Associate Professor of Chemistry Matthew Kanan develops new catalysts and chemical reactions for applications in renewable energy conversion and CO2 utilization. His group at Stanford University has recently developed a novel method to create plastic from carbon dioxide and inedible plant material rather than petroleum products, and pioneered the study of “defect-rich” heterogeneous electro-catalysts for converting carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to liquid fuel.
Matthew Kanan completed undergraduate study in chemistry at Rice University (B.A. 2000 Summa Cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa). During doctoral research in organic chemistry at Harvard University (Ph.D. 2005), he developed a novel method for using DNA to discover new chemical reactions. He then moved into inorganic chemistry for his postdoctoral studies as a National Institutes of Health Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he discovered a water oxidation catalyst that operates in neutral water. He joined the Stanford Chemistry Department faculty in 2009 to continue research into energy-related catalysis and reactions. His research and teaching have already been recognized in selection as one of Chemistry & Engineering News’ first annual Talented 12, the Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award, Eli Lilly New Faculty Award, and recognition as a Camille and Henry Dreyfus Environmental Mentor, among other honors.
The Kanan Lab addresses fundamental challenges in catalysis and synthesis with an emphasis on enabling new technologies for scalable CO2 utilization. The interdisciplinary effort spans organic synthesis, materials chemistry and electrochemistry.
One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to transition to an energy economy with ultra-low greenhouse gas emissions without compromising quality of life for a growing population. The Kanan Lab aims to help enable this transition by developing catalysts and chemical reactions that recycle CO2 into fuels and commodity chemicals using renewable energy sources. To be implemented on a substantial scale, these methods must ultimately be competitive with fossil fuels and petrochemicals. With this requirement in mind, the group focuses on the fundamental chemical challenge of making carbon–carbon (C–C) bonds because multi-carbon compounds have higher energy density, greater value, and more diverse applications that one-carbon compounds. Both electrochemical and chemical methods are being pursued. For electrochemical conversion, the group studies how defects known as grain boundaries can be exploited to improve CO2/CO electro-reduction catalysis. Recent work has unveiled quantitative correlations between grain boundaries and catalytic activity, establishing a new design principle for electrocatalysis, and developed grain boundary-rich copper catalysts with unparalleled activity for converting carbon monoxide to liquid fuel. For chemical CO2 conversion, the group is developing C–H carboxylation and CO2 hydrogenation reactions that are promoted by simple carbonate salts. These reactions provide a way to make C–C bonds between un-activated substrates and CO2 without resorting to energy-intensive and hazardous reagents. Among numerous applications, carbonate-promoted carboxylation enables the synthesis of a monomer used to make polyester plastic from CO2 and a feedstock derived from agricultural waste.
In addition to CO2 chemistry, the Kanan group is pursuing new strategies to control selectivity in molecular catalysis for fine chemical synthesis. Of particular interest in the use of electrostatic interactions to discriminate between competing reaction pathways based on their charge distributions. This effort uses ion pairing or interfaces to control the local electrostatic environment in which a reaction takes place. The group has recently shown that local electric fields can control regioselectivity in isomerization reactions catalyzed by gold complexes.
Honors & Awards
Selected one of first annual Talented 12, Chemistry & Engineering News (2015)
Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award, Camille & Henry Dreyfus Foundation (2014)
Hellman Faculty Scholar Award, Hellman Fellows Program (2013)
Camille and Henry Dreyfus Environmental Mentor, Camille & Henry Dreyfus Foundation (2012)
Thieme Journal Award, Thieme Medical Publishers (2010)
Eli Lilly New Faculty Award, Eli Lilly and Company (2009)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Editorial Advisory Board Member, ACS Central Science (2015 - Present)
Postdoc, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Water-Oxidation Catalysis (2005)
PhD, Harvard University, Organic Chemistry (2005)
BA Summa Cum Laude, Rice University, Chemistry (2000)
- Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules
CHEM 121 (Spr)
- Independent Studies (5)
Prior Year Courses
Doctoral Dissertation Reader (AC)
Keith Armstrong, Jeffrey Babicz, Tyler Hernandez, Shyam Iyer, Alan Landers, Allen Yu-Lun Liang, Kurt Lindquist, Rebecca Smaha
Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Doctoral Dissertation Advisor (AC)
Emma Chant, Yuxuan Chen, Kyle Disselkoen, Amy Frankhouser, Zhaorui Huang, Andrew Lankenau, Chastity Li, Rain Mariano, Josh Rabinowitz, Cristian Woroch
Comparing Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope Grain Mapping Techniques Applied to Well-Defined and Highly Irregular Nanoparticles.
