Dr. Margaret Lin is a board certified radiologist with subspecialty training in thoracic and cardiovascular imaging. Dr. Lin specializes in diseases affecting the lungs and airways, including cancer, infection, and interstitial and inhalational lung diseases. Dr. Lin has a passion for resident education and development of curricula and new educational tools. She is the current Program Director for the Diagnostic Radiology Residency Program.

Clinical Focus

  • Diagnostic Radiology

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Co-Director of CT Lung Cancer Screening Program, Stanford Radiology (2023 - Present)
  • Program Director, Stanford Radiology Residency (2022 - Present)
  • Associate Program Director, Stanford Radiology Residency (2019 - 2022)

Honors & Awards

  • Mid-Career Faculty of the Year, Stanford Radiology Residency (2022)
  • Mid-Career Faculty of the Year, Stanford Radiology Residency (2021)
  • Mid-Career Faculty of the Year, Stanford Radiology Residency (2020)
  • Adjunct Clinical Faculty of the Year, Stanford Radiology Residency (2012)
  • Junior Faculty Educator of the Year, Stanford Radiology Residency (2011)
  • Clinician Educator of the Year, Stanford Radiology Residency (2010)
  • Clinician Educator of the Year, Stanford Radiology Residency (2009)
  • Harvard College Scholarship and Elizabeth Cary Agassiz Certificate of Merit, Harvard University (1994)
  • Harvard College Scholarship and Elizabeth Cary Agassiz Certificate of Merit, Harvard University (1993)
  • John Harvard Scholarship and Elizabeth Cary Agassiz Scholarship, Harvard University (1992)
  • Detur Book Prize, Harvard University (1992)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, Association of University Radiologists (2021 - Present)
  • Member, Radiological Society of North America (2010 - Present)
  • Member, Society of Thoracic Radiology (2009 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship, Stanford University, Thoracic Imaging (2008)
  • Board Certification, American Board of Radiology (2007)
  • Residency, Stanford University, Diagnostic Radiology (2007)
  • Board Certification, American Board of Internal Medicine (2002)
  • Residency, Stanford University, Internal Medicine (2002)
  • Internship, Stanford University, Internal Medicine (2000)
  • MD, Stanford University, Medicine (1999)
  • BA, magna cum laude, Harvard University, Biochemical Sciences (1995)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Hospital (2008) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology (2007)
  • Residency: Stanford University Hospital (2007) CA
  • Residency: Stanford University Hospital -Clinical Excellence Research Center (2002) CA
  • Internship: Stanford University Hospital -Clinical Excellence Research Center (2000) CA
  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (1999) CA

All Publications

  • Volumetric Analysis: Effect on Diagnosis and Management of Indeterminate Solid Pulmonary Nodules in Routine Clinical Practice. Journal of computer assisted tomography Lim, R. S., Rosenberg, J., Willemink, M. J., Cheng, S. N., Guo, H. H., Hollett, P. D., Lin, M. C., Madani, M. H., Martin, L., Pogatchnik, B. P., Pohlen, M., Shen, J., Tsai, E. B., Berry, G. J., Scott, G., Leung, A. N. 2024


    To evaluate the effect of volumetric analysis on the diagnosis and management of indeterminate solid pulmonary nodules in routine clinical practice.This was a retrospective study with 107 computed tomography (CT) cases of solid pulmonary nodules (range, 6-15 mm), 57 pathology-proven malignancies (lung cancer, n = 34; metastasis, n = 23), and 50 benign nodules. Nodules were evaluated on a total of 309 CT scans (average number of CTs/nodule, 2.9 [range, 2-7]). CT scans were from multiple institutions with variable technique. Nine radiologists (attendings, n = 3; fellows, n = 3; residents, n = 3) were asked their level of suspicion for malignancy (low/moderate or high) and management recommendation (no follow-up, CT follow-up, or care escalation) for baseline and follow-up studies first without and then with volumetric analysis data. Effect of volumetry on diagnosis and management was assessed by generalized linear and logistic regression models.Volumetric analysis improved sensitivity (P = 0.009) and allowed earlier recognition (P < 0.05) of malignant nodules. Attending radiologists showed higher sensitivity in recognition of malignant nodules (P = 0.03) and recommendation of care escalation (P < 0.001) compared with trainees. Volumetric analysis altered management of high suspicion nodules only in the fellow group (P = 0.008). κ Statistics for suspicion for malignancy and recommended management were fair to substantial (0.38-0.66) and fair to moderate (0.33-0.50). Volumetric analysis improved interobserver variability for identification of nodule malignancy from 0.52 to 0.66 (P = 0.004) only on the second follow-up study.Volumetric analysis of indeterminate solid pulmonary nodules in routine clinical practice can result in improved sensitivity and earlier identification of malignant nodules. The effect of volumetric analysis on management recommendations is variable and influenced by reader experience.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/RCT.0000000000001630

