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  • Affirming the Self to Promote Agreement With Another: Lowering a Psychological Barrier to Conflict Resolution PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN Ward, A., Atkins, D. C., Lepper, M. R., Ross, L. 2011; 37 (9): 1216-1228

    Abstract

    Two studies investigated the capacity of a self-affirmation intervention to lower a psychological barrier to conflict resolution. Study 1 used a role-play scenario in which a student negotiated with a professor for greater rewards for work on a collaborative project. A self-affirmation manipulation, in which participants focused on an important personal value, significantly reduced their tendency to derogate a concession offered by the professor relative to one that had not been offered. Study 2 replicated this effect and showed that the phenomenon did not depend on the self-affirmed participant's experience of a heightened sense of deservingness or a tendency to make positive attributions about the professor. Distraction and explicit mood enhancement were also ruled out as mediators of the self-affirmation effect, which appears to stem from motivational rather than explicit cognitive processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0146167211409439

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293081600006

    View details for PubMedID 21586689

  • The effects of person versus performance praise on children's motivation: Gender and age as moderating factors EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Corpus, J. H., Lepper, M. R. 2007; 27 (4): 487-508
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlates JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., Iyengar, S. S. 2005; 97 (2): 184-196
  • Houses built on sand: Effects of exemplar attitude stability on susceptibility attitude change JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lord, C. G., Paulson, R. M., Sia, T. L., Thomas, J. C., Lepper, M. R. 2004; 87 (6): 733-749
  • Houses built on sand: effects of exemplar stability on susceptibility to attitude change. Journal of personality and social psychology Lord, C. G., Paulson, R. M., Sia, T. L., Thomas, J. C., Lepper, M. R. 2004; 87 (6): 733-749

    Abstract

    Attitude representation theory (C. G. Lord & M. R. Lepper, 1999) explains both attitude-behavior consistency and attitude change with the same principles. When individuals respond evaluatively to an attitude object, they activate and combine assumptions about the attitude object with perceptions of the immediate situation. The assumptions activated can vary across time, even without additional information. Previous research has shown that individuals activate exemplars when answering attitude questions, attitude reports vary with the valence of the assumptions activated, and activating differently liked exemplars reduces attitude-behavior consistency. The present research completed study of the theoretical implications of exemplar stability by showing that individuals with temporally unstable exemplars, whether spontaneous (Experiment 1) or manipulated (Experiments 2 and 3), are more susceptible to subsequent attitude change than are individuals with stable exemplars.

    View details for PubMedID 15598103

  • Effects of attitude action identification on congruence between attitudes and behavioral intentions toward social groups PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN McIntyre, R. B., Paulson, R. M., Lord, C. G., Lepper, M. R. 2004; 30 (9): 1151-1164

    Abstract

    Attitude Representation Theory (ART) holds that attitude-relevant responses are informed by mental representations of the attitude object, which include the individual's actions toward that object. Action Identification Theory (AIT) holds that the same action can be identified at multiple levels. Individuals who identify their actions at lower levels have less flexibility in how they perform the action, and thus enact the action less consistently. An integration of ART and AIT suggested that individuals who spontaneously (Experiment 1) or through manipulation (Experiments 2 and 3) identify their attitude-relevant actions toward a social group at lower levels might display less attitude-intention congruence than would individuals who identify their attitude-relevant actions at higher levels. ART and AIT are discussed as having links with each other and with other theories of attitude and judgment processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0146167204263772

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223215500005

    View details for PubMedID 15359018

  • The effects of praise on children's intrinsic motivation: A review and synthesis PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN Henderlong, J., Lepper, M. R. 2002; 128 (5): 774-795

    Abstract

    The authors argue against a purely behavioral definition of praise as verbal reinforcement in favor of the view that praise may serve to undermine, enhance, or have no effect on children's intrinsic motivation, depending on a set of conceptual variables. Provided that praise is perceived as sincere, it is particularly beneficial to motivation when it encourages performance attributions to controllable causes, promotes autonomy, enhances competence without an overreliance on social comparisons, and conveys attainable standards and expectations. The motivational consequences of praise also can be moderated by characteristics of the recipient, such as age, gender, and culture. Methodological considerations, such as including appropriate control groups and measuring postfailure outcomes, are stressed, and directions for future research are highlighted.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0033-2909.128.5.774