2020; 5 (6): 2791–99
Investigating how grain structure affects the functional properties of nanoparticles requires a robust method for nanoscale grain mapping. In this study, we directly compare the grain mapping ability of transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) in a scanning electron microscope to automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) in a transmission electron microscope across multiple nanoparticle materials. Analysis of well-defined Au, ZnO, and ZnSe nanoparticles showed that the grain orientations and GB geometries obtained by TKD are accurate and match those obtained by ACOM. For more complex polycrystalline Cu nanostructures, TKD provided an interpretable grain map whereas ACOM, with or without precession electron diffraction, yielded speckled, uninterpretable maps with orientation errors. Acquisition times for TKD were generally shorter than those for ACOM. Our results validate the use of TKD for characterizing grain orientation and grain boundary distributions in nanoparticles, providing a framework for the broader exploration of how microstructure influences nanoparticle properties.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsomega.9b03505
View details for PubMedID 32095702
- Polyamide monomers via carbonate-promoted C-H carboxylation of furfurylamine CHEMICAL SCIENCE 2020; 11 (1): 248–52
A closed cycle for esterifying aromatic hydrocarbons with CO2 and alcohol.
The ability to functionalize hydrocarbons with CO2 could create opportunities for high-volume CO2 utilization. However, current methods to form carbon-carbon bonds between hydrocarbons and CO2 require stoichiometric consumption of very resource-intensive reagents to overcome the low reactivity of these substrates. Here, we report a simple semi-continuous cycle that converts aromatic hydrocarbons, CO2 and alcohol into aromatic esters without consumption of stoichiometric reagents. Our strategy centres on the use of solid bases composed of an alkali carbonate (M2CO3, where M+=K+ or Cs+) dispersed over a mesoporous support. Nanoscale confinement disrupts the crystallinity of M2CO3 and engenders strong base reactivity at intermediate temperatures. The overall cycle involves two distinct steps: (1) CO32--promoted C-H carboxylation, in which the hydrocarbon substrate is deprotonated by the supported M2CO3 and reacts with CO2 to form a supported carboxylate (RCO2M); and (2) methylation, in which RCO2M reacts with methanol and CO2 to form an isolable methyl ester with concomitant regeneration of M2CO3.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41557-019-0313-y
View details for PubMedID 31451785
Gaseous carbon waste streams uilization: Status and research needs
AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2019
View details for Web of Science ID 000478860501839
- Carbon Monoxide Gas Diffusion Electrolysis that Produces Concentrated C-2 Products with High Single-Pass Conversion JOULE 2019; 3 (1): 240–56
Carbonate-Promoted Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Multicarbon Carboxylates.
ACS central science
2018; 4 (5): 606–13
CO2 hydrogenation is a potential alternative to conventional petrochemical methods for making commodity chemicals and fuels. Research in this area has focused mostly on transition-metal-based catalysts. Here we show that hydrated alkali carbonates promote CO2 hydrogenation to formate, oxalate, and other C2+ carboxylates at elevated temperature and pressure in the absence of transition-metal catalysts or solvent. The reactions proceed rapidly, reaching up to 56% yield (with respect to CO32-) within minutes. Isotope labeling experiments indicate facile H2 and C-H deprotonations in the alkali cation-rich reaction media and identify probable intermediates for the C-C bond formations leading to the various C2+ products. The carboxylate salts are in equilibrium with volatile carboxylic acids under CO2 hydrogenation conditions, which may enable catalytic carboxylic acid syntheses. Our results provide a foundation for base-promoted and base-catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation processes that could complement existing approaches.
