Dr. Berg was born and raised in rural Minnesota and has been in academic medicine since 1997. His research interests include CPR performance, pediatric defibrillation science, and education primarily through simulation. He has been a volunteer with the American Heart Association for more than 10 years, leading the Pediatric CPR course (PALS) in 2010. He has served in several administrative positions including Division Chief of Pediatric Critical Care at the University of Arizona, Board Director of the University of Arizona Health Network and Governor-appointed member of the Arizona Medical Board. In his free time he enjoys biking, reading and spending time with his family. He is married with three children and lives in Menlo Park, California.
See his LinkedIn profile here:
- Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Clinical Professor, Pediatrics - Critical Care
Medical Director, Revive Initiative for Pediatric Resuscitation Excellence at Packard Children's Hospital-Stanford (2017 - Present)
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (2000)
Fellowship: University of Utah (2000) UT
Residency: University Of Arizona (1997) AZ
Medical Education: University of Minnesota Medical School - Twin Cities (1993) MN
A second-generation artificial intelligence-based therapeutic regimen improves diuretic resistance in heart failure: Results of a feasibility open-labeled clinical trial.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
2023; 161: 114334
Diuretics are a mainstay therapy for congestive heart failure (CHF); however, over one-third of patients develop diuretic resistance. Second-generation artificial intelligence (AI) systems introduce variability into treatment regimens to overcome the compensatory mechanisms underlying the loss of effectiveness of diuretics. This open-labeled, proof-of-concept clinical trial sought to investigate the ability to improve diuretic resistance by implementing algorithm-controlled therapeutic regimens.Ten CHF patients with diuretic resistance were enrolled in an open-labeled trial where the Altus Care™ app managed diuretics' dosage and administration times. The app provides a personalized therapeutic regimen creating variability in dosages and administration times within pre-defined ranges. Response to therapy was measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score, 6-minute walk test (SMW), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, and renal function.The second-generation, AI-based, personalized regimen alleviated diuretic resistance. All evaluable patients demonstrated clinical improvement within ten weeks of intervention. A dose reduction (based on a three-week average before and last three weeks of intervention) was achieved in 7/10 patients (70 %, p = 0.042). The KCCQ score improved in 9/10 (90 %, p = 0.002), the SMW improved in 9/9 (100 %, p = 0.006), NT-proBNP was decreased in 7/10 (70 %, p = 0.02), and serum creatinine was decreased in 6/10 (60 %, p = 0.05). The intervention was associated with reduced number of emergency room visits and the number of CHF-associated hospitalizations.The results support that the randomization of diuretic regimens guided by a second-generation personalized AI algorithm improves the response to diuretic therapy. Prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biopha.2023.114334
View details for PubMedID 36905809
CHEST COMPRESSION RELEASE VELOCITY AND ASSOCIATED CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN PEDIATRIC CARDIAC ARREST
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2023: 18
View details for Web of Science ID 000921450900037
A Subject-Tailored Variability-Based Platform for Overcoming the Plateau Effect in Sports Training: A Narrative Review.
International journal of environmental research and public health
2022; 19 (3)
The plateau effect in training is a significant obstacle for professional athletes and average subjects. It evolves from both the muscle-nerve-axis-associated performance and various cardiorespiratory parameters. Compensatory adaptation mechanisms contribute to a lack of continuous improvement with most exercise regimens. Attempts to overcome this plateau in exercise have been only partially successful, and it remains a significant unmet need in both healthy subjects and those suffering from chronic neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and metabolic diseases. Variability patterns characterize many biological processes, from cellular to organ levels. The present review discusses the significant obstacles in overcoming the plateau in training and establishes a platform to implement subject-tailored variability patterns to prevent and overcome this plateau in muscle and cardiorespiratory performance.
View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph19031722
View details for PubMedID 35162745
A digital health platform for assisting the diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19 progression: An adjuvant approach for augmenting the antiviral response and mitigating the immune-mediated target organ damage.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
2021; 143: 112228
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is a respiratory illness associated with high mortality, has been classified as a pandemic. The major obstacles for the clinicians to contain the disease are limited information availability, difficulty in disease diagnosis, predicting disease prognosis, and lack of disease monitoring tools. Additionally, the lack of valid therapies has further contributed to the difficulties in containing the pandemic. Recent studies have reported that the dysregulation of the immune system leads to an ineffective antiviral response and promotes pathological immune response, which manifests as ARDS, myocarditis, and hepatitis. In this study, a novel platform has been described for disseminating information to physicians for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with COVID-19. An adjuvant approach using compounds that can potentiate antiviral immune response and mitigate COVID-19-induced immune-mediated target organ damage has been presented. A prolonged beneficial effect is achieved by implementing algorithm-based individualized variability measures in the treatment regimen.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112228
View details for PubMedID 34649354
Maintaining Social Distancing: Video and Just-in-Time In Situ Simulation During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
ABSTRACT: Respiratory failure and cardiopulmonary arrest in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection require life-saving procedures that aerosolize virus and increase risk of transmission. To educate faculty, trainees, and staff on safe practices, a video with embedded questions was created demonstrating intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric SARS-CoV-2+ patients. Just-in-time in situ simulations of these scenarios were also carried out while adhering to isolation and social distancing protocols. We demonstrated that use of simulation to train physicians and staff during the COVID-19 pandemic is possible and effective in improving confidence in performance of the procedures.
