Dr. Adam is the Director of Health Media Innovation and a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Stanford School of Medicine. She creates video-based entertainment-education on topics related to maternal child health, nutrition and disease prevention. She has designed and produced online educational content for the Stanford School of Medicine for use in their preclinical programs, continuing medical education programs and global health promotion efforts. She is the creator of five massive open online courses and advisor for Stanford’s Digital Medical Education International Collaborative (Digital MEdIC) in South Africa. Adam is principal investigator on two randomized
controlled trials investigating the impact of digital global health education interventions on health-promoting behaviors. She is also a Faculty Fellow at the Center for Innovation in Global Health and the author of Food, Love, Family: A Practical Guide to Child Nutrition.
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pediatrics - Infectious Diseases
Director of Health Media Innovation, Stanford Medicine (2020 - Present)
Director, Health Education Outreach, Stanford Center for Health Education (2018 - 2020)
Faculty Lead, Digital MEdIC South Africa (2017 - 2020)
Founder, Just Cook for Kids (2013 - Present)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Faculty Fellow, Center for Innovation in Global Health (2020 - Present)
Community and International Work
Digital Medical Education International Collaborative, South Africa
Maternal Child Health Education
National Dept. of Health, South Africa, and UNICEF
Low- and middle-income mothers in South Africa
Opportunities for Student Involvement
Stanford Health Outreach App, South Africa
Community Health Promotion
Philani Maternal and Child Health Clinic
Women and children in under-resourced areas
Opportunities for Student Involvement
The Philani Mobile Video Intervention for Exclusive Breastfeeding (MOVIE) Study
This cluster-randomized controlled trial seeks to evaluate the impact of a mobile video intervention for exclusive breastfeeding (MOVIE) on the infant feeding practices of mothers living in under-resourced communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. The trial will compare infant feeding practices in two groups of participants, enrolled in the Philani Mentor-Mother Outreach Program, a home-visiting program focused on community-based health promotion through peer-to-peer counseling. The participants in the intervention arm will receive the Philani Intervention Model (PIM), a perinatal health promotion intervention, together with the additional mobile, video intervention for exclusive breastfeeding. The participants in the control arm will receive only the standard PIM. Participants will be exposed to either the intervention or the control condition during pregnancy and the first five months after delivery. The central hypothesis in this trial is that, when compared with the control group, infant feeding practices in the intervention group will be significantly better aligned with current World Health Organization recommendations, after exposure to the Philani MOVIE intervention. The primary outcomes in this study are short-term exclusive breastfeeding, in the first month of life, and long-term exclusive breastfeeding, in the fifth month of life, (based on maternal 24-hour recall). Secondary outcomes include other infant feeding practices, such as early initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding in the first month and in the fifth month of life, bottle-feeding, early introduction of complementary foods in the first month and in the fifth month of life and maternal knowledge in the first month and the fifth month post delivery.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.
Independent Studies (1)
- Undergraduate Directed Reading/Research
PEDS 199 (Aut)
- Undergraduate Directed Reading/Research
Prior Year Courses
- Iterative Adaptation of a Mobile Nutrition Video-Based Intervention Across Countries Using Human-Centered Design: Qualitative Study (vol 7, e13604, 2019) JMIR MHEALTH AND UHEALTH 2020; 8 (1)
- Design for extreme scalability: A wordless, globally scalable COVID-19 prevention animation for rapid public health communication. Journal of global health 2020; 10 (1): 010343
'If he sees it with his own eyes, he will understand': how gender informed the content and delivery of a maternal nutrition intervention in Burkina Faso.