View details for PubMedID 29806007
- Editorial overview: Seeds for a bioenergy future CURRENT OPINION IN CHEMICAL BIOLOGY 2017; 41: A1–A2
Selective increase in CO2 electroreduction activity at grain-boundary surface terminations
2017; 358 (6367): 1187–91
Altering a material's catalytic properties requires identifying structural features that give rise to active surfaces. Grain boundaries create strained regions in polycrystalline materials by stabilizing dislocations and may provide a way to create high-energy surfaces for catalysis that are kinetically trapped. Although grain-boundary density has previously been correlated with catalytic activity for some reactions, direct evidence that grain boundaries create surfaces with enhanced activity is lacking. We used a combination of bulk electrochemical measurements and scanning electrochemical cell microscopy with submicrometer resolution to show that grain-boundary surface terminations in gold electrodes are more active than grain surfaces for electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to carbon monoxide (CO) but not for the competing hydrogen (H2) evolution reaction. The catalytic footprint of the grain boundary is commensurate with its dislocation-induced strain field, providing a strategy for broader exploitation of grain-boundary effects in heterogeneous catalysis.
View details for PubMedID 29191908
Imaging the Hydrogen Absorption Dynamics of Individual Grains in Polycrystalline Palladium Thin Films in 3D.
Defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries often control the properties of polycrystalline materials. In nanocrystalline materials, investigating this structure-function relationship while preserving the sample remains challenging because of the short length scales and buried interfaces involved. Here we use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the role of structural inhomogeneity on the hydriding phase transformation dynamics of individual Pd grains in polycrystalline films in three-dimensional detail. In contrast to previous reports on single- and polycrystalline nanoparticles, we observe no evidence of a hydrogen-rich surface layer and consequently no size dependence in the hydriding phase transformation pressure over a 125-325 nm size range. We do observe interesting grain boundary dynamics, including reversible rotations of grain lattices while the material remains in the hydrogen-poor phase. The mobility of the grain boundaries, combined with the lack of a hydrogen-rich surface layer, suggests that the grain boundaries are acting as fast diffusion sites for the hydrogen atoms. Such hydrogen-enhanced plasticity in the hydrogen-poor phase provides insight into the switch from the size-dependent behavior of single-crystal nanoparticles to the lower transformation pressures of polycrystalline materials and may play a role in hydrogen embrittlement.
View details for PubMedID 29035558
Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of single-grain defect dynamics in polycrystalline films
2017; 356 (6339): 739-?
Polycrystalline material properties depend on the distribution and interactions of their crystalline grains. In particular, grain boundaries and defects are crucial in determining their response to external stimuli. A long-standing challenge is thus to observe individual grains, defects, and strain dynamics inside functional materials. Here we report a technique capable of revealing grain heterogeneity, including strain fields and individual dislocations, that can be used under operando conditions in reactive environments: grain Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (gBCDI). Using a polycrystalline gold thin film subjected to heating, we show how gBCDI resolves grain boundary and dislocation dynamics in individual grains in three-dimensional detail with 10-nanometer spatial and subangstrom displacement field resolution. These results pave the way for understanding polycrystalline material response under external stimuli and, ideally, engineering particular functions.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aam6168
View details for Web of Science ID 000401508400044
View details for PubMedID 28522531
2017; 8 (4): 2790-2794
The local environment at polarized solid-liquid interfaces provides a unique medium for chemical reactions that could be exploited to control the selectivity of non-faradaic reactions. Polarized interfaces are commonly prepared by applying a voltage to an electrode in an electrolyte solution, but it is challenging to achieve high surface charge densities while suppressing faradaic reactions. Ferroelectric materials have permanent surface charge densities that arise from the dipole moments of ferroelectric domains and can be used to create polarized solid-liquid interfaces without applying a voltage. We studied the effects of ferroelectric oxides on the selectivity of a Rh porphyrin-catalyzed carbene rearrangement. The addition of ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles to the reaction solution changed the product ratio in the same direction and by a similar magnitude as performing the reaction at an electrode-electrolyte interface polarized by a voltage. The results demonstrate that colloidal suspensions of BaTiO3 nanoparticles act as a dispersible polarized interface that can influence the selectivity of non-faradaic reactions.