View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000607
View details for PubMedID 34381006
PhewWe Got the Kid BackNow What?: Understanding Risk Factors Which Contribute to In-Hospital Pediatric Recurrent Cardiac Arrest.
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
2020; 21 (11): 1012–13
View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002465
View details for PubMedID 33136992
Improving Pediatric Readiness in General Emergency Departments: A Prospective Interventional Study.
The Journal of pediatrics
OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of a national interventional collaborative on pediatric readiness within General Emergency Departments.STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter, interventional study measured pediatric readiness in general emergency departments before and after participation in a pediatric readiness improvement intervention. Pediatric readiness was assessed using the weighted pediatric readiness score (WPRS) on a 100-point scale. The study protocol extended over six months and involved three phases: 1) a baseline on-site assessment of pediatric readiness and simulated quality of care, 2) pediatric readiness interventions, and 3) a follow-up on-site assessment of WPRS. The intervention phase included a benchmarking performance report, resources toolkits, and ongoing interactions between general emergency departments and academic medical centers.RESULTS: Thirty-six general emergency departments were enrolled, and 34 (94%) completed the study. Four EDs (11%) were located in Canada, and the rest were in the U.S. The mean improvement in WPRS was 16.3 (p<0.001) from a baseline of 62.4 (SEM=2.2) to 78.7 (SEM=2.1), with significant improvement in the domains of administration/coordination of care; policies, protocol and procedures; and quality improvement. Six EDs (17%) were fully adherent to the protocol timeline.CONCLUSION: Implementing a collaborative intervention model including simulation and quality improvement initiatives is associated with improvement in weighted pediatric readiness scores (WPRS) when disseminated to a diverse group of general emergency departments partnering with their regional pediatric academic medical centers. This work provides evidence that innovative collaboration facilitated by academic medical centers can serve as an effective strategy to improve pediatric readiness and processes of care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.10.040
View details for PubMedID 33137316
Improved survival to hospital discharge in pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest using 2 Joules/kilogram as first defibrillation dose for initial pulseless ventricular arrhythmia.
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends first defibrillation energy dose of 2 joules/kilogram (J/kg) for pediatric cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT). However, optimal first energy dose remains unclear.METHODS: Using AHA Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation (GWTG-R) database, we identified children ≤12 yo with IHCA due to VF/pVT. Primary exposure was energy dose in J/kg. We categorized energy doses: 1.7-2.5J/kg as reference (reflecting 2J/kg intended dose),<1.7J/kg and >2.5J/kg. We compared survival for reference doses to all other doses. We constructed models to test association of energy dose with survival; adjusting for age, location, illness category, initial rhythm and vasoactive medications.RESULTS: We identified 301 patients ≤12 yo with index IHCA and initial VF/pVT. Survival to discharge was significantly lower with energy doses other than 1.7-2.5J/kg. Individual dose categories of<1.7J/kg or >2.5J/kg were not associated with differences in survival. For patients with initial VF, doses >2.5J/kg had worse survival compared to reference. For all patients ≤18 yo (n=422), there were no differences in survival between dosing categories. However, all ≤18 with initial VF receiving >2.5J/kg had worse survival.CONCLUSIONS: First energy doses other than 1.7-2.5J/kg are associated with lower rate of survival to hospital discharge in patients ≤12 yo with initial VF/pVT, and first doses >2.5J/kg had lower survival rates in all patients ≤18 yo with initial VF. These results support current AHA guidelines for first pediatric defibrillation energy dose of 2J/kg.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.05.048
View details for PubMedID 32522702
Characteristics of Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Programs in the United States and Canada.
ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the current infrastructure and practice characteristics of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) programs. A 40-question survey of center-specific demographics, practice structure, program experience, and support network utilized to cannulate and maintain a pediatric patient on ECMO was designed via a web-based survey tool. The survey was distributed to pediatric ECMO programs in the United States and Canada. Of the 101 centers that were identified to participate, 41 completed the survey. The majority of responding centers are university affiliated (73%) and have an intensive care unit (ICU) with 15-25 beds (58%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been offered for >10 years in 85% of the centers. The median number of total cannulations per center in 2017 was 15 (interquartile range [IQR] = 5-30), with the majority occurring in the cardiovascular intensive care unit (median = 13, IQR = 5-25). Fifty-seven percent of responding centers offer ECPR, with a median number of four cases per year (IQR = 2-7). Most centers cannulate in an operating room or ICU; 11 centers can cannulate in the pediatric ED. Sixty-three percent of centers have standardized protocols for postcannulation management. The majority of protocols guide anticoagulation, sedation, or ventilator management; left ventricle decompression and reperfusion catheter placement are the least standardized procedures. The majority of pediatric ECMO centers have adopted the infrastructure recommendations from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. However, there remains broad variability of practice characteristics and organizational infrastructure for pediatric ECMO centers across the United States and Canada.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MAT.0000000000001311
View details for PubMedID 33181543
2019 American Heart Association Focused Update on Pediatric Advanced Life Support An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care
2019; 140 (24): E904–E914
This 2019 focused update to the American Heart Association pediatric advanced life support guidelines follows the 2018 and 2019 systematic reviews performed by the Pediatric Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. It aligns with the continuous evidence review process of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, with updates published when the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation completes a literature review based on new published evidence. This update provides the evidence review and treatment recommendations for advanced airway management in pediatric cardiac arrest, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric cardiac arrest, and pediatric targeted temperature management during post-cardiac arrest care. The writing group analyzed the systematic reviews and the original research published for each of these topics. For airway management, the writing group concluded that it is reasonable to continue bag-mask ventilation (versus attempting an advanced airway such as endotracheal intubation) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. When extracorporeal membrane oxygenation protocols and teams are readily available, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be considered for patients with cardiac diagnoses and in-hospital cardiac arrest. Finally, it is reasonable to use targeted temperature management of 32°C to 34°C followed by 36°C to 37.5°C, or to use targeted temperature management of 36°C to 37.5°C, for pediatric patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or in-hospital cardiac arrest.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000731
View details for Web of Science ID 000508367200006
View details for PubMedID 31722551
2019 American Heart Association Focused Update on Pediatric Basic Life Support An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care
2019; 140 (24): E915–E921
This 2019 focused update to the American Heart Association pediatric basic life support guidelines follows the 2019 systematic review of the effects of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) on survival of infants and children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This systematic review and the primary studies identified were analyzed by the Pediatric Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. It aligns with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation's continuous evidence review process, with updates published when the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation completes a literature review based on new published evidence. This update summarizes the available pediatric evidence supporting DA-CPR and provides treatment recommendations for DA-CPR for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Four new pediatric studies were reviewed. A systematic review of this data identified the association of a significant improvement in the rates of bystander CPR and in survival 1 month after cardiac arrest with DA-CPR. The writing group recommends that emergency medical dispatch centers offer DA-CPR for presumed pediatric cardiac arrest, especially when no bystander CPR is in progress. No recommendation could be made for or against DA-CPR instructions when bystander CPR is already in progress.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000736
View details for Web of Science ID 000508367200007
View details for PubMedID 31722546
Near Miss in Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Case for In Situ Simulation.
Pediatric quality & safety
2019; 4 (6): e222
Pediatric patients in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) settings are at high risk for morbidity should an adverse event occur. We describe an experience in the iMRI scanner where no harm occurred, yet revealed an opportunity to improve the safety of patients utilizing the iMRI. The perioperative quality improvement team, resuscitation team, and radiology nurse leadership collaborated to understand the process better through in situ simulation.Methods: After a problem analysis, the team planned an in situ, high-fidelity simulation with predefined learning objectives to identify previously overlooked opportunities for improvement. The iMRI simulation had unique considerations, including the use of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible mannequin and ensuring participants' safety. Audiovisual equipment was placed in strategic locations to record the MRI and operating room (OR) segments of the simulation, and trained health-care simulation experts provided debriefing.Results: After completion of the iMRI simulation, the quality improvement team solicited feedback from participants and reviewed the video-recorded simulation. Several opportunities for improvement surrounding staff responsibilities and unique aspects of the iMRI environment were identified.Conclusions: iMRI in situ simulation has not been previously described. It presents unique challenges given the integration of personnel from OR and radiology environments, anesthetized patients, and risks from the high-powered MRI magnet. Other institutions utilizing hybrid ORs with iMRI may consider conducting in situ simulations using the described methods.
View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000222
View details for PubMedID 32010849
The Runaway Croup Train: Off the Pathway and Through the Woods.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2019-0030
View details for PubMedID 31492686
INFRASTRUCTURE AND PRACTICE CHARACTERISTICS OF PEDIATRIC ECMO PROGRAMS ACROSS NORTH AMERICA
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019
View details for Web of Science ID 000498593402110
Healthcare Provider Perceptions of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality During Simulation Training.