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177396800005

    View details for PubMedID 12206194

  • When choice is demotivating: Can one desire too much of a good thing? JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Iyengar, S. S., Lepper, M. R. 2000; 79 (6): 995-1006

    Abstract

    Current psychological theory and research affirm the positive affective and motivational consequences of having personal choice. These findings have led to the popular notion that the more choice, the better-that the human ability to manage, and the human desire for, choice is unlimited. Findings from 3 experimental studies starkly challenge this implicit assumption that having more choices is necessarily more intrinsically motivating than having fewer. These experiments, which were conducted in both field and laboratory settings, show that people are more likely to purchase gourmet jams or chocolates or to undertake optional class essay assignments when offered a limited array of 6 choices rather than a more extensive array of 24 or 30 choices. Moreover, participants actually reported greater subsequent satisfaction with their selections and wrote better essays when their original set of options had been limited. Implications for future research are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0022-3514.79.6.995

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165850900012

    View details for PubMedID 11138768

  • The little engine that had an incremental theory ... An essay review of Self-Theories by Carol S. Dweck HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Lepper, M. R., Henderlong, J. 2000; 43 (3): 186-190
  • Simulation of self-affirmation phenomena in cognitive dissonance 22nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive-Science-Society Schultz, T. R., Lepper, M. R. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 2000: 464–468
  • Understanding the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation - Uses and abuses of meta-analysis: Comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN Lepper, M. R., Henderlong, J., Gingras, I. 1999; 125 (6): 669-676

    Abstract

    Recently, 3 different meta-analytic reviews of the literature concerning the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation have appeared, including that by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) in this issue. Interestingly, despite their common focus, these reviews have offered dramatically opposed bottom-line conclusions about the meaning and implications of this literature. In this comment, the authors examine differences among these 3 reviews and conclude that the findings of this literature have been more accurately captured by the reviews of Deci et al. and Tang and Hall (1995) than by that of Cameron and Pierce (1994). More broadly, the authors also suggest that there may be significant short- and long-term costs to the unthinking or automatic use of meta-analysis with theoretically derived, procedurally diverse, and empirically complex literatures like that concerning extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083849500002

    View details for PubMedID 10589298

  • Activation of exemplars in the process of assessing social category attitudes JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Sia, T. L., Lord, C. G., Blessum, K. A., Thomas, J. C., Lepper, M. R. 1999; 76 (4): 517-532
  • Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Iyengar, S. S., Lepper, M. R. 1999; 76 (3): 349-366

    Abstract

    Conventional wisdom and decades of psychological research have linked the provision of choice to increased levels of intrinsic motivation, greater persistence, better performance, and higher satisfaction. This investigation examined the relevance and limitations of these findings for cultures in which individuals possess more interdependent models of the self. In 2 studies, personal choice generally enhanced motivation more for American independent selves than for Asian interdependent selves. In addition, Anglo American children showed less intrinsic motivation when choices were made for them by others than when they made their own choices, whether the others were authority figures or peers. In contrast, Asian American children proved most intrinsically motivated when choices were made for them by trusted authority figures or peers. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079146900001

    View details for PubMedID 10101874

  • Free choice and cognitive dissonance revisited: Choosing "lesser evils" versus "greater goods" PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN Shultz, T. R., Leveille, E., Lepper, M. R. 1999; 25 (1): 40-48
  • Computer simulation of cognitive dissonance reduction Conference on Cognitive Dissonance - Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology Shultz, T. R., Lepper, M. R. AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. 1999: 235–265
  • Is a rose always a rose? The role of social category exemplar change in attitude stability and attitude-behavior consistency JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Sia, T. L., Lord, C. G., Blessum, K. A., RATCLIFF, C. D., Lepper, M. R. 1997; 72 (3): 501-514
  • Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY CORDOVA, D. I., Lepper, M. R. 1996; 88 (4): 715-730
  • Cognitive dissonance reduction as constraint satisfaction PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Shultz, T. R., Lepper, M. R. 1996; 103 (2): 219-240

