Bio


Professor Meagan Mauter holds bachelors degrees in Civil & Environmental Engineering and History from Rice University, a Masters of Environmental Engineering from Rice University, and a PhD in Chemical and Environmental Engineering from Yale University. She completed post-doctoral training in the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and the Mossavar Rahmani Center for Business and Government at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, where she was an Energy Technology Innovation Policy Fellow.

At Stanford University, Professor Mauter is appointed as an Associate Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering and as a Center Fellow, by courtesy, in the Woods Institute for the Environment. She directs the Water and Energy Efficiency for the Environment Lab (WE3Lab) with the mission of providing sustainable water supply in a carbon-constrained world through innovation in water treatment technology, optimization of water management practices, and redesign of water policies. Ongoing research efforts include: 1) developing automated, precise, robust, intensified, modular, and electrified (A-PRIME) water desalination technologies to support a circular water economy, 2) addressing the water constraints to deep decarbonization by quantifying the water requirements of energy systems and developing new technologies for high salinity brine treatment, 3) supporting design and enforcement of California agricultural water policy.

Mauter also serves as the research director for the National Alliance for Water Innovation, a $100-million DOE Energy-Water Desalination Hub (pending appropriations) to address water security issues in the United States. The Hub targets early-stage research and development of energy-efficient and cost-competitive technologies for desalinating non-traditional source waters.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Research Director, National Alliance for Water Innovation (2018 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Outstanding Reviewer, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology (2018)
  • Awardee, James J. Morgan Environmental Science & Technology Early Career Award Lectureship (2017)
  • Co-Organizer and Participant, German American Frontierse of Engineering Symposium (2017)
  • Participant, Arab-American Frontiers of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (2017)
  • Recipient, Dean of Engineering Early Career Fellow (2017)
  • Participant and Speaker, US-EU Frontiers of Engineering Symposium (2016)
  • Recipient, NSF CAREER Award, Environmental Engineering (2016)
  • Recipient, ASCE ExCEEd Teaching Fellowship Award (2016)
  • Recipient, George Tallman Ladd Research Award (2016)
  • Recipient, North American Membrane Society (NAMS) Young Membrane Scientist Award (2015)
  • Participant, National Academy of Engineering, Frontiers of Engineering Symposium (2012)
  • Recipient, AWWA Academic Achieve Award, 1st Place Doctoral Dissertation (2012)
  • Recipient with Honorable Mention, AEESP Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award (2012)
  • Fellow, NSF Science Engineering and Education for Sustainability (SEES) (2011-2012)
  • Recipient, AWWA Abel Wolman Fellowship (2009-2011)
  • Recipient, NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (2006-2009)
  • Recipient, US EPA GRO Fellowship (2004-2006)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Editorial Advisory Board, Environmental Science & Technology Letters (2020 - Present)
  • Editorial Advisory Board, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering (2018 - Present)
  • Co-Chair, North American Membrane Society Annual Meeting (2017 - 2019)
  • Advisory Board Member, Advanced Sustainable Systems (2016 - Present)
  • Editor, Sustainable Production and Consumption (2016 - Present)
  • Early Career Advisory Board Member, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering (2016 - 2018)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Yale University, Chemical and Environmental Engineering (2011)
  • MS and M. Phil, Yale University, Chemical and Environmental Engineering (2007)
  • MEE, Rice University, Environmental Engineering (2006)
  • BS, Rice University, Civil & Environmental Engineering (2006)
  • BA, Rice University, History (2006)

Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Optimization Framework to Assess the Demand Response Capacity of a Water Distribution System JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Liu, Y., Barrows, C., Macknick, J., Mauter, M. 2020; 146 (8)
  • Assessing the demand response capacity of US drinking water treatment plants APPLIED ENERGY Liu, Y., Mauter, M. S. 2020; 267
  • Environmentally significant shifts in trace element emissions from coal plants complying with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments ENERGY POLICY Gingerich, D. B., Zhao, Y., Mauter, M. S. 2019; 132: 1206–15
  • Computational framework for modeling membrane processes without process and solution property simplifications JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE Bartholomew, T. V., Mauter, M. S. 2019; 573: 682–93
  • The role of nanotechnology in tackling global water challenges NATURE SUSTAINABILITY Mauter, M. S., Zucker, I., Perreault, F., Werber, J. R., Kim, J., Elimelech, M. 2018; 1 (4): 166–75
  • Economic and policy drivers of agricultural water desalination in California's central valley AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT Welle, P. D., Medellin-Azuara, J., Viers, J. H., Mauter, M. S. 2017; 194: 192–203
  • Osmotically assisted reverse osmosis for high salinity brine treatment DESALINATION Bartholomew, T. V., Mey, L., Arena, J. T., Siefert, N. S., Mauter, M. S. 2017; 421: 3–11
  • Air Emissions Damages from Municipal Drinking Water Treatment Under Current and Proposed Regulatory Standards ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Gingerich, D. B., Mauter, M. S. 2017; 51 (18): 10299–306

