Instructor, Otolaryngology (Head and Neck Surgery)
Greater epithelial ridge cells are the principal organoid-forming progenitors of the mouse cochlea.
2021; 34 (3): 108646
In mammals, hearing loss is irreversible due to the lack of regenerative potential of non-sensory cochlear cells. Neonatal cochlear cells, however, can grow into organoids that harbor sensory epithelial cells, including hair cells and supporting cells. Here, we purify different cochlear cell types from neonatal mice, validate the composition of the different groups with single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and assess the various groups' potential to grow into inner ear organoids. We find that the greater epithelial ridge (GER), a transient cell population that disappears during post-natal cochlear maturation, harbors the most potent organoid-forming cells. We identified three distinct GER cell groups that correlate with a specific spatial distribution of marker genes. Organoid formation was synergistically enhanced when the cells were cultured at increasing density. This effect is not due to diffusible signals but requires direct cell-to-cell contact. Our findings improve the development of cell-based assays to study culture-generated inner ear cell types.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108646
View details for PubMedID 33472062
Lysosome-Associated Membrane Proteins Support the Furin-Mediated Processing of the Mumps Virus Fusion Protein
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2020; 94 (12)
Mumps virus (MuV), an enveloped RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family and the causative agent of mumps, affects the salivary glands and other glandular tissues as well as the central nervous system. The virus enters the cell by inducing the fusion of its envelope with the plasma membrane of the target cell. Membrane fusion is mediated by MuV envelope proteins: the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion (F) protein. Cleavage of the MuV F protein (MuV-F) into two subunits by the cellular protease furin is a prerequisite for fusion and virus infectivity. Here, we show that 293T (a derivative of HEK293) cells do not produce syncytia upon expression of MuV envelope proteins or MuV infection. This failure is caused by the inefficient MuV-F cleavage despite the presence of functional furin in 293T cells. An expression cloning strategy revealed that overexpression of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) confers on 293T cells the ability to produce syncytia upon expression of MuV envelope proteins. The LAMP family comprises the ubiquitously expressed LAMP1 and LAMP2, the interferon-stimulated gene product LAMP3, and the cell type-specific proteins. The expression level of the LAMP3 gene, but not of LAMP1 and LAMP2 genes, differed markedly between 293T and HEK293 cells. Overexpression of LAMP1, LAMP2, or LAMP3 allowed 293T cells to process MuV-F efficiently. Furthermore, these LAMPs were found to interact with both MuV-F and furin. Our results indicate that LAMPs support the furin-mediated cleavage of MuV-F and that, among them, LAMP3 may be critical for the process, at least in certain cells.IMPORTANCE The cellular protease furin mediates proteolytic cleavage of many host and pathogen proteins and plays an important role in viral envelope glycoprotein maturation. MuV, an enveloped RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family and an important human pathogen, enters the cell through the fusion of its envelope with the plasma membrane of the target cell. Membrane fusion is mediated by the viral attachment protein and the F protein. Cleavage of MuV-F into two subunits by furin is a prerequisite for fusion and virus infectivity. Here, we show that LAMPs support the furin-mediated cleavage of MuV-F. Expression levels of LAMPs affect the processing of MuV-F and MuV-mediated membrane fusion. Among LAMPs, the interferon-stimulated gene product LAMP3 is most critical in certain cells. Our study provides potential targets for anti-MuV therapeutics.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.00050-20
View details for Web of Science ID 000537852600002
View details for PubMedID 32295904