The Clinical journal of pain Pate, J. W., Harrison, L. E., Hess, C. W., Moseley, G. L., Rush, G., Heathcote, L. C., Simons, L. E. 2022


    An important part of providing pain science education is to first assess baseline knowledge and beliefs about pain, thereby identifying misconceptions and establishing individually-tailored learning objectives. The Concept of Pain Inventory (COPI) was developed to support this need. This study aimed to characterize concept of pain in care-seeking youth and their parents, to examine its clinical and demographic correlates, and to identify conceptual gaps.Following an initial interdisciplinary evaluation, a cohort of 127 youth aged 8-18 years, and their parents, completed a series of questionnaires.Parents had slightly higher COPI scores than youth did, reflecting parents' greater alignment with contemporary pain science. The moderate positive association with older age among youth (r=.32) suggests that the COPI is sensitive to cognitive development and/or life experiences. Youth and parent COPI responses were weakly associated (r=0.24), highlighting the importance of targeting concept of pain in both groups. For both parents and youth, 'Learning about pain can help you feel less pain' was the least endorsed concept. This conceptual 'gap' is a key point of intervention, that could potentially lead to greater engagement with multidisciplinary pain treatment.The COPI appears useful for identifying conceptual gaps or 'sticking points'; this may be an important step to pre-emptively address misconceptions about pain via pain science education. Future research should determine the utility of the COPI in assessing and treating youth seeking care for pain. The COPI may be a useful tool for tailoring pain science education to youth and their parents.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AJP.0000000000001088

    View details for PubMedID 36453624

  • Agile development of a digital exposure treatment for youth with chronic musculoskeletal pain: protocol of a user-centred design approach and examination of feasibility and preliminary efficacy. BMJ open Harrison, L. E., Webster, S. N., Van Orden, A. R., Choate, E., Jehl, N., Stinson, J., Wicksell, R. K., Darnall, B. D., Simons, L. E. 2022; 12 (9): e065997


    INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain affects a significant number of children and impacts multiple domains including social, emotional and behavioural functioning, and negatively impacts family functioning. Roughly 5% of youth with chronic pain experience moderate to severe pain-related disability, with pain-related fear and avoidance of activities being identified as substantial barriers to treatment engagement. Evidence supports targeted psychological and physical interventions to address these barriers (eg, graded-exposure treatment), but accessibility to intervention is undermined by a shortage of services outside of urban areas, high treatment-related costs, and long provider waitlists; highlighting the need to develop digitally delivered behavioural intervention, using agile and iterative study designs that support rapid development and timely dissemination.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study seeks to develop an effective and scalable intervention for youth with chronic pain and their caregivers. This paper presents a user-centred protocol for the development and refinement of a digital exposure treatment for youth and caregivers, as well as the study design to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the treatment using single-case experimental design (SCED). Assessments include daily diaries, completed from baseline and daily throughout the intervention (~6 weeks), and at 3-month follow-up, as well as self-report measures completed at baseline, end of intervention and 3-month follow-up. Primary outcomes include treatment satisfaction, treatment expectancy, adherence to daily dairies and functional disability. Secondary outcomes are pain-related fear and avoidance of activities, pain catastrophising and pain acceptance. We will present descriptive and model-based inference analyses, based on SCED reporting guidelines. We will calculate effect sizes for each individual on each outcome. We will examine mean treatment expectancy, credibility and satisfaction scores, and patient drop-out percentage.ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is approved by the Institutional Review Board at Stanford University (protocol #53323). Findings will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and social media.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05079984.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-065997

    View details for PubMedID 36109029

  • Rapid Transition to Virtual Assessment and Treatment in an Interdisciplinary Randomized Clinical Trial for Youth With Chronic Pain: Adaptations and Implications for Future Trials. The Clinical journal of pain Shear, D., Harrison, L. E., O'Brien, S., Khazendar, Z., Lyons, S., Morgan, J. J., Chan, S. K., Feinstein, A. B., Simons, L. E. 2022; 38 (7): 459-469


