Bio


Dr. Carnoy is a labor economist with a special interest in the political economy of the educational system. He specializes in comparative analysis.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Professor of Education and Economics, Stanford Graduate School of Education (1977 - Present)
  • Associate Professor of Education and Economics, Stanford Graduate School of Education (1971 - 1977)
  • Assistant Professor of Education and Economics, Stanford Graduate School of Education (1968 - 1971)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Consultant, World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, UNESCO, IEA, OECD, UNICEF, International Labour Office (2019 - Present)
  • Member, National Academy of Education (2019 - Present)
  • Member, International Academy of Education (2019 - Present)
  • Chair, Social Studies & Educational Practice Committee, Stanford School of Education (2005 - 2009)
  • President, Comparative and International Educational Society (2005 - 2006)
  • Vice-President, Comparative and International Educational Society (2004 - 2005)
  • Member, American Educational Research Association Grants Board Committee (1998 - Present)
  • Board of Directors, Comparative and International Educational Society (1998 - 2001)
  • Member, American Educational Research Association Book Award Committee (1997 - 1999)
  • Chair, Social Studies & Educational Practice Committee, Stanford School of Education (1995 - 2000)
  • Research Associate in Economics, Foreign Policy Division, The Brookings Institute (1964 - 1968)

Professional Education


  • BS, California Institute of Technology, Electrical Engineering (1960)
  • MA, University of Chicago, Economics (1961)
  • PhD, University of Chicago, Economics (1964)

Research Interests


  • International and Comparative Education
  • School Choice
  • School Reform

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Researching econometric models of quality of education in Latin America and Southern Africa. Studying changes in university financing and the quality of engineering and science tertiary education in China, India, and Russia.

2018-19 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Achievement gains from reconfiguring early schooling: The case of Brazil's primary education reform ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Rosa, L., Martins, M., Carnoy, M. 2019; 68: 1–12
  • How international tests fail to inform policy: The unsolved mystery of Australia's steady decline in PISA scores INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Morsy, L., Khavenson, T., Carnoy, M. 2018; 60: 60–79
  • GLOBAL: DOES HIGHER EDUCATION EXPANSION EQUALIZE INCOME DISTRIBUTION? UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL HIGHER EDUCATION: INSIGHTS FROM KEY GLOBAL PUBLICATIONS Carnoy, M., Mihut, G., Altbach, P. G., DeWit, H. 2017; 37: 13–15
  • Do "better" teachers and classroom resources improve student achievement? A causal comparative approach in Kenya, South Africa, and Swaziland INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Zakharov, A., Tsheko, G., Carnoy, M. 2016; 50: 108-124
  • Revisiting the Relationship Between International Assessment Outcomes and Educational Production: Evidence From a Longitudinal PISA-TIMSS Sample AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Carnoy, M., Khavenson, T., Loyalka, P., Schmidt, W. H., Zakharov, A. 2016; 53 (4): 1054-1085
  • Estimating the economic payoff to virtual university education: a case study of the Open University of Catalonia HIGHER EDUCATION Castano-Munoz, J., Carnoy, M., Duart, J. M. 2016; 72 (1): 1-24
  • The unintended and intended academic consequences of educational reforms: the cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia OXFORD REVIEW OF EDUCATION Khavenson, T., Carnoy, M. 2016; 42 (2): 178-199
  • The effectiveness of vocational versus general secondary education Evidence from the PISA 2012 for countries with early tracking INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANPOWER Kuzmina, J., Carnoy, M. 2016; 37 (1): 2-24
  • The Effectiveness of an Early-Grade Literacy Intervention on the Cognitive Achievement of Brazilian Students EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS Costa, L. O., Carnoy, M. 2015; 37 (4): 567-590
  • Are teachers accurate in predicting their students' performance on high stakes' exams? The case of Russia INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Zakharov, A., Carnoy, M. 2015; 43: 1-11
  • The Role of Classroom Resources and National Educational Context in Student Learning Gains: Comparing Botswana, Kenya, and South Africa COMPARATIVE EDUCATION REVIEW Carnoy, M., Ngware, M., Oketch, M. 2015; 59 (2): 199-233

