- Neurologic Critical Care
Board Certification: Neurocritical Care, United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (2008)
Internship:Univ of California San Francisco (1997) CA
Fellowship:UCSF Medical Center (2002) CA
Residency:UCSF Medical Center (2000) CA
Board Certification, United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties, Neurocritical Care (2008)
Board Certification: Neurology, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (2001)
Medical Education:University of Michigan School of Medicine (1996) MI
MD PhD, University of Michigan, Human Genetics (1996)
Internship, UCSF, Medicine (1997)
Residency, UCSF, Neurology (2000)
Fellowship, UCSF, Neurological Critical Care (2002)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
The goal of the Buckwalter Lab is to improve how people recover after a stroke. We use basic research to understand the cells, proteins, and genes that lead to successful recovery of function, and also how complications develop that impact quality of life after stroke. Ongoing projects are focused on understanding how inflammatory responses are regulated after a stroke and how to make recovery faster and better after stroke. With our collaborator Dr. Longo we have discovered a new drug that improves the speed and degree of recovery when mice are given the drug beginning three days after stroke. Developing it in animals to a point where it can be tried in people is a top priority. In terms of inflammation, we study how cells in the brain called astrocytes influence swelling and tissue cleanup after a stroke, and how similar cells in the lung influence stroke-induced immune insufficiency, which is a primary cause of pneumonias in stroke patients.
Efficacy and Safety Study of Desmoteplase to Treat Acute Ischemic Stroke (DIAS-4)
The purpose of the study is to determine whether desmoteplase is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with acute ischaemic stroke when given within 3 to 9 hours from onset of stroke symptoms.
Diagnostic Utility of MRI in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
The overall aim of this project is to prospectively determine whether MRI can improve the conventional neuroradiological evaluation (CT with or without cerebral angiography) of patients with a spontaneous ICH or IVH. The study design will also allow us to identify the added benefit of specific MR sequences and repeat MRI in the chronic stage, thereby allowing us to prospectively determine their value in a consecutive series of patients. This information should have a major impact on the management of these patients by providing data on the diagnostic yield of routine MRI in patients presenting with a wide variety of causes for ICH or IVH. These data will help guide the diagnostic evaluation and the management of brain hemorrhage patients in the future.
Imaging Collaterals in Acute Stroke (iCAS)
Stroke is caused by a sudden blockage of a blood vessel that delivers blood to the brain. Unblocking the blood vessel with a blood clot removal device restores blood flow and if done quickly may prevent the disability that can be caused by a stroke. However, not all stroke patients benefit from having their blood vessel unblocked. The aim of this study is to determine if special brain imaging, called MRI, can be used to identify which stroke patients are most likely to benefit from attempts to unblock their blood vessel with a special blood clot removal device. In particular, we will assess in this trial whether a noncontrast MR imaging sequence, arterial spin labeling (ASL), can demonstrate the presence of collateral blood flow (compared with a gold standard of the angiogram) and whether it is useful to predict who will benefit from treatment.
Efficacy and Safety Trial of Transcranial Laser Therapy Within 24 Hours From Stroke Onset (NEST-3)
The purpose of this pivotal study is to demonstrate safety and efficacy of transcranial laser therapy (TLT) with the NeuroThera® Laser System in the treatment of subjects diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. The initiation of the TLT procedure must be feasible for each subject between 4.5 and 24 hours of stroke onset.
Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP) to Predict Response to Recanalization in Ischemic Stroke Project (CRISP)
The overall goal of the CTP to predict Response to recanalization in Ischemic Stroke Project (CRISP) is to develop a practical tool to identify acute stroke patients who are likely to benefit from endovascular therapy. The project has two main parts. During the first part, the investigators propose to develop a fully automated system (RAPID) for processing of CT Perfusion (CTP) images that will generate brain maps of the ischemic core and penumbra. There will be no patient enrollment in part one of this project. During the second part, the investigators aim to demonstrate that physicians in the emergency setting, with the aid of a fully automated CTP analysis program (RAPID), can accurately predict response to recanalization in stroke patients undergoing revascularization. To achieve this aim the investigators will conduct a prospective cohort study of 240 consecutive stroke patients who will undergo a CTP scan prior to endovascular therapy. The study will be conducted at four sites (Stanford University, St Luke's Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and Emory University/Grady Hospital). Patients will have an early follow-up MRI scan within 12+/-6 hours to assess reperfusion and a late follow-up MRI scan at day 5 to determine the final infarct.
Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage Phase III
The overall objective of this Phase III clinical trial is to obtain information from a population of 500 ICH subjects with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), representative of current clinical practice and national demographics of ICH regarding the benefit (or lack thereof) of IVH clot removal on subject function as measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This application requests funding for five years to initiate a Phase III randomized clinical trial (RCT) testing the benefit of clot removal for intraventricular hemorrhage. The investigators propose to compare extraventricular drainage (EVD) use plus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; Alteplase; Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA and Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc., Ingelheim, Germany) with EVD+ placebo in the management and treatment of subjects with small intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and large intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH defined as ICH < 30 cc and obstruction of the 3rd or 4th ventricles by intraventricular blood clot).