View details for DOI 10.1039/c6sc05032h
View details for PubMedID 28553515
Electrostatic Control of Regioselectivity in Au(I)-Catalyzed Hydroarylation
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2017; 139 (11): 4035-4041
Competing pathways in catalytic reactions often involve transition states with very different charge distributions, but this difference is rarely exploited to control selectivity. The proximity of a counterion to a charged catalyst in an ion paired complex gives rise to strong electrostatic interactions that could be used to energetically differentiate transition states. Here we investigate the effects of ion pairing on the regioselectivity of the hydroarylation of 3-substituted phenyl propargyl ethers catalyzed by cationic Au(I) complexes, which forms a mixture of 5- and 7-substituted 2H-chromenes. We show that changing the solvent dielectric to enforce ion pairing to a SbF6(-) counterion changes the regioselectivity by up to a factor of 12 depending on the substrate structure. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the energy difference between the putative product-determining isomeric transition states (ΔΔE(‡)) in both the presence and absence of the counterion. The change in ΔΔE(‡) upon switching from the unpaired transition states in high solvent dielectric to ion paired transition states in low solvent dielectric (Δ(ΔΔE(‡))) was found to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed selectivity changes across several substrates. Our calculations indicate that the origin of Δ(ΔΔE(‡)) lies in the preferential electrostatic stabilization of the transition state with greater charge separation by the counterion in the ion paired case. By performing calculations at multiple different values of the solvent dielectric, we show that the role of the solvent in changing selectivity is not solely to enforce ion pairing, but rather that interactions between the ion paired complex and the solvent also contribute to Δ(ΔΔE(‡)). Our results provide a foundation for exploiting electrostatic control of selectivity in other ion paired systems.
View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.6b11971
View details for Web of Science ID 000397477700021
View details for PubMedID 28225605
- Molecular catalysis at polarized interfaces created by ferroelectric BaTiO3 CHEMICAL SCIENCE 2017; 8 (4): 2790-2794
Editorial overview: Seeds for a bioenergy future.
Current opinion in chemical biology
2017; 41: A1–A2
View details for PubMedID 29223285
A Direct Grain-Boundary-Activity Correlation for CO Electroreduction on Cu Nanoparticles.
ACS central science
2016; 2 (3): 169-174
Copper catalyzes the electrochemical reduction of CO to valuable C2+ products including ethanol, acetate, propanol, and ethylene. These reactions could be very useful for converting renewable energy into fuels and chemicals, but conventional Cu electrodes are energetically inefficient and have poor selectivity for CO vs H2O reduction. Efforts to design improved catalysts have been impeded by the lack of experimentally validated, quantitative structure-activity relationships. Here we show that CO reduction activity is directly correlated to the density of grain boundaries (GBs) in Cu nanoparticles (NPs). We prepared electrodes of Cu NPs on carbon nanotubes (Cu/CNT) with different average GB densities quantified by transmission electron microscopy. At potentials ranging from -0.3 V to -0.5 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode, the specific activity for CO reduction to ethanol and acetate was linearly proportional to the fraction of NP surfaces comprised of GB surface terminations. Our results provide a design principle for CO reduction to ethanol and acetate on Cu. GB-rich Cu/CNT electrodes are the first NP catalysts with significant CO reduction activity at moderate overpotential, reaching a mass activity of up to ∼1.5 A per gram of Cu and a Faradaic efficiency >70% at -0.3 V.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00022
View details for PubMedID 27163043
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4827560
Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C-H carboxylation.