Health policy and planning
A growing body of literature urges policymakers, practitioners and scientists to consider gender in the design and evaluation of health interventions. We report findings from formative research to develop and refine an mHealth maternal nutrition intervention in Nouna, Burkina Faso, one of the world's most resource-poor settings. Gender was not an initial research focus, but emerged as highly salient during data collection, and thus guided lines of inquiry as the study progressed. We collected data in two stages, first using focus group discussions (FGD; n = 8) and later using FGDs (n = 2), interviews (n = 30) and observations of intervention delivery (n = 30). Respondents included pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and Close-to-Community (CTC) providers, who execute preventative and curative tasks at the community level. We applied Morgan et al.'s gender framework to examine intervention content (what a gender-sensitive nutrition programme should entail) and delivery (how a gender-sensitive programme should be administered). Mothers emphasized that although they are often the focus of nutrition interventions, they are not empowered to make nutrition-based decisions that incur costs. They do, however, wield some control over nutrition-related tasks such as farming and cooking. Mothers described how difficult it is to consider only one's own children during meal preparation (which is communal), and all respondents described how nutrition-related requests can spark marital strife. Many respondents agreed that involving men in nutrition interventions is vital, despite men's perceived disinterest. CTC providers and others described how social norms and gender roles underpin perceptions of CTC providers and dictate with whom they can speak within homes. Mothers often prefer female CTC providers, but these health workers require spousal permission to work and need to balance professional and domestic demands. We recommend involving male partners in maternal nutrition interventions and engaging and supporting a broader cadre of female CTC providers in Burkina Faso.
View details for DOI 10.1093/heapol/czaa012
View details for PubMedID 32106288
- Correction: Iterative Adaptation of a Mobile Nutrition Video-Based Intervention Across Countries Using Human-Centered Design: Qualitative Study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2020; 8 (1): e17666
Iterative Adaptation of a Maternal Nutrition Videos mHealth Intervention Across Countries Using Human-Centered Design: Qualitative Study.
JMIR mHealth and uHealth
2019; 7 (11): e13604
BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) video interventions are often transferred across settings. Although the outcomes of these transferred interventions are frequently published, the process of adapting such videos is less described, particularly within and across lower-income contexts. This study fills a gap in the literature by outlining experiences and priorities adapting a suite of South African maternal nutrition videos to the context of rural Burkina Faso.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the key components in adapting a suite of maternal nutrition mHealth videos across settings.METHODS: Guided by the principles of human-centered design, this qualitative study included 10 focus group discussions, 30 in-depth interviews, and 30 observations. We first used focus group discussions to capture insights on local nutrition and impressions of the original (South African) videos. After making rapid adjustments based on these focus group discussions, we used additional methods (focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and observations) to identify challenges, essential video refinements, and preferences in terms of content delivery. All data were collected in French or Dioula, recorded, transcribed, and translated as necessary into French before being thematically coded by two authors.RESULTS: We propose a 3-pronged Video Adaptation Framework that places the aim of video adaptation at the center of a triangle framed by end recipients, health workers, and the environment. End recipients (here, pregnant or lactating mothers) directed us to (1) align the appearance, priorities, and practices of the video's protagonist to those of Burkinabe women; (2) be mindful of local realities whether economic, health-related, or educational; and (3) identify and routinely reiterate key points throughout videos and via reminder cards. Health workers (here, Community Health Workers and Mentor Mothers delivering the videos) guided us to (1) improve technology training, (2) simplify language and images, and (3) increase the frequency of their engagements with end recipients. In terms of the environment, respondents guided us to localize climate, vegetation, diction, and how foods are depicted.CONCLUSIONS: Design research provided valuable insights in terms of developing a framework for video adaptation across settings, which other interventionists and scholars can use to guide adaptations of similar interventions.
View details for DOI 10.2196/13604
View details for PubMedID 31710302
- A Multi-Institution Collaboration to Define Core Content and Design Flexible Curricular Components for a Foundational Medical School Course: Implications for National Curriculum Reform ACADEMIC MEDICINE 2019; 94 (6): 819–25
The Philani MOVIE study: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a mobile video entertainment-education intervention to promote exclusive breastfeeding in South Africa.