Independent Studies (7)
- Directed Reading in Neurology and Neurological Science
NENS 299 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Neurosciences
NEPR 299 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Early Clinical Experience in Neurology and Neurological Sciences
NENS 280 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduate Research
NENS 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduate Research
NEPR 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Medical Scholars Research
NENS 370 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Undergraduate Research
NENS 199 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Neurology and Neurological Science
Graduate and Fellowship Programs
Metronidazole-Induced Encephalopathy: Not Always a Reversible Situation
2015; 22 (3): 429-436
Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antimicrobial drug prescribed to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Uncommonly, it causes central nervous system (CNS) toxicity manifesting as metronidazole-induced encephalopathy (MIE).Case report.A 65-year-old woman with hepatitis B cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class C, MELD 21) developed progressive encephalopathy to GCS 4 during a 3-week course of metronidazole for cholecystitis. Initial MRI was consistent with CNS metronidazole toxicity, with symmetrical T2 hyperintensity and generally restricted diffusion in bilateral dentate nuclei, corpus callosum, midbrain, superior cerebellar peduncles, internal capsules, and cerebral white matter. Laboratory values did not demonstrate significant electrolyte shifts, and continuous EEG was without seizure. High-dose thiamine was empirically administered. Lumbar puncture was not performed due to coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia. Despite discontinuation of metronidazole and keeping ammonia levels near normal, the patient did not improve. MRI was repeated 1 week after discontinuation of metronidazole. Although there was decreased DWI hyperintensity in the dentate nuclei, diffuse T2 hyperintensity persisted and even progressed in the brainstem, basal ganglia, and subcortical white matter. Petechial hemorrhages developed in bilateral corticospinal tracts and subcortical white matter. T1 hypointensity appeared in the corpus callosum. She was transitioned to comfort measures only and died 12 days later.MIE is an uncommon adverse effect of treatment with metronidazole that characteristically affects the dentate nuclei but may also involve the brainstem, corpus callosum, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia. While the clinical symptoms and neuroimaging changes are usually reversible, persistent encephalopathy with poor outcome may occur.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12028-014-0102-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000354196300014
View details for PubMedID 25561434
Albumin induces excitatory synaptogenesis through astrocytic TGF-beta/ALK5 signaling in a model of acquired epilepsy following blood-brain barrier dysfunction
NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE
2015; 78: 115-125
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a common complication following brain insults, including ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. At present there are no means to identify the patients at-risk to develop PIE or to prevent its development. Seizures can occur months or years after the insult, do not respond to anti-seizure medications in over third of the patients, and are often associated with significant neuropsychiatric morbidities. We have previously established the critical role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in PIE, demonstrating that exposure of brain tissue to extravasated serum albumin induces activation of inflammatory transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling in astrocytes and eventually seizures. However, the link between the acute astrocytic inflammatory responses and reorganization of neural networks that underlie recurrent spontaneous seizures, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate in-vitro and in-vivo that activation of the astrocytic ALK5/TGF-β-pathway induces excitatory, but not inhibitory, synaptogenesis that precedes the appearance of seizures. Moreover, we show that treatment with SJN2511, a specific ALK5/TGF-β inhibitor, prevents synaptogenesis and epilepsy. Our findings point to astrocyte-mediated synaptogenesis as a key epileptogenic process, and highlight manipulation of the TGF-β-pathway as a potential strategy for the prevention of PIE.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nbd.2015.02.029
View details for Web of Science ID 000354419800012
View details for PubMedID 25836421
B-Lymphocyte-Mediated Delayed Cognitive Impairment following Stroke.
journal of neuroscience
2015; 35 (5): 2133-2145
Each year, 10 million people worldwide survive the neurologic injury associated with a stroke. Importantly, stroke survivors have more than twice the risk of subsequently developing dementia compared with people who have never had a stroke. The link between stroke and the later development of dementia is not understood. There are reports of oligoclonal bands in the CSF of stroke patients, suggesting that in some people a B-lymphocyte response to stroke may occur in the CNS. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a B-lymphocyte response to stroke could contribute to the onset of dementia. We discovered that, in mouse models, activated B-lymphocytes infiltrate infarcted tissue in the weeks after stroke. B-lymphocytes undergo isotype switching, and IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies are found in the neuropil adjacent to the lesion. Concurrently, mice develop delayed deficits in LTP and cognition. Genetic deficiency, and the pharmacologic ablation of B-lymphocytes using an anti-CD20 antibody, prevents the appearance of delayed cognitive deficits. Furthermore, immunostaining of human postmortem tissue revealed that a B-lymphocyte response to stroke also occurs in the brain of some people with stroke and dementia. These data suggest that some stroke patients may develop a B-lymphocyte response to stroke that contributes to dementia, and is potentially treatable with FDA-approved drugs that target B cells.
View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4098-14.2015
View details for PubMedID 25653369
Ferumoxytol administration does not alter infarct volume or the inflammatory response to stroke in mice.
2015; 584: 236-240
Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle that is FDA-approved as an intravenous iron replacement therapy for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Ferumoxytol has also been used as a contrast agent for cerebral blood volume mapping by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which suggests it could be used for imaging hemodynamic abnormalities after stroke. However, circulating macrophages can internalize USPIOs, and recent data indicate that the accumulation of iron in macrophages can lead them to adopt the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, the uptake of intravenously administered iron particles by circulating macrophages that home to the stroke core could potentially alter the inflammatory response to stroke. To test this possibility in vivo we administered a dose of ferumoxytol previously used to obtain cerebral blood volume maps in healthy humans by steady-state susceptibility contrast (SSC) MRI to BALB/cJ mice 48h after stroke and examined cytokine levels, microglial/macrophage activation, and lesion volume in the brain 5 days later. Treatment with ferumoxytol did not lead to any differences in these parameters. These data indicate that the use of ferumoxytol as a contrast agent for brain imaging after stroke does not alter the inflammatory response to stroke in mice, and is therefore unlikely to do so in human subjects.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.10.041
View details for PubMedID 25449870
Astrocytic transforming growth factor-beta signaling reduces subacute neuroinflammation after stroke in mice.