    Abstract

    Water treatment processes present intersectoral and cross-media risk trade-offs that are not presently considered in Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory analyses. This paper develops a method for assessing the air emission implications of common municipal water treatment processes used to comply with recently promulgated and proposed regulatory standards, including concentration limits for, lead and copper, disinfection byproducts, chromium(VI), strontium, and PFOA/PFOS. Life-cycle models of electricity and chemical consumption for individual drinking water unit processes are used to estimate embedded NOx, SO2, PM2.5, and CO2 emissions on a cubic meter basis. We estimate air emission damages from currently installed treatment processes at U.S. drinking water facilities to be on the order of $500 million USD annually. Fully complying with six promulgated and proposed rules would increase baseline air emission damages by approximately 50%, with three-quarters of these damages originating from chemical manufacturing. Despite the magnitude of these air emission damages, the net benefit of currently implemented rules remains positive. For some proposed rules, however, the promise of net benefits remains contingent on technology choice.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.7b03461

    View details for Web of Science ID 000411549800005

    View details for PubMedID 28835098

  • High-resolution model for estimating the economic and policy implications of agricultural soil salinization in California ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Welle, P. D., Mauter, M. S. 2017; 12 (9)
  • Management and dewatering of brines extracted from geologic carbon storage sites INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL Arena, J. T., Jain, J. C., Lopano, C. L., Hakala, J., Bartholomew, T. V., Mauter, M. S., Siefert, N. S. 2017; 63: 194–214
  • Spatially resolved air-water emissions tradeoffs improve regulatory impact analyses for electricity generation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Gingerich, D. B., Sun, X., Behrer, A., Azevedo, I. L., Mauter, M. S. 2017; 114 (8): 1862–67

    Abstract

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) generate air, water, and solids emissions that impose substantial human health, environmental, and climate change (HEC) damages. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for cross-media emissions tradeoffs, plant and regional emissions factors, and spatially variation in the marginal damages of air emissions when performing regulatory impact analyses for electric power generation. As a case study, we assess the benefits and costs of treating wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at US CFPPs using the two best available treatment technology options specified in the 2015 Effluent Limitation Guidelines (ELGs). We perform a life-cycle inventory of electricity and chemical inputs to FGD wastewater treatment processes and quantify the marginal HEC damages of associated air emissions. We combine these spatially resolved damage estimates with Environmental Protection Agency estimates of water quality benefits, fuel-switching benefits, and regulatory compliance costs. We estimate that the ELGs will impose average net costs of $3.01 per cubic meter for chemical precipitation and biological wastewater treatment and $11.26 per cubic meter for zero-liquid discharge wastewater treatment (expected cost-benefit ratios of 1.8 and 1.7, respectively), with damages concentrated in regions containing a high fraction of coal generation or a large chemical manufacturing industry. Findings of net cost for FGD wastewater treatment are robust to uncertainty in auxiliary power source, location of chemical manufacturing, and binding air emissions limits in noncompliant regions, among other variables. Future regulatory design will minimize compliance costs and HEC tradeoffs by regulating air, water, and solids emissions simultaneously and performing regulatory assessments that account for spatial variation in emissions impacts.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1524396114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000395099500058

    View details for PubMedID 28167772

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5338367

  • Magnetically Directed Two-Dimensional Crystallization of OmpF Membrane Proteins in Block Copolymers JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Klara, S. S., Saboe, P. O., Sines, I. T., Babaei, M., Chiu, P., DeZorzi, R., Dayal, K., Walz, T., Kumar, M., Mauter, M. S. 2016; 138 (1): 28–31

    Abstract

    Two-dimensional (2D) alignment and crystallization of membrane proteins (MPs) is increasingly important in characterizing their three-dimensional (3D) structure, in designing pharmacological agents, and in leveraging MPs for biomimetic devices. Large, highly ordered MP 2D crystals in block copolymer (BCP) matrices are challenging to fabricate, but a facile and scalable technique for aligning and crystallizing MPs in thin-film geometries would rapidly translate into applications. This work introduces a novel method to grow larger and potentially better ordered 2D crystals by performing the crystallization process in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach using a β-barrel MP, outer membrane protein F (OmpF), in short-chain polybutadiene-poly(ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) membranes. Crystals grown in a magnetic field were up to 5 times larger than conventionally grown crystals, and a signal-to-noise (SNR) analysis of diffraction peaks in Fourier transforms of specimens imaged by negative-stain electron microscopy (EM) and cryo-EM showed twice as many high-SNR diffraction peaks, indicating that the magnetic field also improves crystal order.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.5b03320

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368323100003

    View details for PubMedID 26677866

  • Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Composition and Implications for Regulatory and Treatment Train Design. Environmental science & technology Gingerich, D. B., Mauter, M. S. 2020

    Abstract

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently revising its regulations on trace element discharges from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. In this work, we expand a predictive model of trace element behavior at coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) to estimate the trace element concentration of FGD wastewater at the plant level. We demonstrate that variation in trace element concentrations in FGD wastewater can span several orders of magnitude and is a function of both coal rank and installed air pollution control devices. This conclusion suggests that the benefits and costs of FGD wastewater treatment for the median plant will poorly describe the actual benefits and costs over the full range of existing CFPPs. Our model can be used to identify different "classes" of CFPPs for future regulatory and technology development efforts and to evaluate the robustness of proposed treatment technologies in light of large intraplant variability. The model can also elucidate new compliance pathways that exploit empirical and mechanistic relationships between coal concentration, trace element partitioning, and FGD wastewater composition.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.9b07433