    View details for PubMedID 38968327

  • Barriers to Completing Low Dose Computed Tomography Scan for Lung Cancer Screening. Clinical lung cancer Wong, L. Y., Choudhary, S., Kapula, N., Lin, M., Elliott, I. A., Guenthart, B. A., Liou, D. Z., Backhus, L. M., Berry, M. F., Shrager, J. B., Lui, N. S. 2024


    Annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality in high-risk individuals by detecting the disease at an earlier stage. This study aims to assess the barriers to completing LDCT in a cohort of patients who were determined eligible for lung cancer screening (LCS).We performed a single institution, mixed methods, cross-sectional study of patients who had a LDCT ordered from July to December 2022. We then completed phone surveys with patients who did not complete LDCT to assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions toward LCS.We identified 380 patients who met inclusion criteria, including 331 (87%) who completed LDCT and 49 (13%) who did not. Patients who completed a LDCT and those who did not were similar regarding age, sex, race, primary language, household income, body mass index, median pack years, and quit time. Positive predictors of LDCT completion were: meeting USPSTF guidelines (97.9% vs 81.6%), being married (58.3% vs 44.9%), former versus current smokers (55% vs 41.7%), personal history of emphysema (60.4% vs 42.9%), and family history of lung cancer (13.9% vs 4.1%) (all P < .05). Of the patients who participated in the phone survey, only 7% of respondents thought they were high risk for developing lung cancer despite attending a shared decision-making visit and only 10% wanted to re-schedule their LDCT.There exist barriers to completing LDCT even after patients are identified as eligible and complete a shared decision-making visit secondary to knowledge barriers, misperceptions, and patient disinterest.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2024.04.014

    View details for PubMedID 38749902

  • Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair for Chronic Type B Aortic Dissection: Pre- and Postprocedural Imaging. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc Shen, J., Mastrodicasa, D., Al Bulushi, Y., Lin, M. C., Tse, J. R., Watkins, A. C., Lee, J. T., Fleischmann, D. 2022; 42 (6): 1638-1653


    Aortic dissection is a chronic disease that requires lifelong clinical and imaging surveillance, long after the acute event. Imaging has an important role in prognosis, timing of repair, device sizing, and monitoring for complications, especially in the endovascular therapy era. Important anatomic features at preprocedural imaging include the location of the primary intimal tear and aortic zonal and branch vessel involvement, which influence the treatment strategy. Challenges of repair in the chronic phase include a small true lumen in conjunction with a stiff intimal flap, complex anatomy, and retrograde perfusion from distal reentry tears. The role of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) remains controversial for treatment of chronic aortic dissection. Standard TEVAR is aimed at excluding the primary intimal tear to decrease false lumen perfusion, induce false lumen thrombosis, promote aortic remodeling, and prevent aortic growth. In addition to covering the primary intimal tear with an endograft, several adjunctive techniques have been developed to mitigate retrograde false lumen perfusion. These techniques are broadly categorized into false lumen obliteration and landing zone optimization strategies, such as the provisional extension to induce complete attachment (PETTICOAT), false lumen embolization, cheese-wire fenestration, and knickerbocker techniques. Familiarity with these techniques is important to recognize expected changes and complications at postintervention imaging. The authors detail imaging options, provide examples of simple and complex endovascular repairs of aortic dissections, and highlight complications that can be associated with various techniques. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2022.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/rg.220028