2014; 62 (8): 1227-1240
Astrocytes limit inflammation after CNS injury, at least partially by physically containing it within an astrocytic scar at the injury border. We report here that astrocytic transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling is a second, distinct mechanism that astrocytes utilize to limit neuroinflammation. TGFβs are anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective cytokines that are upregulated subacutely after stroke, during a clinically accessible time window. We have previously demonstrated that TGFβs signal to astrocytes, neurons and microglia in the stroke border days after stroke. To investigate whether TGFβ affects astrocyte immunoregulatory functions, we engineered "Ast-Tbr2DN" mice where TGFβ signaling is inhibited specifically in astrocytes. Despite having a similar infarct size to wildtype controls, Ast-Tbr2DN mice exhibited significantly more neuroinflammation during the subacute period after distal middle cerebral occlusion (dMCAO) stroke. The peri-infarct cortex of Ast-Tbr2DN mice contained over 60% more activated CD11b(+) monocytic cells and twice as much immunostaining for the activated microglia and macrophage marker CD68 than controls. Astrocytic scarring was not altered in Ast-Tbr2DN mice. However, Ast-Tbr2DN mice were unable to upregulate TGF-β1 and its activator thrombospondin-1 2 days after dMCAO. As a result, the normal upregulation of peri-infarct TGFβ signaling was blunted in Ast-Tbr2DN mice. In this setting of lower TGFβ signaling and excessive neuroinflammation, we observed worse motor outcomes and late infarct expansion after photothrombotic motor cortex stroke. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TGFβ signaling is a molecular mechanism by which astrocytes limit neuroinflammation, activate TGFβ in the peri-infarct cortex and preserve brain function during the subacute period after stroke.
View details for DOI 10.1002/glia.22675
View details for PubMedID 24733756
Astrocytic TGF-ß signaling limits inflammation and reduces neuronal damage during central nervous system Toxoplasma infection.
Journal of immunology
2014; 193 (1): 139-149
The balance between controlling infection and limiting inflammation is particularly precarious in the brain because of its unique vulnerability to the toxic effects of inflammation. Astrocytes have been implicated as key regulators of neuroinflammation in CNS infections, including infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that naturally establishes a chronic CNS infection in mice and humans. In CNS toxoplasmosis, astrocytes are critical to controlling parasite growth. They secrete proinflammatory cytokines and physically encircle parasites. However, the molecular mechanisms used by astrocytes to limit neuroinflammation during toxoplasmic encephalitis have not yet been identified. TGF-β signaling in astrocytes is of particular interest because TGF-β is universally upregulated during CNS infection and serves master regulatory and primarily anti-inflammatory functions. We report in this study that TGF-β signaling is activated in astrocytes during toxoplasmic encephalitis and that inhibition of astrocytic TGF-β signaling increases immune cell infiltration, uncouples proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production from CNS parasite burden, and increases neuronal injury. Remarkably, we show that the effects of inhibiting astrocytic TGF-β signaling are independent of parasite burden and the ability of GFAP(+) astrocytes to physically encircle parasites.
View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1303284
View details for PubMedID 24860191
A mouse model of permanent focal ischemia: distal middle cerebral artery occlusion.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
2014; 1135: 103-110
Here we provide a standardized protocol for performing distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (DMCAO) in mice. DMCAO is a method of inducing permanent focal ischemia that is commonly used as a rodent stroke model. To perform DMCAO a temporal craniotomy is performed, and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is permanently ligated at a point downstream of the lenticulostriate branches. The size of the lesion produced by this surgery is strain dependent. In C57BL/6J mice, DMCAO produces an infarct predominantly restricted to the barrel region of the somatosensory cortex, but in BALB/cJ mice, DMCAO generates a much larger lesion that incorporates more of the somatosensory cortex and part of the M1 region of the motor cortex. The larger lesion produced by DMCAO in BALB/cJ mice produces a clearer sensorimotor deficit, which is useful for investigating recovery from stroke. We also describe how to modify DMCAO in C57BL/6J mice with the application of hypoxia to generate a lesion and sensorimotor deficit that are similar in size to those produced by DMCAO alone in BALB/cJ mice. This is extremely useful for stroke experiments that require a robust sensorimotor deficit in transgenic mice created on a C57BL/6J background.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-0320-7_9
View details for PubMedID 24510858
Chronic Over-Expression of TGF beta 1 Alters Hippocampal Structure and Causes Learning Deficits
2013; 23 (12): 1198-1211
The cytokine Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) is chronically upregulated in several neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, and following stroke. While previous studies have shown that TGFβ1 may be neuroprotective, chronic exposure to elevated levels of this cytokine may contribute to disease pathology on its own. In order to study the effects of chronic exposure to TGFβ1 in isolation we used transgenic mice that over-express a constitutively active porcine TGFβ1 in astrocytes. We found that TGFβ1 over-expression altered brain structure, with the most pronounced volumetric increases localized to the hippocampus. Within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, increases in granule cell number and astrocyte size were responsible for volumetric expansion, with the increased granule cell number primarily related to a marked reduction in death of new granule cells generated in adulthood. Finally, these cumulative changes in DG micro- and macrostructure were associated with the age-dependent emergence of spatial learning deficits in TGFβ1 over-expressing mice. Together, our data indicate that chronic upregulation of TGFβ1 negatively impacts hippocampal structure and, even in the absence of disease, impairs hippocampus-dependent learning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hipo.22159
View details for Web of Science ID 000327157200007
Suppression of Inflammation with Conditional Deletion of the Prostaglandin E-2 EP2 Receptor in Macrophages and Brain Microglia
JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE
2013; 33 (40): 16016-16032
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent lipid signaling molecule, modulates inflammatory responses through activation of downstream G-protein coupled EP(1-4) receptors. Here, we investigated the cell-specific in vivo function of PGE2 signaling through its E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor in murine innate immune responses systemically and in the CNS. In vivo, systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in a broad induction of cytokines and chemokines in plasma that was significantly attenuated in EP2-deficient mice. Ex vivo stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with LPS elicited proinflammatory responses that were dependent on EP2 signaling and that overlapped with in vivo plasma findings, suggesting that myeloid-lineage EP2 signaling is a major effector of innate immune responses. Conditional deletion of the EP2 receptor in myeloid lineage cells in Cd11bCre;EP2(lox/lox) mice attenuated plasma inflammatory responses and transmission of systemic inflammation to the brain was inhibited, with decreased hippocampal inflammatory gene expression and cerebral cortical levels of IL-6. Conditional deletion of EP2 significantly blunted microglial and astrocytic inflammatory responses to the neurotoxin MPTP and reduced striatal dopamine turnover. Suppression of microglial EP2 signaling also increased numbers of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra independent of MPTP treatment, suggesting that microglial EP2 may influence development or survival of DA neurons. Unbiased microarray analysis of microglia isolated from adult Cd11bCre;EP2(lox/lox) and control mice demonstrated a broad downregulation of inflammatory pathways with ablation of microglial EP2 receptor. Together, these data identify a cell-specific proinflammatory role for macrophage/microglial EP2 signaling in innate immune responses systemically and in brain.