BMC health services research
2019; 19 (1): 211
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, rates of exclusive breastfeeding remain low and breastfeeding promotion is a national health priority. Mobile health and narrative entertainment-education are recognized strategies for health promotion. In-home counseling by community health workers (CHWs) is a proven breastfeeding promotion strategy. This protocol outlines a cluster-randomized controlled trial with a nested mixed-methods evaluation of the MObile Video Intervention for Exclusive breastfeeding (MOVIE) program. The evaluation will quantify the causal effect of the MOVIE program and generate a detailed understanding of the context in which the intervention took place and the mechanisms through which it enacted change. Findings from the study will inform the anticipated scale-up of mobile video health interventions in South Africa and the wider sub-Saharan region.METHODS: We will conduct a stratified cluster-randomized controlled trial in urban communities of the Western Cape, to measure the effect of the MOVIE intervention on exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding practices. Eighty-four mentor-mothers (CHWs employed by the Philani Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Trust) will be randomized 1:1 into intervention and control arms, stratified by neighborhood type. Mentor-mothers in the control arm will provide standard of care (SoC) perinatal in-home counseling. Mentor-mothers in the intervention arm will provide SoC plus the MOVIE intervention. At least 1008 pregnant participants will be enrolled in the study and mother-child pairs will be followed until 5months post-delivery. The primary outcomes of the study are exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 5months of age. Secondary outcomes are other infant feeding practices and maternal knowledge. In order to capture human-centered underpinnings of the intervention, we will conduct interviews with stakeholders engaged in the intervention design. To contextualize quantitative findings and understand the mechanisms through which the intervention enacted change, end-line focus groups with mentor-mothers will be conducted.DISCUSSION: This trial will be among the first to explore a video-based, entertainment-education intervention delivered by CHWs and created using a community-based, human-centered design approach. As such, it could inform health policy, with regards to both the routine adoption of this intervention and, more broadly, the development of other entertainment-education interventions for health promotion in under-resourced settings.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study and its outcomes were registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( #NCT03688217 ) on September 27th, 2018.
View details for PubMedID 30940132
A Multi-Institution Collaboration to Define Core Content and Design Flexible Curricular Components for a Foundational Medical School Course: Implications for National Curriculum Reform.
Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Medical educators have not reached widespread agreement on core content for a U.S. medical school curriculum. As a first step toward addressing this, five U.S. medical schools formed the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Reimagining Medical Education collaborative to define, create, implement, and freely share core content for a foundational medical school course on microbiology and immunology. This proof-of-concept project involved delivery of core content to preclinical medical students through online videos and class time interactions between students and facilitators. A flexible, modular design allowed four of the medical schools to successfully implement the content modules in diverse curricular settings. Compared to the prior year, student satisfaction ratings after implementation were comparable or showed a statistically significant improvement. Students who took this course at a time point in their training similar to when the USMLE Step 1 reference group took Step 1 earned equivalent scores on National Board of Medical Examiners-Customized Assessment Services microbiology exam items. Exam scores for three schools ranged from 0.82 to 0.84, compared to 0.81 for the national reference group; exam scores were 0.70 at the fourth school, where students took the exam in their first quarter, two years earlier than the reference group. This project demonstrates that core content for a foundational medical school course can be defined, created, and used by multiple medical schools without compromising student satisfaction or knowledge. This project offers one approach to collaboratively defining core content and designing curricular resources for preclinical medical school education that can be shared.
View details for PubMedID 30801270
Human-Centered Design of Video-Based Health Education: An Iterative, Collaborative, Community-Based Approach.