    COVID-19 abruptly halted in-person clinical care and research requiring a shift to virtual assessment and treatment. This unexpected transition of a 2-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining interdisciplinary graded exposure treatment (GET Living) compared with multidisciplinary pain management for youth with chronic pain provided an opportunity to implement the first remotely delivered exposure treatment and remotely delivered biomechanical assessment for pediatric chronic pain. Here we describe these new approaches and provide lessons learned to inform future efforts in digital health care.A total of 68 youth (M=14.2 y; 80.9% female) were enrolled in the RCT (n=31 in-person, n=5 hybrid, n=32 virtual, n=9 withdrew). Of those withdrawn, n=3 withdrew due to COVID-19 related reasons. Some RCT elements required slight modification (eg, e-consent, actigraphy deployment, recruitment, and screening), while others were significantly altered (eg, session format and lab-based biomechanical assessment). Data from exit interviews were also examined to assess perspectives on the virtual format transition.Results showed an increased enrollment rate when virtual care was an option (70.7%) compared with in-person (44.3%). Equivalent rates of completion for daily assessment (in-person, 72.8%; virtual, 73.3) were also observed, and participants described enhanced experience when able to complete exercises and exposures in their home environment during session (vs. a rehabilitation gym) allowing for genuine in vivo exposures (eg, household chores, riding bicycles).Overall, our data demonstrate acceptability, feasibility, and equivalent patient engagement to virtual treatment. Novel methods implemented in this RCT can inform trial design and measures of clinical endpoints for future digital health interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AJP.0000000000001040

    View details for PubMedID 35686576

  • How do psychologically based interventions for chronic musculoskeletal pain work? A systematic review and meta-analysis of specific moderators and mediators of treatment. Clinical psychology review Murillo, C., Vo, T., Vansteelandt, S., Harrison, L. E., Cagnie, B., Coppieters, I., Chys, M., Timmers, I., Meeus, M. 2022; 94: 102160


    Psychologically based interventions aim to improve pain-related functioning by targeting pain-related fears, cognitions and behaviors. Mediation and moderation analyses permit further examination of the effect of treatment on an outcome. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to synthetize the evidence of specific mediators and moderators (i.e., treatment targets) of psychologically based treatment effects on pain and disability. A total of 28 mediation and 11 moderation analyses were included. Thirteen mediation studies were included in a meta-analysis, and the rest was narratively synthetized. Reductions in pain-related fear (indirect effect [IE]: -0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.11, -0.04) and catastrophizing (IE: -0.07; 95%CI: -0.14, -0.00), as well as increases in self-efficacy (IE: -0.07; 95%CI: -0.11, -0.04), mediated effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on disability but not on pain intensity, when compared to control treatments. Enhancing pain acceptance (IE: -0.17; 95%CI: -0.31, -0.03) and psychological flexibility (IE: -0.30; 95%CI: -0.41, -0.18) mediated acceptance and commitment therapy effects on disability. The narrative synthesis showed conflicting evidence, which did not support a robust moderated effect for any of the examined constructs. Overall, the methodological quality regarding mediation was low, and some key pitfalls are highlighted alongside recommendations to provide a platform for future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cpr.2022.102160

    View details for PubMedID 35561510

  • Measuring Clinically Meaningful Change in Outcomes for Youth with Chronic Pain Following Graded Exposure Treatment. The Clinical journal of pain Harrison, L. E., Heathcote, L. C., Khazendar, Z., Richardson, P. A., Simons, L. E. 2022