View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2203-13.2013
View details for Web of Science ID 000325283600033
Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase Levels from the Same Patients Differ Between Laboratories: Assessment of a Prospective Post-cardiac Arrest Cohort
2013; 19 (2): 161-166
In comatose post-cardiac arrest patients, a serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) level of >33 μg/L within 72 h was identified as a reliable marker for poor outcome in a large Dutch study (PROPAC), and this level was subsequently adopted in an American Academy of Neurology practice parameter. Later studies reported that NSE >33 μg/L is not a reliable predictor of poor prognosis. To test whether different clinical laboratories contribute to this variability, we compared NSE levels from the laboratory used in the PROPAC study (DLM-Nijmegen) with those of our hospital's laboratory (ARUP) using paired blood samples.We prospectively enrolled cardiac arrest patients who remained comatose after resuscitation. During the first 3 days, paired blood samples for serum NSE were drawn at a median of 10 min apart. After standard preparation for each lab, one sample was sent to ARUP laboratories and the other to DLM-Nijmegen.Fifty-four paired serum samples from 33 patients were included. Although the serum NSE measurements correlated well between laboratories (R = 0.91), the results from ARUP were approximately 30 % lower than those from DLM-Nijmegen. Therapeutic hypothermia did not affect this relationship. Two patients had favorable outcomes after hypothermia despite NSE levels measured by DLM-Nijmegen as >33 μg/L.Absolute serum NSE levels of comatose cardiac arrest patients differ between laboratories. Any specific absolute cut-off levels proposed to prognosticate poor outcome should not be used without detailed data on how neurologic outcomes correspond to a particular laboratory's method, and even then only in conjunction with other prognostic variables.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12028-013-9867-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000324644800005
View details for PubMedID 23839710
A small molecule p75(NTR) ligand prevents cognitive deficits and neurite degeneration in an Alzheimer's mouse model
NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING
2013; 34 (8): 2052-2063
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is associated with multiple mechanisms linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD); hence, modulating its function might confer therapeutic effects. In previous in vitro work, we developed small molecule p75(NTR) ligands that inhibited amyloid-β-induced degenerative signaling and prevented neurite degeneration. In the present study, a prototype p75(NTR) ligand, LM11A-31, was administered orally to the Thy-1 hAPP(Lond/Swe) (APP(L/S)) AD mouse model. LM11A-31 reached brain concentrations known to inhibit degenerative signaling without toxicity or induction of hyperalgesia. It prevented deficits in novel object recognition after 2.5 months and, in a separate cohort, deficits in Y-maze performance after 3 months of treatment. Stereology studies found that the number and size of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, which are normal in APP(L/S) mice, were unaffected. Neuritic dystrophy, however, was readily apparent in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and cortex, and was significantly reduced by LM11A-31, with no effect on amyloid levels. These studies reveal that p75(NTR) is an important and tractable in vivo drug target for AD, with LM11A-31 representing a novel class of therapeutic candidates.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.02.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000319803100013
Blood-brain barrier dysfunction-induced inflammatory signaling in brain pathology and epileptogenesis
2012; 53: 37-44
The protection of the brain from blood-borne toxins, proteins, and cells is critical to the brain's normal function. Accordingly, a compromise in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function accompanies many neurologic disorders, and is tightly associated with brain inflammatory processes initiated by both infiltrating leukocytes from the blood, and activation of glial cells. Those inflammatory processes contribute to determining the severity and prognosis of numerous neurologic disorders, and can both cause, and result from BBB dysfunction. In this review we examine the role of BBB and inflammatory responses, in particular activation of transforming grown factor ? (TGF?) signaling, in epilepsy, stroke, and Parkinson's disease.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2012.03701.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000310797400006
View details for PubMedID 23134494
Stratification substantially reduces behavioral variability in the hypoxic-ischemic stroke model
BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
2012; 2 (5): 698-706
Stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability, and there are no known drug therapies to improve recovery after stroke. To understand how successful recovery occurs, dissect candidate molecular pathways, and test new therapies, there is a need for multiple distinct mouse stroke models, in which the parameters of recovery after stroke are well defined. Hypoxic-ischemic stroke is a well-established stroke model, but behavioral recovery in this model is not well described. We therefore examined a panel of behavioral tests to see whether they could be used to quantify functional recovery after hypoxic-ischemic stroke. We found that in C57BL/6J mice this stroke model produces high mortality (approximately one-third) and variable stroke sizes, but is fast and easy to perform on a large number of mice. Horizontal ladder test performance on day 1 after stroke was highly and reproducibly correlated with stroke size (P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.7652), and allowed for functional stratification of mice into a group with >18% foot faults and 2.1-fold larger strokes. This group exhibited significant functional deficits for as long as 3 weeks on the horizontal ladder test and through the last day of testing on automated gait analysis (33 days), rotarod (30 days), and elevated body swing test (EBST) (36 days). No deficits were observed in an automated activity chamber. We conclude that stratification by horizontal ladder test performance on day 1 identifies a subset of mice in which functional recovery from hypoxic-ischemic stroke can be studied.