Journal of medical Internet research
2019; 21 (1): e12128
Drawing on 5 years of experience designing, producing, and disseminating video health education programs globally, we outline the process of creating accessible, engaging, and relevant video health education content using a community-based, human-centered design approach. We show that this approach can yield a new generation of interventions, which are better aligned with the needs and contexts of target communities. The participation of target communities and local stakeholders in the content production and design process fosters ownership of the content and increases the likelihood that the resulting intervention will resonate within its intended primary audience and be disseminated broadly. Ease of future adaptation for additional global audiences and modification of the content for multiple dissemination pathways are important early considerations to ensure scalability and long-term impact of the intervention. Recent advances in mobile technology can facilitate the dissemination of accessible, engaging health education at scale, thereby enhancing the potential impact of video-based educational tools. Accessible and engaging health education is a cornerstone of health behavior change. Especially in low- and middle-income countries, increasing access to effective health education can contribute to improved health outcomes. Prior research has identified several characteristics of effective health education interventions. These include the integration of pictures, narratives, and entertainment-education, in which the health messages that make up the educational content are embedded. However, the effectiveness and long-term impact of health messages ultimately depend on how well the end users can identify with the content that is presented. This identification, in turn, is a function of how well the messages correspond to user needs and wants and how this correspondence is communicated through the design characteristics of the health education intervention.
View details for PubMedID 30698531
Community health workers' experiences of using video teaching tools during home visitsA pilot study
HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY
2018; 26 (2): 167–75
Innovations in health, such as the use of tablet computers, show promise in broadening the scope of work of community health workers (CHWs), and play an important role in keeping CHWs and their clients up to date with advancements in health. While the use of mobile phones and tablets is innovative, the applicability of these technologies in different contexts remains poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known about the acceptability and feasibility of the use of video teaching tools on such devices across diverse contexts. In this study, we aimed to explore the acceptability and feasibility of using tablets with teaching videos (about HIV, alcohol, nutrition and breastfeeding) to support the health promotion efforts of 24 CHWs who work with pregnant mothers and mothers of young children in an urban township in South Africa. Between November 2015 and May 2016, we conducted focus groups and identified four key themes (with several sub-themes) that demonstrated factors related to the acceptability and feasibility of these devices and their content. Focus group transcripts were analysed thematically using qualitative data analysis software. The findings indicated that while the devices contained several supportive features (such as lightening the workload, and stimulating interest in their work), they also contained several restrictive features (safety and confidentiality). CHWs considered the video content an important tool to engage not only their clients but also family members and the community at large. Issues surrounding safety, privacy and confidentiality of using these devices require careful consideration prior to implementation in large-scale studies. Furthermore, stigma associated with household visits by CHWs and the nature of their work also need to be addressed by researchers and programme implementers. Overall, CHWs deemed the devices and the video content an acceptable and feasible means with which to provide health promotion and education among their clients.
View details for PubMedID 28872210
The Use of Short, Animated, Patient-Centered Springboard Videos to Underscore the Clinical Relevance of Preclinical Medical Student Education.
Medical students often struggle to appreciate the clinical relevance of material taught in the preclinical years. The authors believe videos could be effectively used to interweave a patient's illness script with foundational basic science concepts.In collaboration with four other U.S. medical schools, educators at the Stanford University School of Medicine created 36 short, animated, patient-centered springboard videos (third-person, narrated accounts of authentic patient cases conveying foundational pathophysiology) in 2014. The videos were used to introduce students to 36 content modules, created as part of a microbiology, immunology, and infectious diseases curriculum. The videos were created with input from faculty content experts and in some cases medical students, and were piloted using a flipped classroom pedagogical approach in January 2015-June 2016.Student feedback from course evaluations and focus groups was analyzed using a mixed-methods approach. On the course evaluations, the majority of students rated the patient-centered videos positively, and the majority of comments on the videos were positive, highlighting both enhanced engagement and enhanced learning and retention. Comments from focus groups mirrored the course evaluation comments and highlighted different usage patterns for the videos.The authors will continue to gather and analyze data from schools using the videos as part of their core preclinical curriculum, and will produce similar videos for use in other areas of undergraduate medical education. These videos could support students' review of content taught previously and be repurposed for use in continuing and graduate medical education, as well as patient education.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001574
View details for PubMedID 28121656
- Massive open online nutrition and cooking course for improved eating behaviors and meal composition. international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 2015; 12 (1): 143-?