Clinical Focus


  • Urology
  • Infertility, Male
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Men's Health
  • Hypogonadism
  • Peyronie's Disease
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Residency:UCSF Dept of Urology (2010) CA
  • Residency:UCSF General Surgery Residency (2006) CA
  • Internship:UCSF General Surgery Residency (2005) CA
  • Fellowship:Baylor College of Medicine Registrar (2011) TX
  • Medical Education:Yale School Of Medicine Office of Student Affairs (2004) CT
  • Board Certification: Urology, American Board of Urology (2013)

Clinical Trials


  • Males, Antioxidants, and Infertility Trial Not Recruiting

    The objective of the Males, Antioxidants, and Infertility (MOXI) Trial is to examine whether treatment of infertile males with an antioxidant formulation improves male fertility. The central hypothesis is that treatment of infertile males with antioxidants will improve sperm structure and function, resulting in higher fertilization rates and improved embryo development, leading to higher pregnancy and live birth rates. Findings from this research will be significant in that they will likely lead to an effective, non-hormonal treatment modality for male infertility. An effective treatment for men would also reduce the treatment burden on the female partner, lower costs, and provide effective alternatives to couples with religious or ethical contraindications to ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology). If antioxidants do not improve pregnancy rates, but do improve sperm motility and DNA integrity, they could allow for couples with male factor infertility to use less intensive therapies such as intrauterine insemination. Male fertility specialists currently prescribe antioxidants based on the limited data supporting their use. A negative finding, lack of any benefit, would also alter current treatment of infertile males.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Oshra Sedan, PhD, 408-688-9892.

    View full details

  • Reproductive Medicine Network Biologic Specimen Repository Not Recruiting

    The Reproductive Medicine Network (RMN) is a nationwide cooperative network of 7 clinical sites and a data coordination center, and is sponsored in 5 year increments by The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The RMN is charged with designing, implementing and publishing high quality clinical research in reproductive medicine. It has been in existence for over 15 years and has performed several seminal clinical trials that have fundamentally changed clinical practice in this field. In addition, many worthy ancillary protocols have been generated and published. It is this latter fact, as well as the continued interest by investigators both inside and outside the RMN for access to DNA or serum samples from the previously performed trials, that has motivated the present investigators to proactively begin a biologic samples repository from the ongoing and pending RMN clinical trials. Ideally, this repository would allow investigators to seamlessly access trial samples for many years into the future, and thus greatly amplify the use of resources and the impact of the RMN.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

2019-20 Courses


All Publications


  • Association of paternal age with perinatal outcomes between 2007 and 2016 in the United States: population based cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) Khandwala, Y. S., Baker, V. L., Shaw, G. M., Stevenson, D. K., Lu, Y., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018; 363: k4372

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of advanced paternal age on maternal and perinatal outcomes in the United States.DESIGN: Retrospective, population based cohort study.SETTING: US.POPULATION: 40529905 documented live births between 2007 and 2016.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary perinatal outcomes were gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at five minutes, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, need for postpartum antibiotics, and seizures. Primary maternal outcomes were gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. Secondary outcome was the number of preventable perinatal events.RESULTS: Higher paternal age was associated with an increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and low Apgar score. After adjustment for maternal age, infants born to fathers aged 45 years or older had 14% higher odds of premature birth (odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.15), independent of gestational age, and 18% higher odds of seizures (1.18, 0.97 to 1.44) compared with infants of fathers aged 25 to 34 years. The odds of gestational diabetes was 34% higher (1.34, 1.29 to 1.38) in mothers with the oldest partners. 13.2% (95% confidence interval 12.5% to 13.9%) of premature births and 18.2% (17.5% to 18.9%) of gestational diabetes in births associated with older fathers were estimated to be attributable to advanced paternal age.CONCLUSIONS: Advanced paternal age is associated with negative effects on both mothers and offspring. Given the relatively low prevalence of advanced paternal age in the US, population level impacts are currently modest. Nevertheless, as advanced paternal age has doubled in the US over the past generation, further investigation is warranted of the impact on birth outcomes and public health.

    View details for PubMedID 30381468

  • Male infertility as a window to health. Fertility and sterility Choy, J. T., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018; 110 (5): 810–14

    Abstract

    There is an emerging body of evidence suggesting that male infertility may be a harbinger of future health. Potential associations between infertility and health may arise from genetic, developmental, and lifestyle factors. Studies have explored possible links between male infertility and oncologic, cardiovascular, metabolic, and autoimmune diseases. Male infertility may also be a predictor of hospitalization and mortality. Additional research is required to elucidate the mechanisms by which male infertility affects overall health.

    View details for PubMedID 30316415

  • The age of fathers in the USA is rising: an analysis of 168 867 480 births from 1972 to 2015. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) Khandwala, Y. S., Zhang, C. A., Lu, Y., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017; 32 (10): 2110–16

    Abstract

    How has the mean paternal age in the USA changed over the past 4 decades?The age at which men are fathering children in the USA has been increasing over time, although it varies by race, geographic region and paternal education level.While the rise in mean maternal age and its implications for fertility, birth outcomes and public health have been well documented, little is known about paternal characteristics of births within the USA.A retrospective data analysis of paternal age and reporting patterns for 168 867 480 live births within the USA since 1972 was conducted.All live births within the USA collected through the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were evaluated. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to reduce bias due to missing paternal records.Mean paternal age has increased over the past 44 years from 27.4 to 30.9 years. College education and Northeastern birth states were associated with higher paternal age. Racial/ethnic differences were also identified, whereby Asian fathers were the oldest and Black fathers were the youngest. The parental age difference (paternal age minus maternal age) has decreased over the past 44 years. Births to Black and Native American mothers were most often lacking paternal data, implying low paternal reporting. Paternal reporting was higher for older and more educated women.Although we utilized IPW to reduce the impact of paternal reporting bias, our estimates may still be influenced by the missing data in the NVSS.Paternal age is rising within the USA among all regions, races and education levels. Given the implications for offspring health and demographic patterns, further research on this trend is warranted.No funding was received for this study and there are no competing interests.N/A.