2016; 531 (7593): 215-219
Using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock for commodity synthesis is an attractive means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and a possible stepping-stone towards renewable synthetic fuels. A major impediment to synthesizing compounds from CO2 is the difficulty of forming carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds efficiently: although CO2 reacts readily with carbon-centred nucleophiles, generating these intermediates requires high-energy reagents (such as highly reducing metals or strong organic bases), carbon-heteroatom bonds or relatively acidic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds. These requirements negate the environmental benefit of using CO2 as a substrate and limit the chemistry to low-volume targets. Here we show that intermediate-temperature (200 to 350 degrees Celsius) molten salts containing caesium or potassium cations enable carbonate ions (CO3(2-)) to deprotonate very weakly acidic C-H bonds (pKa > 40), generating carbon-centred nucleophiles that react with CO2 to form carboxylates. To illustrate a potential application, we use C-H carboxylation followed by protonation to convert 2-furoic acid into furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA)--a highly desirable bio-based feedstock with numerous applications, including the synthesis of polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is a potential large-scale substitute for petroleum-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since 2-furoic acid can readily be made from lignocellulose, CO3(2-)-promoted C-H carboxylation thus reveals a way to transform inedible biomass and CO2 into a valuable feedstock chemical. Our results provide a new strategy for using CO2 in the synthesis of multi-carbon compounds.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature17185
View details for PubMedID 26961655
Probing the Active Surface Sites for CO Reduction on Oxide-Derived Copper Electrocatalysts
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2015; 137 (31): 9808-9811
CO electroreduction activity on oxide-derived Cu (OD-Cu) was found to correlate with metastable surface features that bind CO strongly. OD-Cu electrodes prepared by H2 reduction of Cu2O precursors reduce CO to acetate and ethanol with nearly 50% Faradaic efficiency at moderate overpotential. Temperature-programmed desorption of CO on OD-Cu revealed the presence of surface sites with strong CO binding that are distinct from the terraces and stepped sites found on polycrystalline Cu foil. After annealing at 350 °C, the surface-area corrected current density for CO reduction is 44-fold lower and the Faradaic efficiency is less than 5%. These changes are accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of strong CO binding sites. We propose that the active sites for CO reduction on OD-Cu surfaces are strong CO binding sites that are supported by grain boundaries. Uncovering these sites is a first step toward understanding the surface chemistry necessary for efficient CO electroreduction.
View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.5b06227
View details for Web of Science ID 000359613300013
View details for PubMedID 26196863
Pd-catalyzed electrohydrogenation of carbon dioxide to formate: high mass activity at low overpotential and identification of the deactivation pathway.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
2015; 137 (14): 4701-4708
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formate (HCO2(-)) powered by renewable electricity is a possible carbon-negative alternative to synthesizing formate from fossil fuels. This process is energetically inefficient because >1 V of overpotential is required for CO2 reduction to HCO2(-) on the metals currently used as cathodic catalysts. Pd reduces CO2 to HCO2(-) with no overpotential, but this activity has previously been limited to low synthesis rates and plagued by an unidentified deactivation pathway. Here we show that Pd nanoparticles dispersed on a carbon support reach high mass activities (50-80 mA HCO2(-) synthesis per mg Pd) when driven by less than 200 mV of overpotential in aqueous bicarbonate solutions. Electrokinetic measurements are consistent with a mechanism in which the rate-determining step is the addition of electrochemically generated surface adsorbed hydrogen to CO2 (i.e., electrohydrogenation). The electrodes deactivate over the course of several hours because of a minor pathway that forms CO. Activity is recovered, however, by removing CO with brief air exposure.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja511890h
View details for PubMedID 25812119
Grain-Boundary-Dependent CO2 Electroreduction Activity.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
2015; 137 (14): 4606-4609
Uncovering new structure-activity relationships for metal nanoparticle (NP) electrocatalysts is crucial for advancing many energy conversion technologies. Grain boundaries (GBs) could be used to stabilize unique active surfaces, but a quantitative correlation between GBs and catalytic activity has not been established. Here we use vapor deposition to prepare Au NPs on carbon nanotubes (Au/CNT). As deposited, the Au NPs have a relatively high density of GBs that are readily imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); thermal annealing lowers the density in a controlled manner. We show that the surface-area-normalized activity for CO2 reduction is linearly correlated with GB surface density on Au/CNT, demonstrating that GB engineering is a powerful approach to improving the catalytic activity of metal NPs.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja5130513
View details for PubMedID 25835085
- Controlling H+ vs CO2 Reduction Selectivity on Pb Electrodes ACS CATALYSIS 2015; 5 (1): 465-469
Correction: Electrostatic control of regioselectivity via ion pairing in a Au(i)-catalyzed rearrangement.