    View details for PubMedID 32146805

  • Impact of module design on heat transfer in membrane distillation JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE Dudchenko, A. V., Hardikar, M., Xin, R., Joshi, S., Wang, R., Sharma, N., Mauter, M. S. 2020; 601
  • Bacterial biofilm formation on ion exchange membranes JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE Herzberg, M., Pandit, S., Mauter, M. S., Oren, Y. 2020; 596
  • Magnetic Field-Induced Alignment of Nanofibrous Supramolecular Membranes: A Molecular Design Approach to Create Tissue-like Biomaterials. ACS applied materials & interfaces Radvar, E., Shi, Y., Grasso, S., Edwards-Gayle, C. J., Liu, X., Mauter, M. S., Castelletto, V., Hamley, I. W., Reece, M. J., S Azevedo, H. 2020

    Abstract

    A molecular design approach to fabricate nanofibrous membranes by self-assembly of aromatic cationic peptides with hyaluronic acid (HA) and nanofiber alignment under a magnetic field is reported. Peptides are designed to contain a block composed of four phenylalanine residues at the C-terminus, to drive their self-assembly by hydrophobic association and aromatic stacking, and have a positively charged domain of lysine residues for electrostatic interaction with HA. These two blocks are connected by a linker with a variable number of amino acids and the ability to adopt distinct conformations. Zeta potential measurements and circular dichroism confirm their positive charge and variable conformation (random coil, β-sheet, or α-helix), which depend on the pH and sequence. Their self-assembly, examined by fluorescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy, show the formation of fiberlike nanostructures in the micromolar range. When the peptides are combined with HA, hydrogels or flat membranes are formed. The molecular structure tunes the mechanical behavior of the membranes and the nanofibers align in the direction of magnetic field due to the high diamagnetic anisotropy of phenylalanine residues. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured on magnetically aligned membranes elongate in direction of the nanofibers supporting their application for soft tissue engineering.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsami.0c05191

    View details for PubMedID 32283011

  • Understanding and mitigating performance decline in electrochemical deionization CURRENT OPINION IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Liu, X., Shanbhag, S., Mauter, M. S. 2019; 25: 67–74
  • Managing high salinity brines from geological carbon sequestration Mauter, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2019
  • Trace Element Mass Flow Rates from US Coal Fired Power Plants ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Sun, X., Gingerich, D. B., Azevedo, I. L., Mauter, M. S. 2019; 53 (10): 5585–95

    Abstract

    Trace elements (TEs) exit coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) via solid, liquid, and gaseous waste streams. Estimating the TE concentrations of these waste streams is essential to selecting pollution controls and estimating emission reduction benefits. This work introduces a generalizable mass balance model for estimating TE mass flow rates in CFPP waste streams and evaluates model accuracy for the U.S. coal fleet given current data constraints. We stochastically estimate, using a bootstrapping approach, the 2015 plant-level mass flow rates of Hg, Se, As, and Cl to solid, liquid, and gas phase waste streams by combining publicly available data for combusted coal TE concentrations with estimates of TE partitioning within installed air pollution control processes. When compared with measured and reported data on TE mass flow rates, this model generally overestimates masses by 30-50%, with larger errors for Hg. The partitioning estimates are consistent for Se, As, and Cl removal from flue gas, but tend to underestimate Hg removal. While our model is suitable for first-order estimates of TE mass flows, future work to improve model performance should focus on collecting and using new data on TE concentrations in the coal blend, where data quality is the weakest.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.9b01039

    View details for Web of Science ID 000469288100008

    View details for PubMedID 31074623

  • Zwitterionic copolymer additive architecture affects membrane performance: fouling resistance and surface rearrangement in saline solutions JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Kaner, P., Dudchenko, A. V., Mauter, M. S., Asatekin, A. 2019; 7 (9): 4829–46

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c8ta11553b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000460687400056

  • Mechanisms of Humic Acid Fouling on Capacitive and Insertion Electrodes for Electrochemical Desalination ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Liu, X., Whitacre, J. F., Mauter, M. S. 2018; 52 (21): 12633–41

    Abstract

    Though electrochemical deionization technologies have been widely explored for brackish water desalination and selective ion removal, their sustained performance in the presence of foulants common to environmental waters remains unclear. This study investigates the fundamental mechanisms by which carbonaceous electrodes used in capacitive deionization and insertion electrodes used for high-capacity selective ion removal are affected by the presence of humic acid (HA). We evaluate HA adsorption behavior and the resulting impact on the ion storage capacity and cycling stability of the electrode materials. We find that HA is primarily adsorbed to the mesopores of two carbonaceous electrodes with distinctly different pore structures, but that the ion storage and transport properties of the electrodes are not significantly impacted by HA adsorption. In contrast, HA adsorption resulted in sharp capacity decay for the insertion (Na4Mn9O18) electrode. We attribute this decay to both hindered Na+ ion diffusion to the insertion interface in the presence of adsorbed HA, as well as HA mediated electrode dissolution. These findings highlight the contrasting mechanisms for HA fouling of capacitive and insertion electrodes and suggest that insertion electrodes may be more susceptible to performance decline in electrochemical deionization of environmental waters.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.8b03261

