Dr. Vogelsong is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Stanford University where she is involved in clinical work, education, and research. She completed her residency and dual fellowship training in Adult Cardiothoracic Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine at Stanford and now attends in the Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (CVICU) and cardiac ORs. This clinical work continuously reveals the ability of modern medicine to overcome seemingly insurmountable injury and illness, yet she believes that optimal care helps a patient to return to the highest level of functioning possible. Thus her research centers around finding ways to optimize the quality of life for survivors of critical illness, particularly those supported on mechanical circulatory support and those who have suffered cardiac arrest. She has received funding from the Zoll Foundation and serves as a member of the American Heart Association's Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science Subcommittee.

Additionally, Dr. Vogelsong serves as Associate Medical Director for Life Flight, Stanford's air medical transport service and the only hospital-based flight program in California. She is actively engaged in efforts to enhance the provision of critical care within Stanford Hospital, and serves on multiple committees including the Medical Emergency Response Committee (MERC), ECMO Task Force, and CVICU Continuous Quality Improvement group.

When not at work, Dr. Vogelsong is a huge fan of life in California and can often be found hiking, on a mountain bike, in her Sprinter van, or talking to her many goats, llamas, and horses.

Clinical Focus

  • Anesthesia
  • Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Mechanical Circulatory Support

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Anesthesia (2019)
  • Board Certification: National Board of Echocardiography, Advanced Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography (2020)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Anesthesiology Fellowships (2020) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine (2019)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Critical Care Medicine Fellowship (2019) CA
  • Residency: Stanford University Anesthesiology Residency (2018) CA
  • Internship: Stanford University Internal Medicine Residency (2015) CA
  • Medical Education: University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (2014) CA

All Publications

  • Almanac - Retrieval-Augmented Language Models for Clinical Medicine. NEJM AI Zakka, C., Shad, R., Chaurasia, A., Dalal, A. R., Kim, J. L., Moor, M., Fong, R., Phillips, C., Alexander, K., Ashley, E., Boyd, J., Boyd, K., Hirsch, K., Langlotz, C., Lee, R., Melia, J., Nelson, J., Sallam, K., Tullis, S., Vogelsong, M. A., Cunningham, J. P., Hiesinger, W. 2024; 1 (2)


    Large language models (LLMs) have recently shown impressive zero-shot capabilities, whereby they can use auxiliary data, without the availability of task-specific training examples, to complete a variety of natural language tasks, such as summarization, dialogue generation, and question answering. However, despite many promising applications of LLMs in clinical medicine, adoption of these models has been limited by their tendency to generate incorrect and sometimes even harmful statements.We tasked a panel of eight board-certified clinicians and two health care practitioners with evaluating Almanac, an LLM framework augmented with retrieval capabilities from curated medical resources for medical guideline and treatment recommendations. The panel compared responses from Almanac and standard LLMs (ChatGPT-4, Bing, and Bard) versus a novel data set of 314 clinical questions spanning nine medical specialties.Almanac showed a significant improvement in performance compared with the standard LLMs across axes of factuality, completeness, user preference, and adversarial safety.Our results show the potential for LLMs with access to domain-specific corpora to be effective in clinical decision-making. The findings also underscore the importance of carefully testing LLMs before deployment to mitigate their shortcomings. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/aioa2300068

    View details for PubMedID 38343631

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10857783

  • Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in ECMO: Pathophysiology, Neuromonitoring, and Therapeutic Opportunities. Cells Khanduja, S., Kim, J., Kang, J. K., Feng, C., Vogelsong, M. A., Geocadin, R. G., Whitman, G., Cho, S. 2023; 12 (11)