    Abstract

    A constraint satisfaction neural network model (the consonance model) simulated data from the two major cognitive dissonance paradigms of insufficient justification and free choice. In several cases, the model fit the human data better than did cognitive dissonance theory. Superior fits were due to the inclusion of constraints that were not part of dissonance theory and to the increased precision inherent to this computational approach. Predictions generated by the model for a free choice between undesirable alternatives were confirmed in a new psychological experiment. The success of the consonance model underscores important, unforeseen similarities between what had been formerly regarded as the rather exotic process of dissonance reduction and a variety of other, more mundane psychological processes. Many of these processes can be understood as the progressive application of constraints supplied by beliefs and attitudes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UJ29300001

    View details for PubMedID 8637960

  • Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards: A commentary on Cameron and Pierce's meta-analysis REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Lepper, M. R., Keavney, M., Drake, M. 1996; 66 (1): 5-32
  • THEORY BY THE NUMBERS - SOME CONCERNS ABOUT METAANALYSIS AS A THEORETICAL TOOL APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R. 1995; 9 (5): 411-422
  • TYPICALITY EFFECTS IN ATTITUDES TOWARD SOCIAL POLICIES - A CONCEPT-MAPPING APPROACH JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lord, C. G., Desforges, D. M., Fein, S., PUGH, M. A., Lepper, M. R. 1994; 66 (4): 658-673
  • A DESIRE TO BE TAUGHT - INSTRUCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATION MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Lepper, M. R., CORDOVA, D. I. 1992; 16 (3): 187-208
  • EFFECTS OF FANTASY CONTEXTS ON CHILDRENS LEARNING AND MOTIVATION - MAKING LEARNING MORE FUN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Parker, L. E., Lepper, M. R. 1992; 62 (4): 625-633

    Abstract

    Two studies examined the effects of embedding instructional materials in relevant fantasy contexts on children's motivation and learning. In Study 1, Ss showed marked preferences for computer-based educational programs that involved fantasy elements. In Study 2, Ss worked with these programs for 5 hr. One program presented purely abstract problems. Others presented identical problems within fantasy contexts. Some Ss chose among 3 fantasies; others were assigned identical fantasies. Tests on the material occurred before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the experimental sessions. Ss showed significantly greater learning and transfer in the fantasy than in the no-fantasy conditions. Having a choice of fantasies made no difference. Motivational and individualization strategies for enhancing interest and promoting learning are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HM48500008

    View details for PubMedID 1583588

  • A CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION MODEL OF COGNITIVE-DISSONANCE PHENOMENA 14TH ANNUAL CONF OF THE COGNITIVE SCIENCE SOC Shultz, T. R., Lepper, M. R. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 1992: 462–467
  • TYPICALITY EFFECTS IN ATTITUDE BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCY - EFFECTS OF CATEGORY DISCRIMINATION AND CATEGORY KNOWLEDGE JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lord, C. G., Desforges, D. M., Ramsey, S. L., TREZZA, G. R., Lepper, M. R. 1991; 27 (6): 550-575
  • EFFECTS OF STRUCTURED COOPERATIVE CONTACT ON CHANGING NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD STIGMATIZED SOCIAL-GROUPS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Desforges, D. M., Lord, C. G., Ramsey, S. L., Mason, J. A., VANLEEUWEN, M. D., West, S. C., Lepper, M. R. 1991; 60 (4): 531-544

    Abstract

    The contact hypothesis predicts that cooperative interaction with members of a disliked group results in increased liking for those members and generalizes to more positive attitudes toward the group. The authors sought to provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that contact affects attitude in part by eliciting a more positive portrait of the typical group member. Undergraduates participated in a 1-hr dyadic learning session (scripted cooperative learning, jigsaw cooperative learning, or individual study) with a confederate portrayed as a former mental patient. Students initially expected the confederate to display traits similar to those of a typical former mental patient. After the sessions, initially prejudiced students in the 2 cooperative conditions described the typical mental patient more positively and adopted more positive attitudes and wider latitudes of acceptance toward the group. Connections between intergroup attitudes and impression formation are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FE17100005

    View details for PubMedID 2037965

  • SELF-PERCEPTION AND SOCIAL-PERCEPTION PROCESSES IN TUTORING - SUBTLE SOCIAL-CONTROL STRATEGIES OF EXPERT TUTORS 6TH ONTARIO SYMP ON PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY : SELF-INFERENCE PROCESSES Lepper, M. R., Aspinwall, L. G., Mumme, D. L., Chabay, R. W. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 1990: 217–237
  • CHILDREN AND COMPUTERS - APPROACHING THE 21ST-CENTURY AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Lepper, M. R., Gurtner, J. L. 1989; 44 (2): 170-178

