- Pediatric Sleep Medicine
- Pediatric Pulmonology
Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics - Pulmonary Medicine
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology (2021)
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Sleep Medicine (2021)
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2021)
Medical Education: University of the East (1992) Philippines
Fellowship: Children's Hospital Los Angeles Div of Ped Pulmonology (2005) CA
Residency: Overlook Hospital (1997) NJ
The Association between Asthma and OSA in Children.
Children (Basel, Switzerland)
2022; 9 (10)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma are two of the most prevalent and commonly co-existing respiratory conditions seen in the pediatric population. Studies linking asthma and OSA in children are limited but indicate that there is a bi-directional relationship between them with significant overlap in the symptoms, risk factors, pathophysiology, comorbidities, and management. It is suggested that there is a reciprocal association between asthma predisposing to OSA, and OSA worsening symptom control and outcomes from asthma. It stands to reason that inflammation in the upper and/or lower airways can influence each other. Most of the pediatric literature that is available evaluates each aspect of this relationship independently such as risk factors, mechanisms, and treatment indications. This article highlights the relationship between OSA and asthma in the context of shared risk factors, pathophysiology, and available management recommendations in the pediatric population. Early recognition of the co-existence and association between OSA and asthma could ideally improve the treatment outcomes for these two conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the mechanism of this relationship can help identify nuances for medical management, optimize treatment and protect this population at risk from associated morbidity.
View details for DOI 10.3390/children9101430
View details for PubMedID 36291366
Craniofacial Sleep Medicine: The Important Role of Dental Providers in Detecting and Treating Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children.
Children (Basel, Switzerland)
2022; 9 (7)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinical disorder within the spectrum of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRDB) which is used to describe abnormal breathing during sleep resulting in gas exchange abnormalities and/or sleep disruption. OSA is a highly prevalent disorder with associated sequelae across multiple physical domains, overlapping with other chronic diseases, affecting development in children as well as increased health care utilization. More precise and personalized approaches are required to treat the complex constellation of symptoms with its associated comorbidities since not all children are cured by surgery (removal of the adenoids and tonsils). Given that dentists manage the teeth throughout the lifespan and have an important understanding of the anatomy and physiology involved with the airway from a dental perspective, it seems reasonable that better understanding and management from their field will give the opportunity to provide better integrated and optimized outcomes for children affected by OSA. With the emergence of therapies such as mandibular advancement devices and maxillary expansion, etc., dentists can be involved in providing care for OSA along with sleep medicine doctors. Furthermore, the evolving role of myofunctional therapy may also be indicated as adjunctive therapy in the management of children with OSA. The objective of this article is to discuss the important role of dentists and the collaborative approach between dentists, allied dental professionals such as myofunctional therapists, and sleep medicine specialists for identifying and managing children with OSA. Prevention and anticipatory guidance will also be addressed.
View details for DOI 10.3390/children9071057
View details for PubMedID 35884041
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Neonates.
Children (Basel, Switzerland)
2022; 9 (3)
Neonates have distinctive anatomic and physiologic features that predispose them to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The overall prevalence of neonatal OSA is unknown, although an increase in prevalence has been reported in neonates with craniofacial malformations, neurological disorders, and airway malformations. If remained unrecognized and untreated, neonatal OSA can lead to impaired growth and development, cardiovascular morbidity, and can even be life threatening. Polysomnography and direct visualization of the airway are essential diagnostic modalities in neonatal OSA. Treatment of neonatal OSA is based on the severity of OSA and associated co-morbidities. This may include medical and surgical interventions individualized for the affected neonate. Based on this, it is expected that infants with OSA have more significant healthcare utilization.
View details for DOI 10.3390/children9030419
View details for PubMedID 35327791
Trends in Diagnosing Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pediatrics.