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in conjunction with its life-saving benefits, carries a significant risk of acute brain injury (ABI). Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) is one of the most common types of ABI in ECMO patients. Various risk factors, such as history of hypertension, high day 1 lactate level, low pH, cannulation technique, large peri-cannulation PaCO2 drop (∆PaCO2), and early low pulse pressure, have been associated with the development of HIBI in ECMO patients. The pathogenic mechanisms of HIBI in ECMO are complex and multifactorial, attributing to the underlying pathology requiring initiation of ECMO and the risk of HIBI associated with ECMO itself. HIBI is likely to occur in the peri-cannulation or peri-decannulation time secondary to underlying refractory cardiopulmonary failure before or after ECMO. Current therapeutics target pathological mechanisms, cerebral hypoxia and ischemia, by employing targeted temperature management in the case of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR), and optimizing cerebral O2 saturations and cerebral perfusion. This review describes the pathophysiology, neuromonitoring, and therapeutic techniques to improve neurological outcomes in ECMO patients in order to prevent and minimize the morbidity of HIBI. Further studies aimed at standardizing the most relevant neuromonitoring techniques, optimizing cerebral perfusion, and minimizing the severity of HIBI once it occurs will improve long-term neurological outcomes in ECMO patients.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/cells12111546

    View details for PubMedID 37296666

  • "Is all bystander CPR created equal? Further considerations in sex differences in cardiac arrest outcomes." Resuscitation Perman, S. M., Vogelsong, M. A., Del Rios, M. 2022
  • Severe COVID-19 disease in a 2nd trimester pregnancy: Successful ECMO and mechanical ventilation management. Respiratory medicine case reports Hansra, B. S., Rao, V. K., Vogelsong, M. A., Ruoss, S. J. 2022; 39: 101721


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an invasive support strategy for cardiac, respiratory, or combined cardiorespiratory failure. ECMO has become increasing utilized in patients with severe respiratory failure due to COVID-19 infection. To our knowledge there is no report of successful ECMO utilization in second trimester of pregnancy leading to a successful outcome. We present a case of severe COVID-19 infection in a patient causing respiratory failure in the second trimester pregnancy. With diligent utilization of ECMO and mechanical ventilation we were able to support the patient's respiratory needs to allow her pregnancy to continue. Ultimately, the patient underwent successful caesarean section in the third trimester. This case highlights excellent lung injury protection and lung recovery can be achieved through optimal utilization of ECMO support together with a careful and closely monitored lung protective ventilation strategy, even while also supporting the patient through the increasing metabolic circumstances of a progressing pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rmcr.2022.101721

    View details for PubMedID 35965487

  • Beyond the 'Good' in Good Neurologic Outcome: Recovery as a Critical Link in the Chain of Survival after Cardiac Arrest. Resuscitation Vogelsong, M. A., Hirsch, K. G. 2021
  • Beyond the ventilator-cardiovascular management in SARS-CoV-2 infection INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY CARE Kloosterboer, A. L., Vogelsong, M. A., Brodt, J. L. 2021; 10: 43-49
  • Influence of sex on survival, neurologic outcomes, and neurodiagnostic testing after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation Vogelsong, M. A., May, T., Agarwal, S., Cronberg, T., Dankiewicz, J., Dupont, A., Friberg, H., Hand, R., McPherson, J., Mlynash, M., Mooney, M., Nielsen, N., O'Riordan, A., Patel, N., Riker, R. R., Seder, D. B., Soreide, E., Stammet, P., Xiong, W., Hirsch, K. G. 2021


    Previous studies evaluating the relationship between sex and post-resuscitation care and outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are conflicting. We investigated the association between sex and outcomes as well as neurodiagnostic testing in a prospective multicenter international registry of patients admitted to intensive care units following OHCA.OHCA survivors enrolled in the International Cardiac Arrest Registry (INTCAR) from 2012-2017 were included. We assessed the independent association between sex and survival to hospital discharge, good neurologic outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2), neurodiagnostic testing, and withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (WLST).Of 2,407 eligible patients, 809 (33.6%) were women. Baseline characteristics differed by sex, with less bystander CPR and initial shockable rhythms among women. Women were less likely to survive to hospital discharge, however significance abated following adjusted analysis (30.1% vs 42.7%, adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.67-1.08). Women were less likely to have good neurologic outcome at discharge (21.4% vs 34.0%, adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96) and at six months post-arrest (16.7% vs 29.4%, adjusted OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.98) that persisted after adjustment. Neuroimaging (75.5% vs 74.3%, p=0.54) and other neurophysiologic testing (78.8% vs 78.6%, p=0.91) was similar across sex. Women were more likely to undergo WLST (55.6% vs 42.8%, adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.66).Women with cardiac arrest have lower odds of good neurologic outcomes and higher odds of WLST, despite comparable rates of neurodiagnostic testing and after controlling for baseline differences in clinical characteristics and cardiac arrest features.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.07.037