View details for DOI 10.1002/brb3.77
View details for Web of Science ID 000209174200016
Delayed Administration of a Small Molecule Tropomyosin-Related Kinase B Ligand Promotes Recovery After Hypoxic-Ischemic Stroke
2012; 43 (7): 1918-1924
Stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States, yet no drugs are available that are proven to improve recovery. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulates neurogenesis and plasticity, processes that are implicated in stroke recovery. It binds to both the tropomyosin-related kinase B and p75 neurotrophin receptors. However, brain-derived neurotrophic factor is not a feasible therapeutic agent, and no small molecule exists that can reproduce its binding to both receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a small molecule (LM22A-4) that selectively targets tropomyosin-related kinase B would promote neurogenesis and functional recovery after stroke.Four-month-old mice were trained on motor tasks before stroke. After stroke, functional test results were used to randomize mice into 2 equally, and severely, impaired groups. Beginning 3 days after stroke, mice received LM22A-4 or saline vehicle daily for 10 weeks.LM22A-4 treatment significantly improved limb swing speed and accelerated the return to normal gait accuracy after stroke. LM22A-4 treatment also doubled both the number of new mature neurons and immature neurons adjacent to the stroke. Drug-induced differences were not observed in angiogenesis, dendritic arborization, axonal sprouting, glial scar formation, or neuroinflammation.A small molecule agonist of tropomyosin-related kinase B improves functional recovery from stroke and increases neurogenesis when administered beginning 3 days after stroke. These findings provide proof-of-concept that targeting of tropomyosin-related kinase B alone is capable of promoting one or more mechanisms relevant to stroke recovery. LM22A-4 or its derivatives might therefore serve as "pro-recovery" therapeutic agents for stroke.
View details for DOI 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.641878
View details for Web of Science ID 000305882000041
View details for PubMedID 22535263
- The double-edged sword of inflammation after stroke: What sharpens each edge? ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY 2012; 71 (6): 729-731
Distal hypoxic stroke: A new mouse model of stroke with high throughput, low variability and a quantifiable functional deficit
JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS
2012; 207 (1): 31-40
C57BL/6J are the most commonly used strain of mouse for stroke experiments but vascular anatomy of the Circle of Willis within this strain is extremely variable and the cortex has extensive collateralization. This causes large variability in stroke models that target the middle cerebral artery proximally and confers resistance to ischemia in those that target it distally. We tested the hypothesis that by combining distal middle cerebral artery occlusion with 1h of hypoxia, we could generate a large lesion that causes a behavioral deficit with low variability. We found that this new distal hypoxic (DH) model of stroke generates a lesion with a volume of 25% of the ipsilateral hemisphere, extends to the motor cortex and causes a behavioral deficit. It also has a very clear border, exceptionally low variability, and can be performed by a single surgeon on up to 30 animals a day. Moreover, survivability is 100% in young adult animals, the model can be performed on old animals, and therapeutic intervention can reduce infarct volume. Therefore DH stroke is an excellent complement to existing stroke models and could be used for preclinical studies in C57BL/6J mice.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.03.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000304511400004
View details for PubMedID 22465679
A comparison of cooling techniques to treat cardiac arrest patients with hypothermia.
Stroke research and treatment
2011; 2011: 690506-?
Introduction. We sought to compare the performance of endovascular cooling to conventional surface cooling after cardiac arrest. Methods. Patients in coma following cardiopulmonary resuscitation were cooled with an endovascular cooling catheter or with ice bags and cold-water-circulating cooling blankets to a target temperature of 32.0-34.0°C for 24 hours. Performance of cooling techniques was compared by (1) number of hourly recordings in target temperature range, (2) time elapsed from the written order to initiate cooling and target temperature, and (3) adverse events during the first week. Results. Median time in target temperature range was 19 hours (interquartile range (IQR), 16-20) in the endovascular group versus. 10 hours (IQR, 7-15) in the surface group (P = .001). Median time to target temperature was 4 (IQR, 2.8-6.2) and 4.5 (IQR, 3-6.5) hours, respectively (P = .67). Adverse events were similar. Conclusion. Endovascular cooling maintains target temperatures better than conventional surface cooling.