    View details for Web of Science ID 000449722200068

    View details for PubMedID 30240196

  • Cost Optimization of Osmotically Assisted Reverse Osmosis ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Bartholomew, T., Siefert, N. S., Mauter, M. S. 2018; 52 (20): 11813–21

    Abstract

    We develop a nonlinear optimization model to identify minimum cost designs for osmotically assisted reverse osmosis (OARO), a multistaged membrane-based process for desalinating high-salinity brines. The optimization model enables comprehensive evaluation of a complex process configuration and operational decision space that includes nonlinear process performance and implicit relationships among membrane stages, saline sweep cycles, and makeup, purge, and recycle streams. The objective function minimizes cost, rather than energy or capital expenditures, to accurately account for the trade-offs in capital and operational expenses inherent in multistaged membrane processes. Generally, we find that cost-optimal OARO processes minimize the number of stages, eliminate the use of saline makeup streams, purge from the first sweep cycle, and successively decrease stage membrane area and sweep flow rates. The optimal OARO configuration for treating feed salinities of 50-125 g/L total dissolved solids with water recoveries between 30-70% results in costs less than or equal to $6 per m3 of product water. Sensitivity analysis suggests that future research to minimize OARO costs should focus on minimizing the membrane structural parameter while maximizing the membrane burst pressure and reducing the membrane unit cost.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.8b02771

    View details for Web of Science ID 000447816100040

    View details for PubMedID 30226376

  • Fundamental challenges and engineering opportunities in flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment at coal fired power plants ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY Gingerich, D. B., Grol, E., Mauter, M. S. 2018; 4 (7): 909–25

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c8ew00264a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000436569400002

  • Outstanding Reviewers for Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology in 2017 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY Bagley, D., Chung, N., He, Z., Julian, T., Lee, Y., Mauter, M., Nghiem, L., Rodrigues, D., Wammer, K., Ward, B., Zhang, Q. 2018; 4 (6): 760

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c8ew90014k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000434312500001

  • ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Virtual Special Issue on Systems Analysis, Design, and Optimization for Sustainability ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING Cabezas, H., Mauter, M. S., Shonnard, D., You, F. 2018; 6 (6): 7199
  • Air Emission Reduction Benefits of Biogas Electricity Generation at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Gingerich, D. B., Mauter, M. S. 2018; 52 (3): 1633–43

    Abstract

    Conventional processes for municipal wastewater treatment facilities are energy and materially intensive. This work quantifies the air emission implications of energy consumption, chemical use, and direct pollutant release at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the U.S. and assesses the potential to avoid these damages by generating electricity and heat from the combustion of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion. We find that embedded and on-site air emissions from municipal wastewater treatment imposed human health, environmental, and climate (HEC) damages on the order of $1.63 billion USD in 2012, with 85% of these damages attributed to the estimated consumption of 19 500 GWh of electricity by treatment processes annually, or 0.53% of the US electricity demand. An additional 11.8 million tons of biogenic CO2 are directly emitted by wastewater treatment and sludge digestion processes currently installed at plants. Retrofitting existing wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic sludge digestion for biogas production and biogas-fueled heat and electricity generation has the potential to reduce HEC damages by up to 24.9% relative to baseline emissions. Retrofitting only large plants (>5 MGD), where biogas generation is more likely to be economically viable, would generate HEC benefits of $254 annually. These findings reinforce the importance of accounting for use-phase embedded air emissions and spatially resolved marginal damage estimates when designing sustainable infrastructure systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.7b04649

    View details for Web of Science ID 000424851700078

    View details for PubMedID 29090572

  • Technoeconomic Optimization of Emerging Technologies for Regulatory Analysis ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING Gingerich, D. B., Bartholomew, T. V., Mauter, M. S. 2018; 6 (2): 2370–78
  • Retrofitting the Regulated Power Plant: Optimizing Energy Allocation to Electricity Generation, Water Treatment, and Carbon Capture Processes at Coal-Fired Generating Facilities ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING Gingerichi, D. B., Mauter, M. S. 2018; 6 (2): 2694–2703
  • Characterizing convective heat transfer coefficients in membrane distillation cassettes JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE Leitch, M. E., Lowry, G. V., Mauter, M. S. 2017; 538: 108–21
  • Influence of Electric Fields on Biofouling of Carbonaceous Electrodes ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Pandit, S., Shanbhag, S., Mauter, M., Oren, Y., Herzberg, M. 2017; 51 (17): 10022–30

    Abstract

    Biofouling commonly occurs on carbonaceous capacitive deionization electrodes in the process of treating natural waters. Although previous work reported the effect of electric fields on bacterial mortality for a variety of medical and engineered applications, the effect of electrode surface properties and the magnitude and polarity of applied electric fields on biofilm development has not been comprehensively investigated. This paper studies the formation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on a Papyex graphite (PA) and a carbon aerogel (CA) in the presence and the absence of an electric field. The experiments were conducted using a two-electrode flow cell with a voltage window of ±0.9 V. The CA was less susceptible to biofilm formation compared to the PA due to its lower surface roughness, lower hydrophobicity, and significant antimicrobial properties. For both positive and negative applied potentials, we observed an inverse relationship between biofilm formation and the magnitude of the applied potential. The effect is particularly strong for the CA electrodes and may be a result of cumulative effects between material toxicity and the stress experienced by cells at high applied potentials. Under the applied potentials for both electrodes, high production of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was indicative of bacterial stress. For both electrodes, the elevated specific ROS activity was lowest for the open circuit potential condition, elevated when cathodically and anodically polarized, and highest for the ±0.9 V cases. These high applied potentials are believed to affect the redox potential across the cell membrane and disrupt redox homeostasis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.6b06339