    View details for DOI 10.1086/680173

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354117500001

  • What International Test Scores Tell Us SOCIETY Carnoy, M., Rothstein, R. 2015; 52 (2): 122-128
  • Using TIMSS and PISA results to inform educational policy: a study of Russia and its neighbours COMPARE-A JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION Carnoy, M., Khavenson, T., Ivanova, A. 2015; 45 (2): 248-271
  • Factors affecting the quality of engineering education in the four largest emerging economies HIGHER EDUCATION Loyalka, P., Carnoy, M., Froumin, I., Dossani, R., Tilak, J. B., Yang, P. 2014; 68 (6): 977-1004
  • The concept of public goods, the state, and higher education finance: a view from the BRICs HIGHER EDUCATION Carnoy, M., Froumin, I., Loyalka, P. K., Tilak, J. B. 2014; 68 (3): 359-378
  • Which teaching practices improve student performance on high-stakes exams? Evidence from Russia INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Zakharov, A., Carnoy, M., Loyalka, P. 2014; 36: 13-21
  • Comparing opportunity to learn and student achievement gains in southern African primary schools: A new approach INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Reeves, C., Carnoy, M., Addy, N. 2013; 33 (5): 426-435
  • Goals and governance of higher education in India HIGHER EDUCATION Carnoy, M., Dossani, R. 2013; 65 (5): 595-612
  • All else equal: Are public and private schools different? Benveniste, L., Carnoy, M., Rothstein, R. Routledge. 2013
  • Who attends and completes virtual universities: the case of the open University of Catalonia (UOC) HIGHER EDUCATION Carnoy, M., Rabling, B. J., Castano-Munoz, J., Duart Montoliu, J. M., Sancho-Vinuesa, T. 2012; 63 (1): 53-82
  • TEACHER KNOWLEDGE AND TEACHING IN PANAMA AND COSTA RICA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE INVESTIGACION EN MATEMATICA EDUCATIVA-RELIME Sorto, M. A., Marshall, J. H., Luschei, T. F., Carnoy, M. 2009; 12 (2): 251-290
  • How schools and students respond to school improvement programs: The case of Brazil's PDE ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Carnoy, M., Gove, A. K., Loeb, S., Marshall, J. H., Socias, M. 2008; 27 (1): 22-38
  • THE LIMITATIONS OF TEACHER PAY INCENTIVE PROGRAMS BASED ON INTER-COHORT COMPARISONS: THE CASE OF CHILE'S SNED EDUCATION FINANCE AND POLICY Carnoy, M., Brodziak, I., Molina, A., Socias, M. 2007; 2 (3): 189-227
  • Vouchers and public school performance Washington: Economic Policy Institute Carnoy, M., Adamson, F., Chudgar, A., Luschei, T. F., Witte, J. F. 2007
  • Estimating causal effects using experimental and observational design Schneider, B., Carnoy, M., Kilpatrick, J., Schmidt, W. H., Shavelson, R. J. American Educational & Reseach Association. 2007
  • Cuba's academic advantage: Why students in Cuba do better in school Carnoy, M., Gove, A. K., Marshall, J. H. Stanford University Press. 2007
  • WORTH THE PRICE? WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE ON CHARTER SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT EDUCATION FINANCE AND POLICY Carnoy, M., Jacobsen, R., Mishel, L., Rothstein, R. 2006; 1 (1): 151-161
  • Cuba's academic performance in comparative perspective COMPARATIVE EDUCATION REVIEW Carnoy, M., Marshall, J. 2005; 49 (2): 230-261
  • The charter school dust-up: Examining the evidence on enrollment and achievement Carnoy, M., Jacobsen, R., Mishel, L. R., Rothstein, R. Economic Policy Institute Washington, DC. 2005
  • The new accountability: High schools and high-stakes testing Carnoy, M., Elmore, R., Siskin, L. Routledge. 2003
  • Does external accountability affect student outcomes? A cross-state analysis EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS CARNOY, M., Loeb, S. 2002; 24 (4): 305-331
  • The effectiveness and efficiency of private schools in Chile's voucher system EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS McEwan, P. J., CARNOY, M. 2000; 22 (3): 213-239
  • Sustaining flexibility: work, family, and community in the information age New York: Russell Sage Foundation Carnoy, M. 2000
  • The family, flexible work and social cohesion at risk INTERNATIONAL LABOUR REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1999; 138 (4): 411-?
  • Globalization and educational reform: What planners need to know Carnoy, M., Hallak, J., Caillods, F. UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning. 1999
  • The great work dilemma: Education, employment, and wages in the new global economy ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1997; 16 (3): 247-254
  • Labour markets and employment practices in the age of flexibility: A case study of Silicon Valley INTERNATIONAL LABOUR REVIEW CARNOY, M., Castells, M., Benner, C. 1997; 136 (1): 27-?
  • The new information technology - International diffusion and its impact on employment and skills - A review of the literature INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANPOWER CARNOY, M. 1997; 18 (1-2): 119-?