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
To assess the relationship between quantitative and perceived cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance when healthcare providers have access to and familiarity with audiovisual feedback devices.Prospective observational study.In situ simulation events throughout a pediatric quaternary care center where the use of continuous audiovisual feedback devices during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is standard.Healthcare providers who serve as first responders to in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest.High-fidelity simulation of resuscitation with continuous audiovisual feedback.Objective data was collected using accelerometer-based measurements from a cardiopulmonary resuscitation defibrillator/monitor. After the simulation event but before any debriefing, participants completed self-evaluation forms to assess whether they believed the cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed met the American Heart Association guidelines for chest compression rate, chest compression depth, chest compression fraction, chest compression in target, and duration of preshock pause and postshock pause. An association coefficient (kappa) was calculated to determine degree of agreement between perceived performance and the quantitative performance data that was collected from the CPR defibrillator/monitor. Data from 27 mock codes and 236 participants was analyzed. Average cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance was chest compression rate 106 ± 10 compressions per minute; chest compression depth 2.05 ± 0.6 in; chest compression fraction 74% ± 10%; chest compression in target 22% ± 21%; preshock pause 8.6 ± 7.2 seconds; and postshock pause 6.4 ± 8.9 seconds. When all healthcare providers were analyzed, the association coefficient (κ) for chest compression rate (κ = 0.078), chest compression depth (κ = 0.092), chest compression fraction (κ = 0.004), preshock pause (κ = 0.321), and postshock pause (κ = 0.40) was low, with no variable achieving moderate agreement (κ > 0.4).Cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance during mock codes does not meet the American Heart Association's quality recommendations. Healthcare providers have poor insight into the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during mock codes despite access to and familiarity with continuous audiovisual feedback.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002058
View details for PubMedID 31232856
2018 American Heart Association Focused Update on Pediatric Advanced Life Support: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care
2018; 138 (23): E731–E739
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000612
View details for Web of Science ID 000452030100002
Accuracy of Team Perception of Performance With Actual CPR Quality Metrics in Children
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2018
View details for Web of Science ID 000529883400032
Characterization of Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality Metrics Across an International Resuscitation Collaborative
PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
2018; 19 (5): 421–32
Pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality metrics have been reported in few children less than 8 years. Our objective was to characterize chest compression fraction, rate, depth, and compliance with 2015 American Heart Association guidelines across multiple pediatric hospitals.Retrospective observational study of data from a multicenter resuscitation quality collaborative from October 2015 to April 2017.Twelve pediatric hospitals across United States, Canada, and Europe.In-hospital cardiac arrest patients (age < 18 yr) with quantitative cardiopulmonary resuscitation data recordings.None.There were 112 events yielding 2,046 evaluable 60-second epochs of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (196,669 chest compression). Event cardiopulmonary resuscitation metric summaries (median [interquartile range]) by age: less than 1 year (38/112): chest compression fraction 0.88 (0.61-0.98), chest compression rate 119/min (110-129), and chest compression depth 2.3 cm (1.9-3.0 cm); for 1 to less than 8 years (42/112): chest compression fraction 0.94 (0.79-1.00), chest compression rate 117/min (110-124), and chest compression depth 3.8 cm (2.9-4.6 cm); for 8 to less than 18 years (32/112): chest compression fraction 0.94 (0.85-1.00), chest compression rate 117/min (110-123), chest compression depth 5.5 cm (4.0-6.5 cm). "Compliance" with guideline targets for 60-second chest compression "epochs" was predefined: chest compression fraction greater than 0.80, chest compression rate 100-120/min, and chest compression depth: greater than or equal to 3.4 cm in less than 1 year, greater than or equal to 4.4 cm in 1 to less than 8 years, and 4.5 to less than 6.6 cm in 8 to less than 18 years. Proportion of less than 1 year, 1 to less than 8 years, and 8 to less than 18 years events with greater than or equal to 60% of 60-second epochs meeting compliance (respectively): chest compression fraction was 53%, 81%, and 78%; chest compression rate was 32%, 50%, and 63%; chest compression depth was 13%, 19%, and 44%. For all events combined, total compliance (meeting all three guideline targets) was 10% (11/112).Across an international pediatric resuscitation collaborative, we characterized the landscape of pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest chest compression quality metrics and found that they often do not meet 2015 American Heart Association guidelines. Guideline compliance for rate and depth in children less than 18 years is poor, with the greatest difficulty in achieving chest compression depth targets in younger children.
View details for PubMedID 29533355
QUANTITATIVE DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED MRI PREDICTS OUTCOMES IN SURVIVORS OF PEDIATRIC CARDIAC ARREST
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2018: 149
View details for DOI 10.1097/01.ccm.0000528352.47794.aa
View details for Web of Science ID 000436794300297