    INTRODUCTION: Functional improvement is a critical outcome for individuals living with chronic pain. Graded exposure treatment has been associated with statistically significant improvements in functional outcomes for youth with chronic pain by targeting pain-related fear and avoidance.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore clinically meaningful change in outcomes in adolescents with chronic pain following participation in a graded exposure treatment (GET Living), and to then classify patients as treatment responders versus non-responders.METHODS: Participants included 27 youth (Mage=13.5) with chronic pain enrolled in a recently published single-arm randomized baseline trial of GET Living. Reliable change at the individual level was assessed using the Reliable Change Index (RCI). Adolescents were classified as treatment responders if they achieved a reliable change in outcomes across time points and also demonstrated a change in clinical severity range in the expected direction (i.e., from severe to moderate).RESULTS: Reliable and clinically significant improvements in pain-related fear and avoidance, functional disability, and school functioning were demonstrated at discharge, with improvements maintained at 3-month and 6-month follow up. Among core outcomes, 48% (n=13) of patients were classified as treatment responders in one or more outcomes at discharge, with this increasing to 76% (n=19) at 3-month follow-up.DISCUSSION: Examining reliable and clinically meaningful change (vs. statistical significance alone) provides a way to examine treatment response to an intervention and to enhance the interpretability of findings, helping to bridge the gap between clinical trials and clinical practice by providing guidelines for interpretation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AJP.0000000000001031

    View details for PubMedID 35276700

  • Clinical utility of CAT administered PROMIS measures to track change for pediatric chronic pain. The journal of pain Bhandari, R. P., Harrison, L. E., Richardson, P. A., Arce, A. B., You, D. S., Rajagopalan, A., Birnie, K. A., Sil, S. 2021


    Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) are utilized in clinical registries and trials, necessitating development of benchmarks to enhance interpretability. This study aimed to 1) examine if PROMIS measures administered via computer adaptive testing (CAT) were responsive to change, and 2) highlight one method of assessing clinically significant change for youth seen in a tertiary pain clinic. Clinically significant change was achieved if patients had significantly reliable pre-to-post-changes greater than Reliable Change Index (RCI) value and reported decreased symptoms by at least one severity level (e.g., moderate to mild). Participants were 328 youth (8-17 years old) seen in a tertiary pediatric pain management clinic. Small to moderate effect sizes were noted across PROMIS measures (except Peer Relations). Reliable magnitudes of change were estimated for this sample as approximately 6-point reduction for Pain Interference and Mobility, 9 for Fatigue, and 11 for Anxiety and Depression. Depending on the measure, 10-24% were categorized as improved, 3-6% as deteriorated, and 68-81% were either not clinically elevated at baseline or remained unchanged at 3-months. Overall, PROMIS CAT measures demonstrated responsiveness to change over time. Estimation of clinically significant change offers preliminary yet rigorous benchmarks for evaluating treatment response and sets the stage for understanding treatment effects. Perspective This study assesses responsiveness of CAT administered PROMIS measures and highlights one methodological approach of presenting clinical significance for assessing treatment outcomes in pediatric chronic pain. These benchmarks will allow clinicians and researchers to evaluate treatment response utilizing PROs while allowing for a deeper understanding of treatment effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpain.2021.06.009

    View details for PubMedID 34229073

  • User-centered development of a digital exposure treatment for youth with chronic pain Khazendar, Z., Harrison, L., Wicksell, R., Simons, L. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. 2021: 607
  • mHealth for Pediatric Chronic Pain: State of the Art and Future Directions. Expert review of neurotherapeutics Richardson, P. A., Harrison, L. E., Heathcote, L. C., Rush, G., Shear, D., Lalloo, C., Hood, K., Wicksell, R. K., Stinson, J., Simons, L. E. 2020


    INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain conditions are common among children and engender cascading effects across social, emotional, and behavioral domains for the child and family. Mobile health (mHealth) describes the practice of delivering healthcare via mobile devices and may be an ideal solution to increase access and reach of evidence-based behavioral health interventions.AREAS COVERED: The aim of this narrative review is to present a state-of-the-art overview of evidence-based mHealth efforts within the field of pediatric chronic pain and consider new and promising directions for study. Given the nascent nature of the field, published mHealth interventions in all stages of development are discussed. Literature was identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed and Google Scholar, and a review of reference lists of papers that were identified as particularly relevant or foundational (within and outside of the chronic pain literature).EXPERT OPINION: mHealth is a promising interventional modality with early evidence suggesting it is primed to enhance behavioral health delivery and patient outcomes. There are many exciting future directions to be explored including drawing inspiration from digital health technology to generate new ways of thinking about the optimal treatment of pediatric chronic pain.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14737175.2020.1819792

    View details for PubMedID 32881587

  • Parent Responses to Their Child's Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Measures. Journal of pediatric psychology Harrison, L. E., Timmers, I., Heathcote, L. C., Fisher, E., Tanna, V., Duarte Silva Bans, T., Simons, L. E. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: Parent responses can have a major impact on their child's pain. The purpose of this systematic review is to (a) identify and describe measures assessing pain-related cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in parents of children with chronic pain and (b) meta-analyze reported correlations between parent constructs and child outcomes (i.e., pain intensity, functional disability, and school functioning). Prospero protocol registration ID: CRD42019125496.METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of studies including a measure of parent/caregiver responses to their child's chronic pain. Study characteristics and correlations between parent measures and child outcomes were extracted. Data were summarized and meta-analyzed.RESULTS: Seventy-nine met inclusion criteria using 18 different measures of cognitive/affective (n=3), behavioral (n=5), and multidimensional responses (n=10). Measures were used a median of three times (range 1-48), predominantly completed by mothers (88%), and primarily in mixed pain samples. Psychometrics of measures were generally adequate. Meta-analyses were based on 42 papers across five measures. Results showed that each of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parent constructs we examined was significantly associated with pain-related functional disability. A small number of measures assessing parent cognitions and affective functioning were associated with higher child pain intensity; however, the majority were not.CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrate that there is a wealth of measures available, with adequate reliability overall but a lack of psychometrics on temporal stability. Synthesizing data across studies revealed small effects between parent responses and child functioning, and even smaller and/or absent effects on child pain intensity.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jpepsy/jsaa005

    View details for PubMedID 32150254

  • Chronic pain ADHERENCE AND SELF-MANAGEMENT IN PEDIATRIC POPULATIONS Parker, D. M., Harrison, L. E., Simons, L. E., Modi, A. C., Driscoll, K. A. 2020: 133-158
  • Graded exposure treatment for adolescents with chronic pain (GET Living): Protocol for a randomized controlled trial enhanced with single case experimental design. Contemporary clinical trials communications Simons, L. E., Harrison, L. E., O'Brien, S. F., Heirich, M. S., Loecher, N., Boothroyd, D. B., Vlaeyen, J. W., Wicksell, R. K., Schofield, D., Hood, K. K., Orendurff, M., Chan, S., Lyons, S. 2019; 16: 100448


    Chronic musculoskeletal pain in adolescence is a significant public health concern with 3-5% of adolescents suffering from significant pain-related disability. Pain-related fear and avoidance of activities has been found to have a significant influence on pain outcomes in children and adolescents and is a risk factor for less favorable response to treatment. To address this need, we developed graded exposure treatment for youth with chronic pain (GET Living). We describe the rationale, design, and implementation of a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) enhanced with single-case experimental design (SCED) methodology with a sample of 74 adolescents with chronic musculosketal pain and their parent caregivers. GET Living includes education, behavioral exposures, and parent intervention jointly delivered by pain psychology and physical therapy providers. The multidisciplinary pain management control group includes pain psychology delivered education and pain self-management skills training (e.g., relaxation, cognitive skills) and separate physical therapy. Assessments include brief daily diaries (baseline to discharge, 7-days at 3-month and 6-month follow-up), comprehensive in-person evaluations at baseline and discharge, and questionnaire across all time points (baseline, discharge, 3-month and 6-month follow-up). Primary outcome is pain-related fear avoidance. Secondary outcome is functional disability. We also outline all additional outcomes, exploratory outcomes, covariates, and implementation measures. The objective is to offer a mechanism-based, targeted intervention to youth with musculoskeletal pain to enhance likelihood of return to function.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100448