    View details for PubMedID 36190862

  • CT patterns of fungal pulmonary infections of the lung: Comparison of standard-dose and simulated low-dose CT (vol 81, pg 2860, 2012) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY Christe, A., Lin, M. C., Yen, A. C., Hallett, R. L., Roychoudhury, K., Schmitzberger, F., Fleischmann, D., Leung, A. N., Rubin, G. D., Vock, P., Roos, J. E. 2013; 82 (11): 2067
  • CT patterns of fungal pulmonary infections of the lung: Comparison of standard-dose and simulated low-dose CT EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY Christe, A., Lin, M. C., Yen, A. C., Hallett, R. L., Roychoudhury, K., Schmitzberger, F., Fleischmann, D., Leung, A. N., Rubin, G. D., Vock, P., Roos, J. E. 2012; 81 (10): 2860-2866


    To assess the effect of radiation dose reduction on the appearance and visual quantification of specific CT patterns of fungal infection in immuno-compromised patients.Raw data of thoracic CT scans (64 × 0.75 mm, 120 kVp, 300 reference mAs) from 41 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary fungal infection were collected. In 32 patients fungal infection could be proven (median age of 55.5 years, range 35-83). A total of 267 cuboids showing CT patterns of fungal infection and 27 cubes having no disease were reconstructed at the original and 6 simulated tube currents of 100, 40, 30, 20, 10, and 5 reference mAs. Eight specific fungal CT patterns were analyzed by three radiologists: 76 ground glass opacities, 42 ground glass nodules, 51 mixed, part solid, part ground glass nodules, 36 solid nodules, 5 lobulated nodules, 6 spiculated nodules, 14 cavitary nodules, and 37 foci of air-space disease. The standard of reference was a consensus subjective interpretation by experts whom were not readers in the study.The mean sensitivity and standard deviation for detecting pathological cuboids/disease using standard dose CT was 0.91 ± 0.07. Decreasing dose did not affect sensitivity significantly until the lowest dose level of 5 mAs (0.87 ± 0.10, p=0.012). Nodular pattern discrimination was impaired below the dose level of 30 reference mAs: specificity for fungal 'mixed nodules' decreased significantly at 20, 10 and 5 reference mAs (p<0.05). At lower dose levels, classification drifted from 'solid' to 'mixed nodule', although no lesion was missed.Our simulation data suggest that tube current levels can be reduced from 300 to 30 reference mAs without impairing the diagnostic information of specific CT patterns of pulmonary fungal infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.06.059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308079700067

    View details for PubMedID 21835569

  • Diagnosing invasive fungal disease in critically ill patients CRITICAL REVIEWS IN MICROBIOLOGY Hsu, J. L., Ruoss, S. J., Bower, N. D., Lin, M., Holodniy, M., Stevens, D. A. 2011; 37 (4): 277-312


    Fungal infections are increasing, with a changing landscape of pathogens and emergence of new groups at risk for invasive disease. We review current diagnostic techniques, focusing on studies in critically ill patients. Microbiological cultures, the current "gold standard", demonstrate poor sensitivity, thus diagnosis of invasive disease in the critically ill is difficult. This diagnostic dilemma results in under- or over-treatment of patients, potentially contributing to poor outcomes and antifungal resistance. While other current diagnostic tests perform moderately well, many lack timeliness, efficacy, and are negatively affected by treatments common to critically ill patients. New nucleic acid-based research is promising.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/1040841X.2011.581223

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295616800001

    View details for PubMedID 21749278

  • CT Screening and Follow-Up of Lung Nodules: Effects of Tube Current-Time Setting and Nodule Size and Density on Detectability and of Tube Current-Time Setting on Apparent Size AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Christe, A., Torrente, J. C., Lin, M., Yen, A., Hallett, R., Roychoudhury, K., Schmitzberger, F., Vock, P., Roos, J. 2011; 197 (3): 623-630