    View details for PubMedID 34363853

  • Retrospective Analysis of Peri-Intubation Hypoxemia During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Epidemic Using a Protocol for Modified Airway Management. A&A practice Madhok, J. n., Vogelsong, M. A., Lee, T. C., Wilson, J. G., Mihm, F. n. 2020; 14 (14): e01360


    This single-center retrospective study evaluated a protocol for the intubation of patients with confirmed or suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Twenty-one patients were intubated, 9 of whom were found to have COVID-19. Adherence to the airway management protocol was high. COVID-19 patients had lower peripheral capillary oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo2) nadirs during intubation (Spo2, 73% [72%-77%] vs 89% [86%-94%], P = .024), and a greater percentage experienced severe hypoxemia defined as Spo2 ≤80% (89% vs 25%, P = .008). The incidence of severe hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients should be considered in the development of guidelines that incorporate high-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000001360

    View details for PubMedID 33449537

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Asymptomatic Knees in Collegiate Basketball Players: The Effect of One Season of Play. Clinical journal of sport medicine Pappas, G. P., Vogelsong, M. A., Staroswiecki, E., Gold, G. E., Safran, M. R. 2016; 26 (6): 483-489


    To determine the prevalence of abnormal structural findings using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the asymptomatic knees of male and female collegiate basketball players before and after a season of high-intensity basketball.Institutional review board-approved prospective case series.Asymptomatic knees of 24 NCAA Division I collegiate basketball players (12 male, 12 female) were imaged using a 3.0-T MRI scanner before and after the end of the competitive season. Three subjects did not undergo scanning after the season.Images were evaluated for prepatellar bursitis, fat pad edema, patellar and quadriceps tendinopathy, bone marrow edema, and articular cartilage and meniscal injury.Every knee imaged had at least 1 structural abnormality both preseason and postseason. A high preseason and postseason prevalence of fat pad edema (75% and 81%), patellar tendinopathy (83% and 90%), and quadriceps tendinopathy (75% and 90%) was seen. Intrameniscal signal change was observed in 50% preseason knees and 62% of postseason knees, but no discrete tears were found. Bone marrow edema was seen in 75% and 86% of knees in the preseason and postseason, respectively. Cartilage findings were observed in 71% and 81% of knees in the preseason and postseason, respectively. The cartilage injury score increased significantly in the postseason compared with the preseason (P = 0.0009).A high prevalence of abnormal knee MRI findings was observed in a population of asymptomatic young elite athletes. These preliminary data suggest that high-intensity basketball may have potentially deleterious effects on articular cartilage.

    View details for PubMedID 27347867

  • New developments in magnetic resonance imaging techniques for shoulder instability in athletes. Open access journal of sports medicine McAdams, T. R., Fredericson, M., Vogelsong, M., Gold, G. 2010; 1: 137-142


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be a very useful tool in the evaluation of instability in the athlete's shoulder. Technical options of MR imaging, such as arthrography, higher power magnets, and shoulder positioning, have enhanced MR evaluation of the shoulder. This update discusses the application of new MR techniques to a variety of shoulder instability patterns, including anterior instability, posterior instability, and atraumatic multidirectional instability. Specific applications of MR imaging in the postoperative patient is discussed. Finally, we describe the future directions of MR imaging in the setting of shoulder instability.

    View details for PubMedID 24198551