    View details for Web of Science ID 000410255800065

    View details for PubMedID 28741939

  • Computing the Diamagnetic Susceptibility and Diamagnetic Anisotropy of Membrane Proteins from Structural Subunits JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL THEORY AND COMPUTATION Babaei, M., Jones, I. C., Dayal, K., Mauter, M. S. 2017; 13 (6): 2945–53

    Abstract

    The behavior of large, complex molecules in the presence of magnetic fields is experimentally challenging to measure and computationally intensive to predict. This work proposes a novel, mixed-methods approach for efficiently computing the principal magnetic susceptibilities and diamagnetic anisotropy of membrane proteins. The hierarchical primary (amino acid), secondary (α helical and β sheet), and tertiary (α helix and β barrel) structure of transmembrane proteins enables analysis of a complex molecule using discrete subunits of varying size and resolution. The proposed method converts the magnetic susceptibility tensor for all protein subunits to a unit coordinate system and sums them to build the magnetic susceptibility tensor for the membrane protein. Using this approach, we calculate the diamagnetic anisotropy for all transmembrane proteins of known structure and investigate the effect of different subunit resolutions on the resulting predictions of diamagnetic anisotropy. We demonstrate that amino acid residues with aromatic side groups exhibit higher diamagnetic anisotropies. On average, high percentages of aromatic amino acid subunits, a β barrel tertiary structure, and a small volume are correlated with high volumetric diamagnetic anisotropy. Finally, we demonstrate that accounting for the spatial position of the residues with respect to one another is critical to accurately computing the magnetic properties of the complex protein molecule.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jctc.6b01251

    View details for Web of Science ID 000403530100052

    View details for PubMedID 28418668

  • Allocating Damage Compensation in a Federalist System: Lessons from Spatially Resolved Air Emissions in the Marcellus ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Behrer, A., Mauter, M. S. 2017; 51 (7): 3600–3608

    Abstract

    The benefits and impacts of unconventional natural gas development are realized at different spatial scales, calling into question the appropriate jurisdictional level at which to set and enforce environmental policy. This paper evaluates impact fee allocation under Pennsylvania Act 13, which authorizes Commonwealth payments to Pennsylvania counties to offset damages from unconventional natural gas extraction in exchange for consolidated state-level regulatory authority. We evaluate the adequacy of damage compensation allocation for impacts that are spatially and temporally removed from the well site, using the air emissions associated with natural gas wastewater transport as a case study. Wastewater transport from wells eligible for 2011 impact fee disbursement calculations generated an estimated $11.6 million in air emission damages from 2004 to 2013, with 35% of damages occurring out-of-state and an average of 94% of damages occurring out-of-county. We find that compensatory payments from Pennsylvania Act 13, which are based upon the number of wells drilled in a county in a single year, inadequately account for spatially and temporally distributed impacts from wastewater transport. This case study of Pennsylvania Act 13 highlights potential issues associated with central regulators using compensatory payments as a means of resolving jurisdictional conflict. In cases where the central regulator benefits from the polluting activity, we argue that there is incentive to focus compensation on local damages and undervalue regional and spatially distributed damages in compensation algorithms.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.6b04886

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398646500003

    View details for PubMedID 28257186

  • Working on environmental challenges as an engineer gone wrong Mauter, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2017
  • Accurately determining convective heat transfer coefficients in membrane distillation cassettes Mauter, M., Leitch, M., Lowry, G. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2017
  • Nanotechnology for sustainable food production: promising opportunities and scientific challenges ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-NANO Rodrigues, S. M., Demokritou, P., Dokoozlian, N., Hendren, C., Karn, B., Mauter, M. S., Sadik, O. A., Safarpour, M., Unrine, J. M., Viers, J., Welle, P., White, J. C., Wiesner, M. R., Lowry, G. V. 2017; 4 (4): 767–81

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c6en00573j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000399430500004