    Abstract

    The "effects" that various forms of "computer" use are likely to have on different children's learning, motivation, and social behavior have been a source of heated debate and continuing controversy. In this article, various aspects of this controversy are characterized, and sources of disagreement concerning educational computing are examined. Difficulties in the current state of empirical research in this area are then considered, and recommendations regarding directions for future research are proposed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T279900013

    View details for PubMedID 2653128

  • MOTIVATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE STUDY OF INSTRUCTION COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION Lepper, M. R. 1988; 5 (4): 289-309
  • CORRELATES OF CHILDRENS USAGE OF VIDEO-GAMES AND COMPUTERS JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lin, S., Lepper, M. R. 1987; 17 (1): 72-93
  • PERSISTENCE OF INACCURATE BELIEFS ABOUT THE SELF - PERSEVERANCE EFFECTS IN THE CLASSROOM JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R., Ross, L., LAU, R. R. 1986; 50 (3): 482-491

    Abstract

    The perseverance of erroneous self-assessments was examined among high school students. Subjects were first exposed to either highly effective or thoroughly useless filmed instruction, leading, respectively, to their consequent success or failure. No-discounting subjects received no assistance in recognizing the relative superiority or inferiority of their instruction. Discounting subjects, by contrast, were subsequently shown the opposite instructional film, highlighting the obvious differences in instructional quality. Subsequent measures revealed that all subjects recognized the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of their instruction, although this contrast was clearer for discounting subjects. Nevertheless, both discounting and no-discounting subjects continued to draw unwarranted inferences--in line with their initial outcomes--about their personal capacities, immediately afterward. Dissociated and disguised measures of academic preferences and perceptions completed weeks later produced even more dramatic results: The continuing impact of initial outcomes was generally greater for discounting than no-discounting subjects.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C109200003

    View details for PubMedID 3701590

  • THE HOSTILE MEDIA PHENOMENON - BIASED PERCEPTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF MEDIA BIAS IN COVERAGE OF THE BEIRUT MASSACRE JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY VALLONE, R. P., Ross, L., Lepper, M. R. 1985; 49 (3): 577-585

    Abstract

    After viewing identical samples of major network television coverage of the Beirut massacre, both pro-Israeli and pro-Arab partisans rated these programs, and those responsible for them, as being biased against their side. This hostile media phenomenon appears to involve the operation of two separate mechanisms. First, partisans evaluated the fairness of the media's sample of facts and arguments differently: in light of their own divergent views about the objective merits of each side's case and their corresponding views about the nature of unbiased coverage. Second, partisans reported different perceptions and recollections about the program content itself; that is, each group reported more negative references to their side than positive ones, and each predicted that the coverage would sway nonpartisans in a hostile direction. Within both partisan groups, furthermore, greater knowledge of the crisis was associated with stronger perceptions of media bias. Charges of media bias, we concluded, may reflect more than self-serving attempts to secure preferential treatment. They may result from the operation of basic cognitive and perceptual mechanisms, mechanisms that should prove relevant to perceptions of fairness or objectivity in a wide range of mediation and negotiation contexts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AQJ6600001

    View details for PubMedID 4045697

  • Intrinsic Motivation and Instruction: Conflicting Views on the Role of Motivational Processes in Computer-Based Education EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST Lepper, M. R., Chabay, R. W. 1985; 20 (4): 217-230
  • MICROCOMPUTERS IN EDUCATION - MOTIVATIONAL AND SOCIAL-ISSUES AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Lepper, M. R. 1985; 40 (1): 1-18
  • CONSIDERING THE OPPOSITE - A CORRECTIVE STRATEGY FOR SOCIAL JUDGMENT JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lord, C. G., Lepper, M. R., Preston, E. 1984; 47 (6): 1231-1243