Children (Basel, Switzerland)
2022; 9 (3)
Obstructive sleep apnea in children has been linked with behavioral and neurocognitive problems, impaired growth, cardiovascular morbidity, and metabolic consequences. Diagnosing children at a young age can potentially prevent significant morbidity associated with OSA. Despite the importance of taking a comprehensive sleep history and performing thorough physical examination to screen for signs and symptoms of OSA, these findings alone are inadequate for definitively diagnosing OSA. In-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) remains the gold standard of diagnosing pediatric OSA. However, there are limitations related to the attended in-lab polysomnography, such as limited access to a sleep center, the specialized training involved in studying children, the laborious nature of the test and social/economic barriers, which can delay diagnosis and treatment. There has been increasing research about utilizing alternative methods of diagnosis of OSA in children including home sleep testing, especially with the emergence of wearable technology. In this article, we aim to look at the presentation, physical exam, screening questionnaires and current different modalities used to aid in the diagnosis of OSA in children.
View details for DOI 10.3390/children9030306
View details for PubMedID 35327678
You Cannot Hit Snooze on OSA: Sequelae of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
Children (Basel, Switzerland)
2022; 9 (2)
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been shown to not only affect the quality of sleep, but also overall health in general. Untreated or inadequately treated OSA can lead to long-term sequelae involving cardiovascular, endothelial, metabolic, endocrine, neurocognitive, and psychological consequences. The physiological effects of pediatric OSA eventually become pathological. As the complex effects of pediatric OSA are discovered, they must be identified early so that healthcare providers can be better equipped to treat and even prevent them. Ultimately, adequate management of OSA improves overall quality of life.
View details for DOI 10.3390/children9020261
View details for PubMedID 35204981
- The Use of Auto-Titrating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (AutoCPAP) for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children with Obesity CHILDREN-BASEL 2021; 8 (12)
Treatment Considerations for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pediatric Down Syndrome.
Children (Basel, Switzerland)
2021; 8 (11)
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to children without DS. The negative impact of OSA on health, behavior, and cognitive development in children with DS highlights the importance of timely and effective treatment. Due to the higher prevalence of craniofacial and airway abnormalities, obesity, and hypotonia in patients with DS, residual OSA can still occur after exhausting first-line options. While treatment commonly includes adenotonsillectomy (AT) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, additional therapy such as medical management and/or adjuvant surgical procedures need to be considered in refractory OSA. Given the significant comorbidities secondary to untreated OSA in children with DS, such as cardiovascular and neurobehavioral consequences, more robust randomized trials in this patient population are needed to produce treatment guidelines separate from those for the general pediatric population of otherwise healthy children with OSA. Further studies are also needed to look at desensitization and optimization of CPAP use in patients with DS and OSA.
View details for DOI 10.3390/children8111074
View details for PubMedID 34828787
The Link between Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
2021; 8 (9)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a form of sleep-disordered breathing that affects up to 9.5% of the pediatric population. Untreated OSA is associated with several complications, including neurobehavioral sequelae, growth and developmental delay, cardiovascular dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the neurobehavioral sequelae associated with OSA. This review aims to summarize the research on the relationship between OSA and ADHD and investigate the impacts of OSA treatment on ADHD symptoms. A literature search was conducted on electronic databases with the key terms: "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" or "ADHD", "obstructive sleep apnea" or "OSA", "sleep disordered breathing", and "pediatric" or "children". Review of relevant studies showed adenotonsillectomy to be effective in the short-term treatment of ADHD symptoms. The success of other treatment options, including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), in treating ADHD symptoms in pediatric OSA patients has not been adequately evaluated. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term benefits of surgical intervention, patient factors that may influence treatment success, and the potential benefits of other OSA treatment methods for pediatric ADHD patients.
View details for DOI 10.3390/children8090824
View details for Web of Science ID 000699406500001
View details for PubMedID 34572256
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8470037
Neonatal Coccidioidomycosis: A Single-center Experience and Review of the Literature.