View details for DOI 10.4061/2011/690506
View details for PubMedID 21822470
TGF beta signaling in the brain increases with aging and signals to astrocytes and innate immune cells in the weeks after stroke
JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION
TGF? is both neuroprotective and a key immune system modulator and is likely to be an important target for future stroke therapy. The precise function of increased TGF-?1 after stroke is unknown and its pleiotropic nature means that it may convey a neuroprotective signal, orchestrate glial scarring or function as an important immune system regulator. We therefore investigated the time course and cell-specificity of TGF? signaling after stroke, and whether its signaling pattern is altered by gender and aging.We performed distal middle cerebral artery occlusion strokes on 5 and 18 month old TGF? reporter mice to get a readout of TGF? responses after stroke in real time. To determine which cell type is the source of increased TGF? production after stroke, brain sections were stained with an anti-TGF? antibody, colocalized with markers for reactive astrocytes, neurons, and activated microglia. To determine which cells are responding to TGF? after stroke, brain sections were double-labelled with anti-pSmad2, a marker of TGF? signaling, and markers of neurons, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia.TGF? signaling increased 2 fold after stroke, beginning on day 1 and peaking on day 7. This pattern of increase was preserved in old animals and absolute TGF? signaling in the brain increased with age. Activated microglia and macrophages were the predominant source of increased TGF? after stroke and astrocytes and activated microglia and macrophages demonstrated dramatic upregulation of TGF? signaling after stroke. TGF? signaling in neurons and oligodendrocytes did not undergo marked changes.We found that TGF? signaling increases with age and that astrocytes and activated microglia and macrophages are the main cell types that undergo increased TGF? signaling in response to post-stroke increases in TGF?. Therefore increased TGF? after stroke likely regulates glial scar formation and the immune response to stroke.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1742-2094-7-62
View details for Web of Science ID 000283290300001
View details for PubMedID 20937129
Outcome prediction in mechanically ventilated neurologic patients by junior neurointensivists
2010; 74 (14): 1096-1101
Physician prediction of outcome in critically ill neurologic patients impacts treatment decisions and goals of care. In this observational study, we prospectively compared predictions by neurointensivists to patient outcomes at 6 months.Consecutive neurologic patients requiring mechanical ventilation for 72 hours or more were enrolled. The attending neurointensivist was asked to predict 6-month 1) functional outcome (modified Rankin scale [mRS]), 2) quality of life (QOL), and 3) whether supportive care should be withdrawn. Six-month functional outcome was determined by telephone interviews and dichotomized to good (mRS 0-3) and poor outcome (mRS 4-6).Of 187 eligible patients, 144 were enrolled. Neurointensivists correctly predicted 6-month functional outcome in 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72%-86%) of patients. Accuracy for a predicted good outcome was 63% (95% CI, 50%-74%) and for poor outcome 94% (95% CI, 85%-98%). Excluding patients who had life support withdrawn, accuracy for good outcome was 73% (95% CI, 60%-84%) and for poor outcome 87% (95% CI, 74%-94%). Accuracy for exact agreement between neurointensivists' mRS predictions and actual 6-month mRS was only 43% (95% CI, 35%-52%). Predicted accuracy for QOL was 58% (95% CI, 39%-74%) for good/excellent and 67% (95% CI, 46%-83%) for poor/fair. Of 27 patients for whom withdrawal of care was recommended, 1 patient survived in a vegetative state.Prediction of long-term functional outcomes in critically ill neurologic patients is challenging. Our neurointensivists were more accurate in predicting poor outcome than good outcome in patients requiring mechanical ventilation >or=72 hours.
View details for Web of Science ID 000276354400005
View details for PubMedID 20368630
Glia-dependent TGF-beta signaling, acting independently of the TH17 pathway, is critical for initiation of murine autoimmune encephalomyelitis
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
2007; 117 (11): 3306-3315
Autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model for multiple sclerosis, is characterized by the activation of immune cells, demyelination of axons in the CNS, and paralysis. We found that TGF-beta1 synthesis in glial cells and TGF-beta-induced signaling in the CNS were activated several days before the onset of paralysis in mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis. While early production of TGF-beta1 was observed in glial cells TGF-beta signaling was activated in neurons and later in infiltrating T cells in inflammatory lesions. Systemic treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of TGF-beta signaling ameliorated the paralytic disease and reduced the accumulation of pathogenic T cells and expression of IL-6 in the CNS. Priming of peripheral T cells was not altered, nor was the generation of TH17 cells, indicating that this effect was directed within the brain, yet affected the immune system. These results suggest that early production of TGF-beta1 in the CNS creates a permissive and dangerous environment for the initiation of autoimmune inflammation, providing a rare example of the brain modulating the immune system. Importantly, inhibition of TGF-beta signaling may have benefits in the treatment of the acute phase of autoimmune CNS inflammation.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI31763
View details for Web of Science ID 000250676000023
View details for PubMedID 17965773
Increased T cell recruitment to the CNS after amyloid beta(1-42) immunization in Alzheimer's mice overproducing transforming growth factor-beta 1
JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE
2006; 26 (44): 11437-11441
Immunotherapy targeting the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide is a novel therapy under investigation for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A clinical trial using Abeta(1-42) (AN1792) as the immunogen was halted as a result of development of meningoencephalitis in a small number of patients. The cytokine TGF-beta1 is a key modulator of immune responses that is increased in the brain in AD. We show here that local overexpression of TGF-beta1 in the brain increases both meningeal and parenchymal T lymphocyte number. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 overexpression in a mouse model for AD [amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice] leads to development of additional T cell infiltrates when mice were immunized at a young but not old age with AN1792. Notably, only mice overproducing both Abeta (APP mice) and TGF-beta1 experienced a rise in T lymphocyte number after immunization. One-third of infiltrating T cells were CD4 positive. We did not observe significant differences in B lymphocyte numbers in any of the genotypes or treatment groups. These results demonstrate that TGF-beta1 overproduction in the brain can promote T cell infiltration, in particular after Abeta(1-42) immunization. Likewise, levels of TGF-beta1 or other immune factors in brains of AD patients may influence the response to Abeta(1-42) immunization.
View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2436-06.2006
View details for Web of Science ID 000241727500024
View details for PubMedID 17079673
Chronically increased transforming growth factor-beta 1 strongly inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY
2006; 169 (1): 154-164
There is increasing evidence that hippocampal learning correlates strongly with neurogenesis in the adult brain. Increases in neurogenesis after brain injury also correlate with improved outcomes. With aging the capacity to generate new neurons decreases dramatically, both under normal conditions and after injury. How this decrease occurs is not fully understood, but we hypothesized that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, a cell cycle regulator that rapidly increases after injury and with age, might play a role. We found that chronic overproduction of TGF-beta1 from astrocytes almost completely blocked the generation of new neurons in aged transgenic mice. Even young adult TGF-beta1 mice had 60% fewer immature, doublecortin-positive, hippocampal neurons than wild-type littermate controls. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling of dividing cells in 2-month-old TGF-beta1 mice confirmed this decrease in neuro-genesis and revealed a similar decrease in astrogenesis. Treatment of early neural progenitor cells with TGF-beta1 inhibited their proliferation. This strongly suggests that TGF-beta1 directly affects these cells before their differentiation into neurons and astrocytes. Together, these data show that TGF-beta1 is a potent inhibitor of hippocampal neural progenitor cell proliferation in adult mice and suggest that it plays a key role in limiting injury and age-related neurogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.2353/ajpath.2006.051272
View details for Web of Science ID 000238664700014
View details for PubMedID 16816369
Modelling neuroinflammatory phenotypes in vivo.
