Christopher Garcia, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Facile repurposing of peptide-MHC-restricted antibodies for cancer immunotherapy.
Monoclonal antibodies (Abs) that recognize major histocompatability complex (MHC)-presented tumor antigens in a manner similar to Tcell receptors (TCRs) have great potential as cancer immunotherapeutics. However, isolation of 'TCR-mimic' (TCRm) Abs is laborious because Abs have not evolved the structurally nuanced peptide-MHC restriction of alphabeta-TCRs. Here, we present a strategy for rapid isolation of highly peptide-specific and 'MHC-restricted' Abs by re-engineering preselected Abs that engage peptide-MHC in a manner structurally similar to that of conventional alphabeta-TCRs. We created structure-based libraries focused on the peptide-interacting residues of TCRm Ab complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops, and rapidly generated MHC-restricted Abs to both mouse and human tumor antigens that specifically killed target cells when formatted as IgG, bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) and chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T). Crystallographic analysis of one selected pMHC-restricted Ab revealed highly peptide-specific recognition, validating the engineering strategy. This approach can yield tumor antigen-specific antibodies in several weeks, potentially enabling rapid clinical translation.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41587-022-01567-w
View details for PubMedID 36593402
Phosphoantigen-induced conformational change of butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) and its implication on Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
2017; 114 (35): E7311–E7320
Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to microbial infections as well as certain types of tumors. The key initiators of Vγ9Vδ2 activation are small, pyrophosphate-containing molecules called phosphoantigens (pAgs) that are present in infected cells or accumulate intracellularly in certain tumor cells. Recent studies demonstrate that initiation of the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell response begins with sensing of pAg via the intracellular domain of the butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) molecule. However, it is unknown how downstream events can ultimately lead to T cell activation. Here, using NMR spectrometry and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we characterize a global conformational change in the B30.2 intracellular domain of BTN3A1 induced by pAg binding. We also reveal by crystallography two distinct dimer interfaces in the BTN3A1 full-length intracellular domain, which are stable in MD simulations. These interfaces lie in close proximity to the pAg-binding pocket and contain clusters of residues that experience major changes of chemical environment upon pAg binding. This suggests that pAg binding disrupts a preexisting conformation of the BTN3A1 intracellular domain. Using a combination of biochemical, structural, and cellular approaches we demonstrate that the extracellular domains of BTN3A1 adopt a V-shaped conformation at rest, and that locking them in this resting conformation without perturbing their membrane reorganization properties diminishes pAg-induced T cell activation. Based on these results, we propose a model in which a conformational change in BTN3A1 is a key event of pAg sensing that ultimately leads to T cell activation.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1707547114
View details for PubMedID 28807997
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5584448