The Pediatric infectious disease journal
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis is common in adult and pediatric populations living in endemic areas of the United States but has rarely been reported in neonates. We reviewed recent cases of neonatal coccidioidomycosis treated at a tertiary care children's hospital in an endemic area and compared them with previously reported cases in the literature.METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of infants 1 month old or less hospitalized with a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019. Additionally, we performed a literature review of all reported cases of neonatal coccidioidomycosis over the past 7 decades through PubMed. Infants born to mothers with confirmed or suspected active coccidioidomycosis were excluded.RESULTS: Three cases of neonatal coccidioidomycosis were identified at our institution. Each presented in a unique manner and had an alternative diagnosis at the time of initial presentation. Two patients had negative coccidioidal screening tests upon admission but later seroconverted. All patients had extrapulmonary involvement, and all recovered after appropriate treatment. A review of the literature reveals that the presentations and outcomes of neonatal coccidioidomycosis vary widely.CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variability in the presentation of coccidioidomycosis in the neonatal period, and diagnosis may be challenging. In endemic regions, healthcare providers should consider coccidioidomycosis in their differential diagnoses of ill-appearing neonates that do not respond to treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0000000000003281
View details for PubMedID 34310505
The Use of Auto-titrating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (autoCPAP) for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children with Obesity
AMER THORACIC SOC. 2021
Positive airway pressure can be an effective and safe therapy for children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Few studies have assessed the safety and efficacy of autoCPAP in pediatric patients with obesity.This was a retrospective chart review of children with obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) > 99th percentile), ages 2-18, diagnosed with OSAS (Obstructive Apnea-Hypopnea Index (OAHI) > 1/h) and used autoCPAP with 30-day adherence. Exclusion criteria included patients with complex comorbidities. Adherence was defined as autoCPAP use ≥4 h/night for at least 21/30 days. Baseline PSG OAHI was compared to the AHI from the 30-day autoCPAP compliance report. We also compared autoCPAP 30-day 95th percentile pressures with the pressures from PAP titration.The study included 19 children, ranging 5-15 years old. The median BMI was 99.6th percentile and average adherence was 25/30 nights with mean of 7.3 h/night. The median OAHI was 12.3/h on baseline PSG and the 30-day autoCPAP download AHI decreased to 1.7/h. No adverse outcomes were identified. The average difference between 95th percentile autoCPAP pressure and PAP titration pressure was 0.89 cmH20.Our study suggests autoCPAP is effective and safe for the treatment of OSAS in pediatric patients with obesity. Using autoCPAP may reduce delays in treatment. Additional research is needed to verify the long-term effectiveness of autoCPAP in this population.
View details for Web of Science ID 000685468903106
View details for PubMedID 34943400
- Normal Sleep in Childhood Integrative Sleep Medicine Oxford University Press. 2021: 33-48
Coccidioidomycosis in infants: A retrospective case series.
2016; 51 (8): 858-62
In contrast to adults, coccidioidomycosis is a rare disease in infants and the mechanisms of disease acquisition are not well described in infants. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in infants in an endemic area.We performed a retrospective observational study of all patients less than 12 months of age admitted to a tertiary free standing children's hospital from 2003-2012 diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis.Thirteen infants were hospitalized during the study period. The majority of the patients presented with upper and/or lower respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptoms included fever (77%), cough (61%), and respiratory distress (38%). Disseminated disease, included pericardial effusion, neck abscess, and lesions in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and left temporoparietal skull. Fluconazole was the initial, antifungal agent used. Amphotericin B was reserved for significant lung disease and disseminated cases. Failed response to fluconazole and amphotericin B were treated with a combination of voriconazole and caspofungin. Average length of treatment was 4 years. All patients survived to hospital discharge. The majority of the patients had resolution of chest radiograph and coccidiodal complement fixing antibody titers.Infant coccidioidomycosis has a non-specific presentation and can mimic common infant respiratory illnesses. In endemic areas, coccidioidomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants with pulmonary symptoms unresponsive to conventional treatment. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:858-862. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.23387
View details for PubMedID 26829719
Supine sleeping position does not cause clinical aspiration in neonates in hospital newborn nurseries.
Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine
2007; 161 (5): 507-10
To determine the frequency and severity of clinically significant events of spitting up in normal newborns during the first 24 hours of life and to correlate the events with sleeping position.Prospective observational study.Children born between August 2003 and October 2004 in newborn nurseries at 2 hospitals.Healthy full-term newborns (n=3240) (>or=37 weeks estimated gestational age) during the first 24 hours of life.Frequency of, and intervention required for, spitting up in supine, side-lying, and prone positions while asleep and awake.Of the 3240 infants, 96.6% did not spit up during sleep. A total of 142 episodes of spitting up were documented in 111 newborns during sleep. While the newborns were supine and asleep, there were 130 episodes of spitting up. Of these episodes, 55% did not require any intervention, 37% only required brief suctioning with a bulb syringe, 6% required gentle stimulation, and 2% required wall suction. Both nurseries had a policy that newborns should sleep supine; therefore, only 6 newborns were noted to have spitting up episodes while lying on the side, with 66.7% requiring no intervention and 33.3% requiring bulb syringe. No episodes of apnea, cyanosis, documented aspirations, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, or deaths from spitting up were noted.We conclude that clinically significant spitting up occurs infrequently in hospital newborn nurseries while the newborns are asleep. Fewer than 4% of newborns spit up while sleeping in the supine position in the first 24 hours of life, and none required significant intervention or experienced serious sequelae.
View details for DOI 10.1001/archpedi.161.5.507
View details for PubMedID 17485629
Diaphragm pacers as a treatment for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.
Expert review of medical devices
2005; 2 (5): 577-85
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is a rare syndrome present from birth, and is defined as the failure of automatic control of breathing. All patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome require life-long ventilatory support during sleep, although approximately a third of patients require ventilatory support 24 h per day. Diaphragm pacers offer a modality of ventilatory support that affords congenital central hypoventilation syndrome patients with maximal mobility for full-time ventilatory patients, and they may allow for a more normal lifestyle in the appropriate patient. They may permit tracheostomy decannulation in those requiring only support during sleep. Diaphragm pacing entails surgical placement of an electrode onto the phrenic nerve, connected to a subcutaneous receiver. There is an external battery-operated transmitter and antenna placed on the skin over the receiver. The transmitter emits energy, similar to radio transmission, which is converted into an electrical current by the receiver. This stimulates the phrenic nerve resulting in a diaphragmatic contraction. Settings on the transmitter include respiratory rate and electrical voltage, and are adjusted to give enough tidal volume to allow for adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Therefore, diaphragm pacing is an attractive alternative mode of mechanically assisted ventilation for many patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.
View details for DOI 10.1586/17434418.104.22.1687
View details for PubMedID 16293069
Disordered respiratory control in children with partial cerebellar resections.
2005; 40 (1): 88-91
While the cerebellum is not traditionally thought of as having an important role in respiratory control, breathing involves cyclic motor acts that require cerebellar coordination. We postulate that children with partial cerebellar resections have disordered respiratory control due to altered synchronization of ventilatory muscles. We reviewed the records of 36 children following partial cerebellar resections due to neoplasms confined to the cerebellum. P aCO2 values were elevated in 19% of patients. Six patients had apneic or bradypneic events documented within the first month after resection. Two patients required intubation with assisted ventilation, and one needed assisted ventilation for 7.3 weeks. Those with apnea had lower oxygen saturations, and a longer need for supplemental oxygen. Patients with apnea were older than those without apnea. Swallowing, which uses many of the same muscles as those needed to maintain upper airway patency, was dysfunctional in 50% of those with apneas. We conclude that children with cerebellar resections have an increased incidence of apnea, hypoventilation, and hypoxemia not otherwise explained by pulmonary disease, and some require prolonged assisted ventilation. We speculate that these abnormalities are manifestations of altered respiratory control caused by dysfunctional cerebellar coordination of ventilatory muscles.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.20225
View details for PubMedID 15880401
- Lung Transplantation in Pediatric patients Clinical Application of Pulmonary Function Testing in Common Pediatric Respiratory Disease 2005: 224-232