Journal of neuroinflammation
2004; 1 (1): 10
Inflammation of the central nervous system is an important but poorly understood part of neurological disease. After acute brain injury or infection there is a complex inflammatory response that involves activation of microglia and astrocytes and increased production of cytokines, chemokines, acute phase proteins, and complement factors. Antibodies and T lymphocytes may be involved in the response as well. In neurodegenerative disease, where injury is more subtle but consistent, the inflammatory response is continuous. The purpose of this prolonged response is unclear, but it is likely that some of its components are beneficial and others are harmful. Animal models of neurological disease can be used to dissect the specific role of individual mediators of the inflammatory response and assess their potential benefit. To illustrate this approach, we discuss how mutant mice expressing different levels of the cytokine transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), a major modulator of inflammation, produce important neuroinflammatory phenotypes. We then demonstrate how crosses of TGF-beta1 mutant mice with mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) produced important new information on the role of inflammation in AD and on the expression of different neuropathological phenotypes that characterize this disease.
View details for PubMedID 15285805
- Modelling neuroinflammatory phenotypes in vivo JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION 2004; 1
Molecular and functional dissection of TGF-beta 1-induced cerebrovascular abnormalities in transgenic mice
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: VASCULAR ETIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY
2002; 977: 87-95
Cerebrovascular abnormalities, such as reduced blood flow, microvascular fibrosis, and cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy, are prominent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their etiology is poorly understood and it is unclear whether cerebrovascular changes contribute to functional impairments in the absence of neurodegeneration. In humans with AD, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels in the midfrontal gyrus correlate positively with the relative degree of cerebrovascular amyloid deposition in that brain region, suggesting a possible role for TGF-beta1 in human cerebrovascular abnormalities. Transgenic mice overexpressing TGF-beta1 in astrocytes develop AD-like cerebrovascular abnormalities, including perivascular astrocytosis, microvascular basement membrane thickening, and accumulation of thioflavin S-positive amyloid in the absence of parenchymal degeneration. Mice overexpressing TGF-beta1 alone or in addition to human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) show selective accumulation of human beta-amyloid (Abeta) in blood vessels and develop cerebral hemorrhages in old age. In 9-month-old TGF-beta1 transgenic mice, cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the limbic system was significantly less than in nontransgenic littermate controls. Aged TGF-beta1 mice also showed overall reduced cerebral glucose uptake (CGU) as a measure of brain activity. Thus, chronic overproduction of TGF-beta1 in the brain results in structural and functional impairments reminiscent of those in AD cases with amyloid angiopathy.
View details for Web of Science ID 000179767000009
View details for PubMedID 12480736
Construction of a 3-Mb contig and partial transcript map of the central region of mouse chromosome 11
1997; 45 (1): 147-157
We report the establishment of a high-resolution genetic map, a physical map, and a partial transcript map of the Ames dwarf critical region on mouse chromosome 11. A contig of 24 YACs and 13 P1 clones has been assembled and spans approximately 3 Mb from Flt4 to Tcf7. A library of approximately 1000 putative transcript clones from the region was prepared using exon amplification and pituitary cDNA selection. Ten novel transcripts were partially characterized, including a member of the olfactory receptor family, an alpha-tubulin-related sequence, and a novel member of the cdc2/CDC28-like kinase family, Clk4. The location of Prop1, the gene responsible for Ames dwarfism, has been localized within the contig. This contig spans a region of mouse chromosome 11 that exhibits linkage conservation with human chromosome 5q23-q35. The strength of the genetic map and genomic resources for this region suggest that comparative DNA sequencing of this region could reveal the genes responsible for other mouse mutants and human genetic diseases.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997YA72100018
View details for PubMedID 9339371
Genetic mapping of 21 genes on mouse chromosome 11 reveals disruptions in linkage conservation with human chromosome 5
1997; 40 (1): 114-122
We report a high-resolution genetic map of 21 genes on the central region of mouse Chr 11. These genes were mapped by segregation analysis of more than 1650 meioses from three interspecific backcrosses. The order of these genes in mouse was compared to the previously established gene order in human. Eighteen of the 21 genes map to human Chr 5, and 2 of the genes define a proximal border for the region of homology between mouse Chr 11 and human Chr 17. Our results indicate a minimum of four rearrangements within the 10-cM region of synteny homology between mouse Chr 11 and human Chr 5. In addition, the linkage conservation is disrupted by groups of genes that map to mouse Chrs 13 and 18. These data demonstrate that large regions of conserved linkage can contain numerous chromosomal microrearrangements that have occurred since the divergence of mouse and human ancestors. Comparison of the mouse and human maps with data for other species provides an emerging picture of mammalian chromosome evolution.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WJ33600015
View details for PubMedID 9070927
A FRAMESHIFT MUTATION IN THE MOUSE ALPHA(1) GLYCINE RECEPTOR GENE (GLRA1) RESULTS IN PROGRESSIVE NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS AND JUVENILE DEATH
HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
1994; 3 (11): 2025-2030