  • Air emission implications of expanded wastewater treatment at coal-fired generators Gingerich, D., Sun, X., Behrer, A., Azevedo, I., Mauter, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2016
  • Techno-economic assessment of desalination technology for application in agriculture Welle, P., Azuara, J., Viers, J., Mauter, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2016
  • Multi-objective optimization model for minimizing cost and environmental impact in shale gas water and wastewater management Bartholomew, T., Mauter, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2016
  • Relating charge efficiency and ion removal in electrochemical deionization systems Shanbhag, S., Whitacre, J., Mauter, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2016
  • Modeling convective and diffusive mass transport in capacitive deionization electrodes Iddya, A., Mauter, M., Shanbhag, S. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2016
  • Trace element allocation across air pollution control devices in coal fired power plants Sun, X., Gingerich, D., Azevedo, I., Mauter, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2016
  • Multiobjective Optimization Model for Minimizing Cost and Environmental Impact in Shale Gas Water and Wastewater Management ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING Bartholomew, T. V., Mauter, M. S. 2016; 4 (7): 3728–35
  • Surface Wetting Study via Pseudocontinuum Modeling JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Makaremi, M., Jhon, M. S., Mauter, M. S., Biegler, L. T. 2016; 120 (21): 11528–34
  • Bacterial Nanocellulose Aerogel Membranes: Novel High-Porosity Materials for Membrane Distillation ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Leitch, M. E., Li, C., Ikkala, O., Mauter, M. S., Lowry, G. V. 2016; 3 (3): 85–91
  • Influence of surface charge on the rate, extent, and structure of adsorbed Bovine Serum Albumin to gold electrodes JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE Beykal, B., Herzberg, M., Oren, Y., Mauter, M. S. 2015; 460: 321–28

    Abstract

    The objective of this work is to investigate the rate, extent, and structure of amphoteric proteins with charged solid surfaces over a range of applied potentials and surface charges. We use Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (E-QCM-D) to investigate the adsorption of amphoteric Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) to a gold electrode while systematically varying the surface charge on the adsorbate and adsorbent by manipulating pH and applied potential, respectively. We also perform cyclic voltammetry-E-QCM-D on an adsorbed layer of BSA to elucidate conformational changes in response to varied applied potentials. We confirm previous results demonstrating that increasing magnitude of applied potential on the gold electrode is positively correlated with increasing mass adsorption when the protein and the surface are oppositely charged. On the other hand, we find that the rate of BSA adsorption is not governed by simple electrostatics, but instead depends on solution pH, an observation not well documented in the literature. Cyclic voltammetry with simultaneous E-QCM-D measurements suggest that BSA protein undergoes a conformational change as the surface potential varies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcis.2015.08.055

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363077800038

    View details for PubMedID 26348658

  • Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Gingerich, D. B., Mauter, M. S. 2015; 49 (14): 8297–8306

    Abstract

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5060989

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358557900005

    View details for PubMedID 26061407

  • Crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) containing siloxanes fabricated through thiol-ene photochemistry JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART A-POLYMER CHEMISTRY Kusuma, V. A., Roth, E. A., Clafshenkel, W. P., Klara, S. S., Zhou, X., Venna, S. R., Albenze, E., Luebke, D. R., Mauter, M. S., Koepsel, R. R., Russell, A. J., Hopkinson, D., Nulwala, H. B. 2015; 53 (13): 1548–57

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pola.27594

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354727800003

  • Water Treatment Capacity of Forward-Osmosis Systems Utilizing Power-Plant Waste Heat INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH Zhou, X., Gingerich, D. B., Mauter, M. S. 2015; 54 (24): 6378–89
  • Investment optimization model for freshwater acquisition and wastewater handling in shale gas production AICHE JOURNAL Yang, L., Grossmann, I. E., Mauter, M. S., Dilmore, R. M. 2015; 61 (6): 1770–82

    View details for DOI 10.1002/aic.14804

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355141100001

  • Risks and risk governance in unconventional shale gas development. Environmental science & technology Small, M. J., Stern, P. C., Bomberg, E., Christopherson, S. M., Goldstein, B. D., Israel, A. L., Jackson, R. B., Krupnick, A., Mauter, M. S., Nash, J., North, D. W., Olmstead, S. M., Prakash, A., Rabe, B., Richardson, N., Tierney, S., Webler, T., Wong-Parodi, G., Zielinska, B. 2014; 48 (15): 8289-8297

    Abstract

    A broad assessment is provided of the current state of knowledge regarding the risks associated with shale gas development and their governance. For the principal domains of risk, we identify observed and potential hazards and promising mitigation options to address them, characterizing current knowledge and research needs. Important unresolved research questions are identified for each area of risk; however, certain domains exhibit especially acute deficits of knowledge and attention, including integrated studies of public health, ecosystems, air quality, socioeconomic impacts on communities, and climate change. For these, current research and analysis are insufficient to either confirm or preclude important impacts. The rapidly evolving landscape of shale gas governance in the U.S. is also assessed, noting challenges and opportunities associated with the current decentralized (state-focused) system of regulation. We briefly review emerging approaches to shale gas governance in other nations, and consider new governance initiatives and options in the U.S. involving voluntary industry certification, comprehensive development plans, financial instruments, and possible future federal roles. In order to encompass the multiple relevant disciplines, address the complexities of the evolving shale gas system and reduce the many key uncertainties needed for improved management, a coordinated multiagency federal research effort will need to be implemented.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es502111u

    View details for PubMedID 24983403

  • Regional Variation in Water-Related Impacts of Shale Gas Development and Implications for Emerging International Plays ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Mauter, M. S., Alvarez, P. J., Burton, A., Cafaro, D. C., Chen, W., Gregory, K. B., Jiang, G., Li, Q., Pittock, J., Reible, D., Schnoor, J. L. 2014; 48 (15): 8298–8306