    Abstract

    It is proposed that several biases in social judgment result from a failure--first noted by Francis Bacon--to consider possibilities at odds with beliefs and perceptions of the moment. Individuals who are induced to consider the opposite, therefore, should display less bias in social judgment. In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, this reasoning was applied to two domains--biased assimilation of new evidence on social issues and biased hypothesis testing of personality impressions. Subjects were induced to consider the opposite in two ways: through explicit instructions to do so and through stimulus materials that made opposite possibilities more salient. In both experiments the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible. The results are viewed as consistent with previous research on perseverance, hindsight, and logical problem solving, and are thought to suggest an effective method of retraining social judgment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984ABC9400005

    View details for PubMedID 6527215

  • ATTITUDE PROTOTYPES AS DETERMINANTS OF ATTITUDE BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCY JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lord, C. G., Lepper, M. R., Mackie, D. 1984; 46 (6): 1254-1266

    Abstract

    This article addresses the questions of when we can predict from an individual's attitude toward a social group to the individual's behavior toward a specific member of that group. One possibility is that individuals determine their attitudes toward a social group by assessing their reactions to an imagined group representative who embodies the defining or central group characteristics--the prototypical group member. When they encounter a specific group member whose characteristics match well those of the "attitude prototype", individuals display attitude-behavior consistency; when the match is poor, they display attitude-behavior inconsistency. This proposition was tested in two experiments, and in each the attitude-behavior relationship was greater in relation to prototypical than to unprototypical group members. In addition, knowledge of an unprototypical group member had little or no effect on attitude prototypes. Rather, the unprototypical group member was dismissed as atypical, leaving the prototype intact to influence future social behavior. The implications for attitude change, and possible applications to more abstract attitudes, are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SX86900006

    View details for PubMedID 6737212

  • CONSEQUENCES OF SUPERFLUOUS SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS - EFFECTS ON YOUNG CHILDRENS SOCIAL INFERENCES AND SUBSEQUENT INTRINSIC INTEREST JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R., SAGOTSKY, G., DAFOE, J. L., Greene, D. 1982; 42 (1): 51-65
  • GENERALIZATION OF CHANGES IN CHILDRENS PREFERENCES FOR EASY OR DIFFICULT GOALS INDUCED THROUGH PEER MODELING CHILD DEVELOPMENT SAGOTSKY, G., Lepper, M. R. 1982; 53 (2): 372-375
  • ACCENTUATING THE POSITIVE - ELICITING GENERALIZED COMPLIANCE FROM CHILDREN THROUGH ACTIVITY-ORIENTED REQUESTS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R., Gilovich, T. 1982; 42 (2): 248-259
  • PERSEVERANCE OF SOCIAL THEORIES - THE ROLE OF EXPLANATION IN THE PERSISTENCE OF DISCREDITED INFORMATION JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Anderson, C. A., Lepper, M. R., Ross, L. 1980; 39 (6): 1037-1049
  • BIASED ASSIMILATION AND ATTITUDE POLARIZATION - EFFECTS OF PRIOR THEORIES ON SUBSEQUENTLY CONSIDERED EVIDENCE JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lord, C. G., Ross, L., Lepper, M. R. 1979; 37 (11): 2098-2109
  • TRAINING CHILDRENS SELF-CONTROL - FIELD EXPERIMENT IN SELF-MONITORING AND GOAL-SETTING IN CLASSROOM JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY SAGOTSKY, G., Patterson, C. J., Lepper, M. R. 1978; 25 (2): 242-253
  • PERSEVERANCE OF DISCREDITED SELF-PERCEPTIONS - BEYOND DEBRIEFING PARADIGM Jennings, D. L., Lepper, M. R., Ross, L. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC. 1978: 357–57
  • SOCIAL EXPLANATION AND SOCIAL EXPECTATION - EFFECTS OF REAL AND HYPOTHETICAL EXPLANATIONS ON SUBJECTIVE LIKELIHOOD JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Ross, L., Lepper, M. R., Strack, F., Steinmetz, J. 1977; 35 (11): 817-829
  • EFFECTS OF EXTERNALLY IMPOSED DEADLINES ON SUBSEQUENT INTRINSIC MOTIVATION JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AMABILE, T. M., DeJong, W., Lepper, M. R. 1976; 34 (1): 92-98
  • UNDERSTANDING OVERJUSTIFICATION - REPLY TO REISS AND SUSHINSKY JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. 1976; 33 (1): 25-35
  • OVERJUSTIFICATION IN A TOKEN-ECONOMY JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Greene, D., Sternberg, B., Lepper, M. R. 1976; 34 (6): 1219-1234
  • TURNING PLAY INTO WORK - EFFECTS OF ADULT SURVEILLANCE AND EXTRINSIC REWARDS ON CHILDRENS INTRINSIC MOTIVATION JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. 1975; 31 (3): 479-486
  • GENERALIZATION AND PERSISTENCE OF EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO SELF-REINFORCEMENT MODELS CHILD DEVELOPMENT Lepper, M. R., SAGOTSKY, G., MAILER, J. 1975; 46 (3): 618-630