    View details for PubMedID 31650069

  • Functional Impairment Predicts Outcome of Youth With Headache in the Emergency Department. Clinical pediatrics Hemberg, J. L., Pomeranz, E. S., Rogers, A. J., Lo, S. L., Harrison, L. E., Donohue Bs, L. E., Kullgren, K. A. 2019: 9922819884585


    Headache is a common presenting complaint in emergency departments (EDs), with the goal of improving acute pain. However, youth with chronic headaches may demonstrate broad functional impairment in their lives due to headaches. Our objective was to determine if degree of functional impairment predicts ED course for patients with headache as part of a clinical protocol. One hundred and thirty-seven pediatric patients presenting to an ED with headache were included. Patients and parents were administered the Functional Disability Index (FDI) and ED charts were reviewed to evaluate outcomes. Higher child-reported FDI scores were associated with more medications, longer ED stay, and admission. High parent-proxy FDI score was associated with longer ED stay. Both pain score and parent-proxy FDI score were associated with imaging. The FDI was a more useful predictor of visit resources than pain score. FDI scores could be used to help anticipate patients who may require greater time and resources.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0009922819884585

    View details for PubMedID 31690099

  • Rapid identification and clinical indices of fear-avoidance in youth with chronic pain. Pain Heathcote, L. C., Bhandari, R. P., Timmers, I., Harrison, L. E., Simons, L. E. 2019


    Pain-related fear and avoidance are increasingly demonstrated to play an important role in adult and childhood chronic pain. The Fear of Pain Questionnaire for Children (FOPQC) is a 24-item measure of pain-related fear-avoidance in youth that has demonstrated good indices of reliability and validity, treatment responsiveness, and associations with brain circuitry alterations. This study describes the development and psychometric examination of the FOPQC-SF, a short form of the original measure. We selected 10 items for the short form that best represented the content and two-factor (Fear and Avoidance) structure of the original measure from a cohort of 613 youth (Mage = 14.7 years) with chronic pain. Next, confirmatory factor analyses from a second sample of 526 youth (Mage = 14.7 years) with chronic pain who completed the FOPQC-SF supported the original two-factor model but indicated that one item should be moved to the avoidance subscale. The FOPQC-SF demonstrates strong internal consistency and moderate-to-strong construct and criterion validity. Three-month test-retest reliability estimates (N=94) were strong and there was preliminary evidence of responsivity to change. To aid integration into intervention trials and clinical practice, we provide clinical reference points and a criterion to assess reliable change. The short form could be used for rapid identification of pain-related fear and avoidance in youth during clinic evaluations, and is optimized for clinical registries.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001742

    View details for PubMedID 31688496

  • Profiling Modifiable Psychosocial Factors among Children with Chronic Pain: A Person-Centered Methodology. The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society Richardson, P. A., Birnie, K. A., Harrison, L. E., Rajagopalan, A. n., Bhandari, R. P. 2019


    Targeting individually based psychosocial profiles when treating children with chronic pain and their families is key to effective behavioral health intervention and in line with tenants of precision medicine. Extant research is primarily driven by variable-centered models that focus on broad, group-level differences. The current study adopts a person-centered approach, latent profile analysis (LPA), to identify patient subgroups. Cross-sectional data are presented from 366 children (8-17 years; M=14.48; SD=2.36) with chronic pain and a primary caregiver (94% mothers). LPA indicator variables were, self-reported: fatigue, internalizing symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and pain acceptance; parent-reported: pain catastrophizing and responses to child pain. One-way ANOVAs examined the effect of profiles on child age, pain, and function. LPA identified a four-profile solution. Class 1 (12%) demonstrated the lowest scores (conveying least risk) across 5 of 6 factors. Class 4 (37%) had the highest scores (conveying greatest risk) across all factors. Classes 2 (12%) and 3 (39%) demonstrated more variability across domains. Results revealed significant effects of profile based on child age, pain, and function. This study highlights differential presentation of treatment-modifiable domains within a large sample. LPA methodology is showcased to potentially facilitate clinical conceptualizations and tailored approaches to intervention in pediatric chronic pain. Perspective: This article presents a methodological and statistical approach that may be beneficial to better assess individual profiles of pediatric pain functioning. Tools that allow providers to better match patient presentation and intervention are in line with the tenants of precision medicine and may ultimately serve to improve child outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpain.2019.08.015