2015; 6 (5): 3268
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1039/C4SC02058H.].
View details for PubMedID 30124683
Alkaline O2 reduction on oxide-derived Au: high activity and 4e¯ selectivity without (100) facets.
Physical chemistry chemical physics
2014; 16 (27): 13601-13604
Gold films produced from gold oxide precursors ("oxide-derived Au") were compared to polyhedral Au nanoparticles for electrocatalytic alkaline O2 reduction. Despite having no detectable abundance of (100) facets, oxide-derived Au exhibited 4e(-) selectivity and surface-area-normalized activity that rivaled cubic Au nanoparticles with high (100) abundance. The activity of oxide-derived Au likely arises from active sites at the surface terminations of defects that are trapped during gold oxide reduction.
View details for DOI 10.1039/c4cp01337a
View details for PubMedID 24849198
Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper
2014; 508 (7497): 504-?
The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H(+) source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O ('oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature13249
View details for Web of Science ID 000334741600032
View details for PubMedID 24717429
- Alkaline O-2 reduction on oxide-derived Au: high activity and 4e(-) selectivity without (100) facets PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS 2014; 16 (27): 13601-13604
- Electrostatic control of regioselectivity via ion pairing in a Au(I)-catalyzed rearrangement CHEMICAL SCIENCE 2014; 5 (12): 4975-4979
Interfacial electric field effects on a carbene reaction catalyzed by rh porphyrins.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
2013; 135 (30): 11257-11265
An intramolecular reaction catalyzed by Rh porphyrins was studied in the presence of interfacial electric fields. 1-Diazo-3,3-dimethyl-5-phenylhex-5-en-2-one (2) reacts with Rh porphyrins via a putative carbenoid intermediate to form cyclopropanation product 3,3-dimethyl-5-phenylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-one (3) and insertion product 3,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4(1H)-one (4). To study this reaction in the presence of an interfacial electric field, Si electrodes coated with thin films of insulating dielectric layers were used as the opposing walls of a reaction vessel, and Rh porphyrin catalysts were localized to the dielectric-electrolyte interface. The charge density was varied at the interface by changing the voltage across the two electrodes. The product ratio was analyzed as a function of the applied voltage and the surface chemistry of the dielectric layer. In the absence of an applied voltage, the ratio of 3:4 was approximately 10:1. With a TiO2 surface, application of a voltage induced a Rh porphyrin-TiO2 interaction that resulted in an increase in the 3:4 ratio to a maximum in which 4 was nearly completely suppressed (>100:1). With an Al2O3 surface or an alkylphosphonate-coated surface, the voltage caused a decrease in the 3:4 ratio, with a maximum effect of lowering the ratio to 1:2. The voltage-induced decrease in the 3:4 ratio in the absence of TiO2 was consistent with a field-dipole effect that changed the difference in activation energies for the product-determining step to favor product 4. Effects were observed for porphyrin catalysts localized to the electrode-electrolyte interface either through covalent attachment or surface adsorption, enabling the selectivity to be controlled with unfunctionalized Rh porphyrins. The magnitude of the selectivity change was limited by the maximum interfacial charge density that could be attained before dielectric breakdown.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja404394z
View details for PubMedID 23837635
Aqueous CO2 Reduction at Very Low Overpotential on Oxide-Derived Au Nanoparticles
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2012; 134 (49): 19969-19972
Carbon dioxide reduction is an essential component of many prospective technologies for the renewable synthesis of carbon-containing fuels. Known catalysts for this reaction generally suffer from low energetic efficiency, poor product selectivity, and rapid deactivation. We show that the reduction of thick Au oxide films results in the formation of Au nanoparticles ("oxide-derived Au") that exhibit highly selective CO(2) reduction to CO in water at overpotentials as low as 140 mV and retain their activity for at least 8 h. Under identical conditions, polycrystalline Au electrodes and several other nanostructured Au electrodes prepared via alternative methods require at least 200 mV of additional overpotential to attain comparable CO(2) reduction activity and rapidly lose their activity. Electrokinetic studies indicate that the improved catalysis is linked to dramatically increased stabilization of the CO(2)(•-) intermediate on the surfaces of the oxide-derived Au electrodes.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja309317u