    Abstract

    2 experiments examined the persistence and generalization of effects of exposure to modeled self-reinforcement standards. Children observed a peer model exhibiting either a high or low standard for self-reward at a novel game or saw no model. Subjects then played the game, either with or without specific instructions to follow the model's example. 2 weeks later, in a new situation, subjects played either the same game or a different game. In these subsequent sessions, substantial persistence of the effects of exposure to the model and generalization of these effects to a new game were demonstrated. Initial differences between the 2 modeling conditions and between instructed and noninstructed subjects, however, generally did not persist in this later test.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AN44000004

    View details for PubMedID 1157599

  • INDIVIDUAL CONSISTENCY IN PROXEMIC BEHAVIOR OF PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EBERTS, E. H., Lepper, M. R. 1975; 32 (5): 841-849
  • WHEN 2 REWARDS ARE WORSE THAN ONE - EFFECTS OF EXTRINSIC REWARDS ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION PHI DELTA KAPPAN Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. 1975; 56 (8): 565-566
  • PERSEVERANCE IN SELF-PERCEPTION AND SOCIAL PERCEPTION - BIASED ATTRIBUTIONAL PROCESSES IN DEBRIEFING PARADIGM JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Ross, L., Lepper, M. R., Hubbard, M. 1975; 32 (5): 880-892

    Abstract

    Two experiments demonstrated that self-perceptions and social perceptions may persevere after the initial basis for such perceptions has been completely discredited. In both studies subjects first received false feedback, indicating that they had either succeeded or failed on a novel discrimination task and then were thoroughly debriefed concerning the predetermined and random nature of this outcome manipulation. In experiment 2, both the initial outcome manipulation and subsequent debriefing were watched and overheard by observers. Both actors and observers showed substantial perseverance of initial impressions concerning the actors' performance and abilities following a standard "outcome" debriefing. "Process" debriefing, in which explicit discussion of the perseverance process was provided, generally proved sufficient to eliminate erroneous self-perceptions. Biased attribution processes that might underlie perserverance phenomena and the implications of the present data for the ethical conduct of deception research are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AW34500014

    View details for PubMedID 1185517

  • INTRINSIC MOTIVATION - HOW TO TURN PLAY INTO WORK PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Greene, D., Lepper, M. R. 1974; 8 (4): 49-?
  • CHILDRENS OBEDIENCE TO ADULT REQUESTS - INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ANXIETY AROUSAL AND APPARENT PUNITIVENESS OF ADULT JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CARLSMIT, J. M., Lepper, M. R., Landauer, T. K. 1974; 30 (6): 822-828
  • UNDERMINING CHILDRENS INTRINSIC INTEREST WITH EXTRINSIC REWARD - - TEST OF OVERJUSTIFICATION HYPOTHESIS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R., Greene, D., Nisbett, R. E. 1973; 28 (1): 129-137
  • ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS IN CHILDRENS DEVALUATION OF A FORBIDDEN ACTIVITY IN A FORCED-COMPLIANCE SITUATION JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Zanna, M. P., Lepper, M. R., ABELSON, R. P. 1973; 28 (3): 355-359
  • DISSONANCE, SELF-PERCEPTION, AND HONESTY IN CHILDREN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R. 1973; 25 (1): 65-74

    View details for Web of Science ID A1973O635300010

    View details for PubMedID 4688170

  • EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FACTORS DETERMINING OBEDIENCE OF 4-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN TO ADULT FEMALES CHILD DEVELOPMENT Landauer, T. K., CARLSMIT, J. M., Lepper, M. 1970; 41 (3): 601-?
  • COGNITIVE IRREVERSIBILITY IN A DISSONANCE-REDUCTION SITUATION JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lepper, M. R., Zanna, M. P., ABELSON, R. P. 1970; 16 (2): 191-?