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  • Cardiometabolic Effects of Omnivorous vs Vegan Diets in Identical Twins: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA network open Landry, M. J., Ward, C. P., Cunanan, K. M., Durand, L. R., Perelman, D., Robinson, J. L., Hennings, T., Koh, L., Dant, C., Zeitlin, A., Ebel, E. R., Sonnenburg, E. D., Sonnenburg, J. L., Gardner, C. D. 2023; 6 (11): e2344457


    Increasing evidence suggests that, compared with an omnivorous diet, a vegan diet confers potential cardiovascular benefits from improved diet quality (ie, higher consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and seeds).To compare the effects of a healthy vegan vs healthy omnivorous diet on cardiometabolic measures during an 8-week intervention.This single-center, population-based randomized clinical trial of 22 pairs of twins (N = 44) randomized participants to a vegan or omnivorous diet (1 twin per diet). Participant enrollment began March 28, 2022, and continued through May 5, 2022. The date of final follow-up data collection was July 20, 2022. This 8-week, open-label, parallel, dietary randomized clinical trial compared the health impact of a vegan diet vs an omnivorous diet in identical twins. Primary analysis included all available data.Twin pairs were randomized to follow a healthy vegan diet or a healthy omnivorous diet for 8 weeks. Diet-specific meals were provided via a meal delivery service from baseline through week 4, and from weeks 5 to 8 participants prepared their own diet-appropriate meals and snacks.The primary outcome was difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration from baseline to end point (week 8). Secondary outcome measures were changes in cardiometabolic factors (plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin levels and serum trimethylamine N-oxide level), plasma vitamin B12 level, and body weight. Exploratory measures were adherence to study diets, ease or difficulty in following the diets, participant energy levels, and sense of well-being.A total of 22 pairs (N = 44) of twins (34 [77.3%] female; mean [SD] age, 39.6 [12.7] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 25.9 [4.7]) were enrolled in the study. After 8 weeks, compared with twins randomized to an omnivorous diet, the twins randomized to the vegan diet experienced significant mean (SD) decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (-13.9 [5.8] mg/dL; 95% CI, -25.3 to -2.4 mg/dL), fasting insulin level (-2.9 [1.3] μIU/mL; 95% CI, -5.3 to -0.4 μIU/mL), and body weight (-1.9 [0.7] kg; 95% CI, -3.3 to -0.6 kg).In this randomized clinical trial of the cardiometabolic effects of omnivorous vs vegan diets in identical twins, the healthy vegan diet led to improved cardiometabolic outcomes compared with a healthy omnivorous diet. Clinicians can consider this dietary approach as a healthy alternative for their Identifier: NCT05297825.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.44457

    View details for PubMedID 38032644

  • Culturally Tailoring Plant-Based Nutrition Interventions for Hispanic/Latino Adults at Risk for or With Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review HISPANIC HEALTH CARE INTERNATIONAL Koh, L. M. 2023; 21 (2): 89-103


    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence continues to increase among Hispanic/Latino adults. The purpose of this study was to explore and analyze literature on culturally tailored nutrition interventions to identify how to best implement a whole food plant-based (WFPB) culinary intervention to improve health outcomes for Hispanic/Latino adults at risk for developing or diagnosed with T2DM. Methods: A methodological review was performed by searching PubMed, CINAHL Complete, PsycINFO, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts. Inclusion criteria consisted of peer-reviewed articles in English, from January 2009 to January 2020, using the search terms: "Hispanic adults or Latino adults", "culturally tailored or ethnic", "diabetes", "dietary or nutrition", "intervention", and "vegan or plant based". Studies included adults at risk for/diagnosed with T2DM. Results: Of 1,474 articles retrieved, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Four main themes were identified: participant interest, feasibility of intervention, development and implementation of intervention, and impact of the intervention. Conclusion: Further research should focus on culturally tailored nutrition interventions and use of a WFPB diet to reduce risk for T2DM in Hispanic/Latino adults. Continued discussion should be patient- and community-centered to promote equity, health, and disease prevention through the use of culturally tailored methods and design, not only limited to curriculum and language.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/15404153221085696

    View details for Web of Science ID 000971125500006

    View details for PubMedID 35257611