  • Education and racial inequality: The human capital explanation revisited ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1996; 15 (3): 259-272
  • Women and minority gains in a rapidly changing local labor market: The San Francisco Bay area in the 1980s ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW CARNOY, M., Gong, W. M. 1996; 15 (3): 273-287
  • Structural adjustment and the changing face of education INTERNATIONAL LABOUR REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1995; 134 (6): 653-673
  • WHY ARENT MORE AFRICAN-AMERICANS GOING TO COLLEGE JOURNAL OF BLACKS IN HIGHER EDUCATION CARNOY, M. 1994: 66-69
  • THE NEW GLOBAL ECONOMY, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND RESTRUCTURING EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT CARNOY, M. 1994; 9 (3-4): 270-286
  • EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY IN VOCATIONAL-EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICIES INTERNATIONAL LABOUR REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1994; 133 (2): 221-240
  • SCHOOL-DISTRICT RESTRUCTURING IN SANTA-FE, NEW-MEXICO EDUCATIONAL POLICY CARNOY, M., MacDonell, J. 1990; 4 (1): 49-64
  • EDUCATION REFORM IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC-CRISIS - AN UPDATE IDS BULLETIN-INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES CARNOY, M. 1989; 20 (1): 49-49
  • EDUCATIONAL-REFORM AND PLANNING IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC-CRISIS PROSPECTS CARNOY, M. 1986; 16 (2): 205-214
  • HIGH TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNATIONAL LABOR-MARKETS INTERNATIONAL LABOUR REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1985; 124 (6): 643-659
  • THE POLITICAL-ECONOMY OF EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL CARNOY, M. 1985; 37 (2): 157-173
  • CURRENTS LEFT AND RIGHT - COMMENT COMPARATIVE EDUCATION REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1983; 27 (1): 30-32
  • EDUCATION, DEMOCRACY, AND SOCIAL-CONFLICT HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1983; 53 (4): 398-402
  • EDUCATION FOR ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT COMPARATIVE EDUCATION REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1982; 26 (2): 160-177
  • THE SUPPLY SIDE OF THE STREET NATION CARNOY, M., Shearer, D. 1981; 233 (15): 463-466
  • EDUCATION, INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY AND THE STATE ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY CARNOY, M. 1981; 2 (2): 243-260
  • THE CHALLENGE OF DEMOCRACY SOCIAL POLICY CARNOY, M. 1980; 11 (2): 3-5
  • SEGMENTATION IN THE UNITED-STATES LABOR-MARKET - ITS EFFECTS ON THE MOBILITY AND EARNINGS OF WHITES AND BLACKS CAMBRIDGE JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS RUMBERGER, R. W., CARNOY, M. 1980; 4 (2): 117-132
  • CAN EDUCATIONAL-POLICY EQUALIZE INCOME-DISTRIBUTION PROSPECTS CARNOY, M. 1978; 8 (1): 3-18
  • ECONOMIC-CHANGE AND EDUCATIONAL-REFORM IN CUBA REVISTA DEL CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS EDUCATIVOS CARNOY, M., Werthein, J. 1977; 7 (1): 9-31
  • ECONOMIC COSTS AND RETURNS TO EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE CARNOY, M. 1975; 23 (2): 207-248
  • RETURN TO SCHOOLING IN UNITED-STATES, 1939-69 JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES CARNOY, M., MARENBACH, D. 1975; 10 (3): 312-331
  • ECONOMIC COSTS AND RETURNS TO EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION EKISTICS-THE PROBLEMS AND SCIENCE OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS CARNOY, M. 1975; 40 (240): 370-384
  • POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF MANPOWER FORMATION COMPARATIVE EDUCATION REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1975; 19 (1): 115-128
  • EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL MEDIA - SOME ISSUES INSTRUCTIONAL SCIENCE CARNOY, M., LEVIN, H. M. 1975; 4 (3-4): 385-406
  • CRITICAL NOTES ON REPORT BY FAURE COMMISSION REVISTA DEL CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS EDUCATIVOS CARNOY, M. 1974; 4 (4): 95-100
  • LEARNING TO BE - CONSENSUS AND CONTRADICTIONS CONVERGENCE CARNOY, M. 1974; 7 (3): 53-60
  • SCHOOL IS BAD - WORK IS WORSE SCHOOL REVIEW BEHN, W. H., CARNOY, M., Carter, M. A., CRAIN, J. C., LEVIN, H. M. 1974; 83 (1): 49-68
  • RATE OF RETURN TO SCHOOLING AND INCREASE IN HUMAN RESOURCES IN PUERTO RICO COMPARATIVE EDUCATION REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1972; 16 (1): 68-86
  • EDUCATIONAL PLANNING WITH FLEXIBLE WAGES - KENYAN EXAMPLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE CARNOY, M., THIAS, H. 1972; 20 (3): 438-473
  • EXPLAINING DIFFERENTIALS IN EARNINGS AMONG LARGE BRAZILIAN CITIES URBAN STUDIES CARNOY, M., Katz, M. L. 1971; 8 (1): 21-37
  • RATES OF RETURN TO SCHOOLING IN KENYA EASTERN AFRICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW CARNOY, M., THIAS, H. H. 1971; 3 (2): 63-103
  • QUALITY OF EDUCATION, EXAMINATION PERFORMANCE, AND URBAN-RURAL INCOME DIFFERENTIALS IN PUERTO-RICO COMPARATIVE EDUCATION REVIEW CARNOY, M. 1970; 14 (3): 335-349