    The purpose of the study was to quantify and compare the effect of CT dose and of size and density of nodules on the detectability of lung nodules and to quantify the influence of CT dose on the size of the nodules.From 50 patients a total of 125 cuboidal regions of interest (3 × 3 × 1.5 cm volumes) showing a single nodule (≤ 8 mm) and 27 normal cuboids were selected. Image sets were reconstructed with the software from raw data simulating different dose levels: 300 (original dose), 220, 180, 140, 100, 80, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, and 5 reference mAs. A logistic regression model was used to analyze detectability for three blinded readers. Odds ratios were calculated for nodule size smaller than 3 mm versus 3 mm and larger and for nodule attenuation of -300 HU and greater versus less than -300 HU.Tube current-time settings of 10 mAs and greater were not associated with a significant difference in individual reader sensitivity compared with the standard setting of 300 mAs. At 5 mAs only one reader had a significant decrease in sensitivity, from 82% to 77% (p = 0.0035). According to the odds ratios and logistic regression results, the strongest negative effect on sensitivity can be assumed for low nodule density followed by small nodule size and dose level. The mean nodule volume measurement error between 5 and 300 mAs was 2.2% ± 18% (SD) and much lower than the interobserver volume measurement error rate of 38% ± 45%.The results show the feasibility of a low-dose CT protocol at 10 mAs for follow-up of lung nodules. Computer-aided volume measurement in follow-up of lung nodules decreases interobserver variability.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.10.5288

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294165600046

    View details for PubMedID 21862804

  • Yield of diagnostic procedures for invasive fungal infections in neutropenic febrile patients with chest computed tomography abnormalities MYCOSES Ho, D. Y., Lin, M., Schaenman, J., Rosso, F., Leung, A. N., Coutre, S. E., Sista, R. R., Montoya, J. G. 2011; 54 (1): 59-70


    Haematological patients with neutropenic fever are frequently evaluated with chest computed tomography (CT) to rule out invasive fungal infections (IFI). We retrospectively analysed data from 100 consecutive patients with neutropenic fever and abnormal chest CT from 1998 to 2005 to evaluate their chest CT findings and the yield of diagnostic approaches employed. For their initial CTs, 79% had nodular opacities, with 24.1% associated with the halo sign. Other common CT abnormalities included pleural effusions (48%), ground glass opacities (37%) and consolidation (31%). The CT findings led to a change in antifungal therapy in 54% of the patients. Fifty-six patients received diagnostic procedures, including 46 bronchoscopies, 25 lung biopsies and seven sinus biopsies, with a diagnostic yield for IFI of 12.8%, 35.0% and 83.3%, respectively. In conclusion, chest CT plays an important role in the evaluation of haematological patients with febrile neutropenia and often leads to a change in antimicrobial therapy. Pulmonary nodules are the most common radiological abnormality. Sinus or lung biopsies have a high-diagnostic yield for IFI as compared to bronchoscopy. Patients with IFI may not have sinus/chest symptoms, and thus, clinicians should have a low threshold for performing sinus/chest imaging, and if indicated and safe, a biopsy of the abnormal areas.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2009.01760.x

    View details for PubMedID 19793207

  • Freehand MRI-Guided Preoperative Needle Localization of Breast Lesions After MRI-Guided Vacuum-Assisted Core Needle Biopsy Without Marker Placement JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING van de Ven, S. M., Lin, M. C., Daniel, B. L., Sareen, P., Lipson, J. A., Pal, S., Dirbas, F. M., Ikeda, D. M. 2010; 32 (1): 101-109


    To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided preoperative needle localization (PNL) of breast lesions previously sampled by MRI-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (VACNB) without marker placement.We reviewed 15 women with 16 breast lesions undergoing MRI-guided VACNB without marker placement who subsequently underwent MRI-guided PNL, both on an open 0.5T magnet using freehand techniques. Mammograms and specimen radiographs were rated for lesion visibility; MRI images were rated for lesion visibility and hematoma formation. Imaging findings were correlated with pathology.The average prebiopsy lesion size was 16 mm (range 4-50 mm) with 13/16 lesions located in mammographically dense breasts. Eight hematomas formed during VACNB (average size 13 mm, range 8-19 mm). PNL was performed for VACNB pathologies of cancer (5), high-risk lesions (5), or benign but discordant findings (6) at 2-78 days following VACNB. PNL targeted the lesion (2), hematoma (4), or surrounding breast architecture (10). Wire placement was successful in all 16 lesions. Final pathology showed six cancers, five high-risk lesions, and five benign findings.MRI-guided PNL is successful in removing lesions that have previously undergone VACNB without marker placement by targeting the residual lesion, hematoma, or surrounding breast architecture, even in mammographically dense breasts.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22148

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279439600013

    View details for PubMedID 20575077