The neurologic mutant mouse, oscillator, is characterized by a fine motor tremor and muscle spasms that begin at 2 weeks of age and progressively worsen, resulting in death by 3 weeks of age. We report the localization of the oscillator mutation to the central region of mouse Chr 11, and demonstrate its allelism with spasmodic, a recessive viable neurological mutation which displays excessive startle. Oscillator is caused by a microdeletion in the gene coding for the alpha 1 subunit of the adult glycine receptor (Glra1). Glra1 assembles into a pentameric complex with the beta subunit of the glycine receptor (3 alpha (1)2 beta 5) to form a glycine-gated chloride channel. This receptor is the major adult glycine receptor, and the site of action of the poison strychnine. The oscillator deletion causes a frameshift resulting in loss of the highly conserved third cytoplasmic loop and fourth transmembrane domain of the protein. Membranes isolated from oscillator homozygote spinal cords display a 90% reduction in glycine-displaceable strychnine binding. This lack of ligand binding function confirms that oscillator is a complete loss of function allele. The oscillator mutation provides evidence that although at least four different alpha subunits exist for the glycine receptor, none of the other subunits can compensate for the loss of alpha 1 function. Mutations which impair GLRA1 function in humans have been shown to cause dominant familial startle disease. The identification of the oscillator mutation suggests that severe loss of function alleles in humans would result in prenatal or neonatal lethality.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994PT23100017
View details for PubMedID 7874121
A MISSENSE MUTATION IN THE GENE ENCODING THE ALPHA(1) SUBUNIT OF THE INHIBITORY GLYCINE RECEPTOR IN THE SPASMODIC MOUSE
1994; 7 (2): 131-135
Hereditary hyperekplexia, an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by an exaggerated startle reflex and neonatal hypertonia, can be caused by mutations in the gene encoding the alpha 1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GLRA1). Spasmodic (spd), a recessive neurologic mouse mutant, resembles hyperekplexia phenotypically, and the two disease loci map to homologous chromosomal regions. Here we describe a Glra1 missense mutation in spd that results in reduced agonist sensitivity in glycine receptors expressed in vitro. We conclude that spd is a murine homologue of hyperekplexia and that mutations in GLRA1/Glra1 can produce syndromes with different inheritance patterns.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NQ03700010
View details for PubMedID 7920629
GENETIC-MAPPING AND EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE GENES FOR SPASMODIC, A NEUROLOGICAL MOUSE MUTATION WITH ABNORMAL STARTLE RESPONSE
1993; 17 (2): 279-286
Spasmodic (spd) is a recessive mouse mutation characterized by a prolonged righting reflex, fine motor tremor, leg clasping, and stiffness. Using an intersubspecific backcross that segregates spd, we placed spd on Chr 11 with the following gene order: Adra-1-3.8 +/- 2.1 cM-Pad-1-6.3 +/- 2.7-(spd, Anx-6, Csfgm, Glr-1, Il-3, Il-4, Il-5, Sparc)-9.1 +/- 2.4-D11 Mit5-2.2 +/- 1.5-Asgr-1. This localization eliminated the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor (Adra-1) and the alpha 1 and gamma 2 subunits of the GABAA receptor as candidate genes. Two other promising candidate genes, annexin VI (Anx-6) and a glutamate receptor (Glr-1), were mapped to within 2.1 cM of the spd locus. Although no recombination was observed between spd and Anx-6 or Glr-1, no evidence was obtained for a lesion in either gene. The presence of normal Anx-6 and Glr-1 mRNA transcripts was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and DNA sequence analysis. The localization of Anx-6 and Glr-1 extends the known synteny homology between human chromosome 5q21-q31 and mouse Chr 11 and reveals the probable chromosomal location of the human counterpart to spd. Synteny homology and phenotypic similarities suggest that spasmodic mice may be a genetic model for the inherited human startle disease, hyperekplexia (STHE).
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LP81500002
View details for PubMedID 8406478
- LYSYL OXIDASE (LOX) MAPS BETWEEN GRL-1 AND ADRB-2 ON MOUSE CHROMOSOME-18 MAMMALIAN GENOME 1993; 4 (3): 177-178
- LOCALIZATION OF THE HUMAN CHROMOSOME-5Q GENES GABRA-1, GABRG-2, IL-4, IL-5, AND IRF-1 ON MOUSE CHROMOSOME-11 MAMMALIAN GENOME 1992; 3 (10): 604-607
- MOUSE CHROMOSOME-11 SPRINGER VERLAG. 1992: S162-S181
LOCALIZATION OF THE PANHYPOPITUITARY DWARF MUTATION (DF) ON MOUSE CHROMOSOME-11 IN AN INTERSUBSPECIFIC BACKCROSS
1991; 10 (3): 515-526
Ames dwarf (df) is an autosomal recessive mutation characterized by severe dwarfism and infertility. This mutation provides a mouse model for panhypopituitarism. The dwarf phenotype results from failure in the differentiation of the cells which produce growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Using the backcross (DF/B-df/df X CASA/Rk) X DF/B-df/df, we confirmed the assignment of df to mouse chromosome 11 and demonstrated recombination between df and the growth hormone gene. This backcross is an invaluable resource for screening candidate genes for the df mutation. The df locus maps to less than 1 cM distal to Pad-1 (0.85 +/- 0.85 cM). Two new genes localized on mouse chromosome 11, Rpo2-1, and Edp-1, map to a region of conserved synteny with human chromosome 17. The localization of the alpha 1 adrenergic receptor, Adra-1, extends a known region of synteny conservation between mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 5, and suggests that a human counterpart to df would map to human chromosome 5.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FQ64000001
View details for PubMedID 1889803
Mouse chromosome 11.
1991; 1: S158-91
View details for PubMedID 1799798
BACTERIOPHAGE-MU SITES REQUIRED FOR TRANSPOSITION IMMUNITY
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
1988; 85 (18): 6826-6830
Plasmids with bacteriophage Mu sequences receive additional Mu insertions 20-700 times less frequently than plasmids without Mu sequences. The Mu sites required for this transposition immunity were mapped near each end, either of which was sufficient. The left site was between 127 and 203 base pairs from the left end, and the right site was between 22 and 93 base pairs from the right end. These sequences include the innermost but not the outermost of the three binding sites for the Mu A transposition protein at each end of Mu. Transposition immunity was cis-acting and independent of its location on a target plasmid. An additional copy of an immunity site reduced transposition a factor of 10 further. Transposition immunity was seen both during full phage lytic growth, with all the bacteriophage Mu genes, and during normal cellular growth, with a mini-Mu element containing only the Mu c and ner regulatory and A and B transposition genes.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q138700053
View details for PubMedID 2842794