View details for Web of Science ID 000312351000005
View details for PubMedID 23171134
CO2 Reduction at Low Overpotential on Cu Electrodes Resulting from the Reduction of Thick Cu2O Films
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2012; 134 (17): 7231-7234
Modified Cu electrodes were prepared by annealing Cu foil in air and electrochemically reducing the resulting Cu(2)O layers. The CO(2) reduction activities of these electrodes exhibited a strong dependence on the initial thickness of the Cu(2)O layer. Thin Cu(2)O layers formed by annealing at 130 °C resulted in electrodes whose activities were indistinguishable from those of polycrystalline Cu. In contrast, Cu(2)O layers formed at 500 °C that were ≥~3 μm thick resulted in electrodes that exhibited large roughness factors and required 0.5 V less overpotential than polycrystalline Cu to reduce CO(2) at a higher rate than H(2)O. The combination of these features resulted in CO(2) reduction geometric current densities >1 mA/cm(2) at overpotentials <0.4 V, a higher level of activity than all previously reported metal electrodes evaluated under comparable conditions. Moreover, the activity of the modified electrodes was stable over the course of several hours, whereas a polycrystalline Cu electrode exhibited deactivation within 1 h under identical conditions. The electrodes described here may be particularly useful for elucidating the structural properties of Cu that determine the distribution between CO(2) and H(2)O reduction and provide a promising lead for the development of practical catalysts for electrolytic fuel synthesis.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja3010978
View details for Web of Science ID 000303362900010
View details for PubMedID 22506621
Tin Oxide Dependence of the CO2 Reduction Efficiency on Tin Electrodes and Enhanced Activity for Tin/Tin Oxide Thin-Film Catalysts
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2012; 134 (4): 1986-1989
The importance of tin oxide (SnO(x)) to the efficiency of CO(2) reduction on Sn was evaluated by comparing the activity of Sn electrodes that had been subjected to different pre-electrolysis treatments. In aqueous NaHCO(3) solution saturated with CO(2), a Sn electrode with a native SnO(x) layer exhibited potential-dependent CO(2) reduction activity consistent with previously reported activity. In contrast, an electrode etched to expose fresh Sn(0) surface exhibited higher overall current densities but almost exclusive H(2) evolution over the entire 0.5 V range of potentials examined. Subsequently, a thin-film catalyst was prepared by simultaneous electrodeposition of Sn(0) and SnO(x) on a Ti electrode. This catalyst exhibited up to 8-fold higher partial current density and 4-fold higher faradaic efficiency for CO(2) reduction than a Sn electrode with a native SnO(x) layer. Our results implicate the participation of SnO(x) in the CO(2) reduction pathway on Sn electrodes and suggest that metal/metal oxide composite materials are promising catalysts for sustainable fuel synthesis.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja2108799
View details for Web of Science ID 000301084600024
View details for PubMedID 22239243
An Electric Field-Induced Change in the Selectivity of a Metal Oxide-Catalyzed Epoxide Rearrangement
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2012; 134 (1): 186-189
The rearrangement of cis-stilbene oxide catalyzed by Al(2)O(3) was studied in the presence of interfacial electric fields. Thin films of Al(2)O(3) deposited on Si electrodes were used as the opposing walls of a reaction vessel. Application of a voltage across the electrodes engendered electrochemical double layer formation at the Al(2)O(3)-solution interface. The aldehyde to ketone product ratio of the rearrangement was increased by up to a factor of 63 as the magnitude of the double layer charge density was increased. The results support a field-dipole effect on the selectivity of the catalytic reaction.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja210365j
View details for Web of Science ID 000301084200049
View details for PubMedID 22191979