    Abstract

    The unconventional fossil fuel industry is expected to expand dramatically in coming decades as conventional reserves wane. Minimizing the environmental impacts of this energy transition requires a contextualized understanding of the unique regional issues that shale gas development poses. This manuscript highlights the variation in regional water issues associated with shale gas development in the U.S. and the approaches of various states in mitigating these impacts. The manuscript also explores opportunities for emerging international shale plays to leverage the diverse experiences of U.S. states in formulating development strategies that minimize water-related impacts within their environmental, cultural, and political ecosystem.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es405432k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340080600003

    View details for PubMedID 24684515

  • Expert Elicitation of Trends in Marcellus Oil and Gas Wastewater Management JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Mauter, M. S., Palmer, V. R. 2014; 140 (5)
  • Emerging Pollutants - Part II: Treatment WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH Keen, O. S., Bell, K. Y., Cherchi, C., Finnegan, B. J., Mauter, M. S., Parker, A., Rosenblum, J. S., Stretz, H. A. 2014; 86 (10): 2036–96
  • Modular polymerized ionic liquid block copolymer membranes for CO2/N-2 separation JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Adzima, B. J., Venna, S. R., Klara, S. S., He, H., Zhong, M., Luebke, D. R., Mauter, M. S., Matyjaszewski, K., Nulwala, H. B. 2014; 2 (21): 7967–72

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4ta00661e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335924100046

  • Surface Cell Density Effects on Escherichia coli Gene Expression during Cell Attachment ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Mauter, M., Fait, A., Elimelech, M., Herzberg, M. 2013; 47 (12): 6223–30

    Abstract

    Escherichia coli attachment to a surface initiates a complex series of interconnected signaling and regulation pathways that promote biofilm formation and maturation. The present work investigates the effect of deposited cell density on E. coli cell physiology, metabolic activity, and gene expression in the initial stages of biofilm development. Deposited cell density is controlled by exploiting the relationship between ionic strength and bacterial attachment efficiency in a packed bed column. Distinct differences in cell transcriptome are analyzed by comparing sessile cultures at two different cell surface densities and differentiating ionic strength effects by analyzing planktonic cultures in parallel. Our results indicate that operons regulating trypotophan production and the galactitol phosphotransferase system (including dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthesis) are strongly affected by cell density on the surface. Additional transcriptome and metabolomic impacts of cell density on succinate, proline, and pyroglutamic acid systems are also reported. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that surface cell density plays a major role in sessile cell physiology, commencing with the first stage of biofilm formation. These findings improve our understanding of biofilm formation in natural and engineered environmental systems and will contribute to future work ranging from pathogen migration in the environment to control of biofouling on engineered surfaces.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es3047069

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320749000020

    View details for PubMedID 23692120

  • Emerging Pollutants - Part II: Treatment WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH Bell, K. Y., Bandy, J., Finnegan, B. J., Keen, O., Mauter, M. S., Parker, A., Sima, L. C., Stretz, H. A. 2013; 85 (10): 2022–71
  • Stable Sequestration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Self-Assembled Aqueous Nanopores JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Mauter, M. S., Elimelech, M., Osuji, C. O. 2012; 134 (9): 3950–53

    Abstract

    We demonstrate the ability to stably sequester individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) within self-contained nanometer-scale aqueous volumes arrayed in an organic continuum. Large areal densities of 4 × 10(9) cm(-2) are readily achieved. SWNTs are incorporated into a surfactant mesophase which forms 2.3 nm diameter water channels by lyotropic self-assembly. Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the SWNTs exist as well-dispersed tubes that are stable over several months and through multiple cycles of heating and cooling. Absence of physical distortion of the mesophase suggests that the SWNTs are stabilized by adsorbed surfactants that do not extend considerably from the surface. Our findings have important implications for templated assembly of carbon nanotubes using soft mesophases and the development of functional nanocomposites.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja209847u

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301550800005

    View details for PubMedID 22329579

  • New Perspectives on Nanomaterial Aquatic Ecotoxicity: Production Impacts Exceed Direct Exposure Impacts for Carbon Nanotoubes ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Eckelman, M. J., Mauter, M. S., Isaacs, J. A., Elimelech, M. 2012; 46 (5): 2902–10

    Abstract

    Environmental impacts due to engineered nanomaterials arise both from releases of the nanomaterials themselves as well as from their synthesis. In this work, we employ the USEtox model to quantify and compare aquatic ecotoxicity impacts over the life cycle of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). USEtox is an integrated multimedia fate, transport, and toxicity model covering large classes of organic and inorganic substances. This work evaluates the impacts of non-CNT emissions from three methods of synthesis (arc ablation, CVD, and HiPco), and compares these to the modeled ecotoxicity of CNTs released to the environment. Parameters for evaluating CNT ecotoxicity are bounded by a highly conservative "worst case" scenario and a "realistic" scenario that draws from existing literature on CNT fate, transport, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that the ecotoxicity impacts of nanomaterial production processes are roughly equivalent to the ecotoxicity of CNT releases under the unrealistic worst case scenario, while exceeding the results of the realistic scenario by 3 orders of magnitude. Ecotoxicity from production processes is dominated by emissions of metals from electricity generation. Uncertainty exists for both production and release stages, and is modeled using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and scenario analysis. The results of this analysis underscore the contributions of existing work on CNT fate and transport, as well as the importance of life cycle considerations in allocating time and resources toward research on mitigating the impacts of novel materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es203409a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301023700056