    View details for PubMedID 31521795

  • Best-Evidence for the Rehabilitation of Chronic Pain Part 1: Pediatric Pain. Journal of clinical medicine Harrison, L. E., Pate, J. W., Richardson, P. A., Ickmans, K. n., Wicksell, R. K., Simons, L. E. 2019; 8 (9)


    Chronic pain is a prevalent and persistent problem in middle childhood and adolescence. The biopsychosocial model of pain, which accounts for the complex interplay of the biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors that contribute to and maintain pain symptoms and related disability has guided our understanding and treatment of pediatric pain. Consequently, many interventions for chronic pain are within the realm of rehabilitation, based on the premise that behavior has a broad and central role in pain management. These treatments are typically delivered by one or more providers in medicine, nursing, psychology, physical therapy, and/or occupational therapy. Current data suggest that multidisciplinary treatment is important, with intensive interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation (IIPT) being effective at reducing disability for patients with high levels of functional disability. The following review describes the current state of the art of rehabilitation approaches to treat persistent pain in children and adolescents. Several emerging areas of interventions are also highlighted to guide future research and clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm8091267

    View details for PubMedID 31438483

  • Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Home Environment on Child Language Development in the First 3 Years of Life. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Peterson, C. C., Riggs, J., Guyon-Harris, K., Harrison, L., Huth-Bocks, A. 2018; 40 (2): 112-121


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) can adversely affect children's cognitive development, but links between IPV exposure and language development in the earliest years of life remain unknown. The present study examined the effects of IPV and the quality of the home environment on children's language development at age 3 years.In a prospective, 5-panel, longitudinal study of 79 mother-child dyads assessed prenatally to age 3 years, we examined standardized measures of receptive and expressive language development at age 3 years. Predictors and covariates included measures of IPV, characteristics of the home environment, maternal education, and maternal depression.Regression analyses indicated a significant main effect of the home environment and maternal education on receptive language, with more supportive homes and more educated mothers at age 1 year linked to better child receptive language at age 3 years. Higher maternal education also significantly predicted better child expressive language at age 3 years. Early exposure to IPV had a direct adverse effect on children's expressive language development; however, interaction analyses indicated that this association was moderated by the quality of the home environment. Specifically, IPV adversely affected expressive language even when home quality was high, indicating that a supportive and stimulating home environment did not buffer effects of IPV on expressive language development.Intimate partner violence may adversely affect expressive language, even in positive home environments. Early language skill is an important predictor of later academic readiness and psychological development; therefore, children from at-risk home environments should be screened and monitored early for intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000638

    View details for PubMedID 30550504

  • Development of a brief assessment of activity limitations in children with food allergy. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology Peterson, C. C., Harrison, L. E. 2018; 120 (3): 327-328

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.anai.2017.10.032

    View details for PubMedID 29203234

  • A preliminary study on the effects of parental accommodations on frequency of sickness in children Public Health and Community Medicine Harrison, L. E., Short, M. B. 2018: 1-8
  • Factor structure of the Inventory of Parent Accommodations of Children's Symptoms (IPACS) in a community sample CHILDRENS HEALTH CARE Harrison, L. E., Peterson, C. C., Short, M. B., Wetterneck, C. 2016; 45 (3): 286-302