    View details for PubMedID 22296240

  • Antifouling Ultrafiltration Membranes via Post-Fabrication Grafting of Biocidal Nanomaterials ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Mauter, M. S., Wang, Y., Okemgbo, K. C., Osuji, C. O., Giannelis, E. P., Elimelech, M. 2011; 3 (8): 2861–68

    Abstract

    Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes perform critical pre-treatment functions in advanced water treatment processes. In operational systems, however, biofouling decreases membrane performance and increases the frequency and cost of chemical cleaning. The present work demonstrates a novel technique for covalently or ionically tethering antimicrobial nanoparticles to the surface of UF membranes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) encapsulated in positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) were reacted with an oxygen plasma modified polysulfone UF membrane with and without 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) present. The nucleophilic primary amines of the PEI react with the electrophilic carboxyl groups on the UF membrane surface to form electrostatic and covalent bonds. The irreversible modification process imparts significant antimicrobial activity to the membrane surface. Post-synthesis functionalization methods, such as the one presented here, maximize the density of nanomaterials at the membrane surface and may provide a more efficient route for fabricating diverse array of reactive nanocomposite membranes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/am200522v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294146900008

    View details for PubMedID 21736330

  • Nanocomposites of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Magnetic Alignment and Polymerization of a Lyotropic Precursor ACS NANO Mauter, M. S., Elimelech, M., Osuji, C. O. 2010; 4 (11): 6651–58

    Abstract

    We demonstrate a novel path for the fabrication of thin-film polymer nanocomposites containing vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Liquid crystal mesophases of hexagonally packed cylindrical micelles orient with their long axes parallel to an applied magnetic field and template the alignment of SWNTs sequestered in the micellar cores. The mesophase is a stable single-phase material containing monomers that can be polymerized after nanotube alignment to form the nanocomposite polymer. The space-pervasive nature of magnetic fields and the tunable physicochemical properties of multicomponent mesophases make this an attractive approach that can be leveraged for application in diverse nanocomposite systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn102047j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284438000041

    View details for PubMedID 20954699

  • Templated alignment of single-walled carbon nanotubes in polymer films Mauter, M. S., Elimelech, M., Osuji, C. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2010
  • Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite membranes for reduction of biofouling in water treatment Mauter, M. S., Elimelech, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2010
  • Microbial Cytotoxicity of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: Implications for River Water and Wastewater Effluent ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Kang, S., Mauter, M. S., Elimelech, M. 2009; 43 (7): 2648–53

    Abstract

    This study evaluates the cytotoxicity of four carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs)--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), aqueous phase C60 nanoparticles (aq-nC60), and colloidal graphite--in gram negative and gram positive bacteria. The potential impacts of CBNs on microorganisms in natural and engineered aquatic systems are also evaluated. SWNTs inactivate the highest percentage of cells in monocultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermis, as well as in the diverse microbial communities of river water and wastewater effluent. Bacterial cytotoxicity displays time dependence, with longer exposure times accentuating toxicity in monocultures with initial tolerance for SWNTs. In Bacillus subtilis, an additional 3.5 h of incubation produced a five fold increase in toxicity. Elevated concentration of NOM reduces the attachment of bacteria on SWNT aggregates by 50%, but does not mitigate toxicity toward attached cells. CBN toxicity in bacterial monocultures was a poor predictor of microbial inactivation in chemically and biologically complex environmental samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es8031506

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264759600081

    View details for PubMedID 19452930

  • Bacterial toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials: Implication for natural and engineered aquatic system Kang, S., Mauter, M. S., Elimelech, M. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2009
  • Physicochemical determinants of multiwalled carbon nanotube bacterial cytotoxicity ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Kang, S., Mauter, M. S., Elimelech, M. 2008; 42 (19): 7528–34

    Abstract

    Rational modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to isolate their specific physical and chemical properties will inform a mechanistic understanding of observed CNT toxicity in bacterial systems. The present study compares the toxicity of commercially obtained multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) before and after physicochemical modification via common purification and functionalization routes, including dry oxidation, acid treatment functionalization, and annealing. Experimental results support a correlation between bacterial cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties that enhance MWNT-cell contact opportunities. For example, we observe higher toxicity when the nanotubes are uncapped, debundled, short, and dispersed in solution. These conclusions demonstrate that physicochemical modifications of MWNTs alter their cytotoxicity in bacterial systems and underline the need for careful documentation of physical and chemical characteristics when reporting the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es8010173

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259603700080

    View details for PubMedID 18939597

  • Environmental applications of carbon-based nanomaterials ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Mauter, M. S., Elimelech, M. 2008; 42 (16): 5843–59

    Abstract

    The unique and tunable properties of carbon-based nanomaterials enable new technologies for identifying and addressing environmental challenges. This review critically assesses the contributions of carbon-based nanomaterials to a broad range of environmental applications: sorbents, high-flux membranes, depth filters, antimicrobial agents, environmental sensors, renewable energy technologies, and pollution prevention strategies. In linking technological advance back to the physical, chemical, and electronic properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, this article also outlines future opportunities for nanomaterial application in environmental systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es8006904

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258439600006

    View details for PubMedID 18767635