    View details for PubMedID 28938735

  • Frequency of the Male Infertility Evaluation: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lathi, R. B., Baker, V. L., Westphal, L. M., Milki, A. A., Nangia, A. K. 2013; 189 (3): 1030-1034

    Abstract

    An estimated 7 million American couples per year seek infertility care in the United States. A male factor contributes to 50% of cases but it is unclear what proportion of infertile couples undergoes male evaluation.We analyzed data from cycles 5 to 7 of the National Survey of Family Growth performed by the Centers for Disease Control to determine the frequency of a male infertility evaluation, and associated reproductive and demographic factors.A total of 25,846 women and 11,067 men were surveyed. Male evaluation was not completed in 18% of couples when the male partner was asked vs 27% when female partners were asked. This corresponds to approximately 370,000 to 860,000 men in the population who were not evaluated at the time of infertility evaluation. Longer infertility duration and white race were associated with increased odds of male infertility evaluation. The male and female samples showed no change in the receipt of male examination with time.Many men from infertile couples do not undergo male evaluation in the United States. Given the potential implications to reproductive goals and male health, further examination of this pattern is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2012.08.239

    View details for PubMedID 23009868

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials implementing aromatase inhibitors to treat male infertility. Asian journal of andrology Giudice, F. D., Busetto, G. M., De Berardinis, E., Sperduti, I., Ferro, M., Maggi, M., Gross, M. S., Sciarra, A., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    Aromatase activity has commonly been associated with male infertility characterized by testicular dysfunction with low serum testosterone and/or testosterone to estradiol ratio. In this subset of patients, and particularly in those with hypogonadism, elevated levels of circulating estradiol may establish a negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis by suppressing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) production and impaired spermatogenesis. Hormonal manipulation via different agents such as selective estrogen modulators or aromatase inhibitors to increase endogenous testosterone production and improve spermatogenesis in the setting of infertility is an off-label option for treatment. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature of the past 30 years in order to evaluate the benefits of the use of aromatase inhibitors in the medical management of infertile/hypoandrogenic males. Overall, eight original articles were included and critically evaluated. Either steroidal (Testolactone) or nonsteroidal (Anastrozole and Letrozole) aromatase inhibitors were found to statistically improve all the evaluated hormonal and seminal outcomes with a safe tolerability profile. While the evidence is promising, future prospective randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trials are necessary to better define the efficacy of these medications.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/aja.aja_101_19

    View details for PubMedID 31621654

  • Increased Risk of Cancer in Men With Peyronie's Disease: A Cohort Study Using a Large United States Insurance Claims Database. Sexual medicine Pastuszak, A. W., Thirumavalavan, N., Kohn, T. P., Lipshultz, L. I., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Men with Peyronie's disease (PD) may have an increased prevalence of certain comorbidities, including malignancy. We sought to examine the clinical relationship between PD and subsequent diagnosis of malignancy.METHODS: Using data from the IBM Health MarketScan claims database from 2007 to 2013, we compared men with PD to a control group of men without PD or erectile dysfunction matched for age and duration of follow-up. We compared incidence of 18 categories of malignancy between both groups using a Cox regression model.RESULTS: In total, 48,423 men with PD and 484,230 controls were identified. The mean age within both cohorts was 50 ± 9.4 years old, and mean follow-up time was approximately 4.4 ± 2.1 years. After being controlled for age, year of evaluation, obesity, smoking, number of outpatient visits, number of urologist visits, and duration of follow-up, men with PD had an increased risk of all cancers (hazard ratio= 1.10, 95% CI= 1.06-1.14), stomach cancer (1.43, 1.06-1.14), testis cancer (1.39, 1.05-1.84), and melanoma (1.19, 1.02-1.38) when compared with controls. The strengths in using the MarketScan database are the anonymous nature of the data, accessibility, and the power provided by the large number of patient visits recorded. Limitations include a lack of detail in certain facets of patient clinical data, and the lack of long-term follow-up to assess the impact of time on other potentially associated conditions.CONCLUSIONS: This manuscript is the first to our knowledge to describe a relationship between PD and cancer. Men with PD may be at increased risk for certain malignancies compared with age-matched controls. Further investigation is needed to explore the clinical implications of these findings. Pastuszak AW, Thirumavalavan N, Kohn TP, etal. Increased Cancer Risk in Men With Peyronie's Disease: A Cohort Study Using a Large US Insurance Claims Database. Sex Med 2019;XX:XXX-XXX.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.esxm.2019.08.007

    View details for PubMedID 31530474

  • Genital Pain and Numbness and Female Sexual Dysfunction in Adult Bicyclists. The journal of sexual medicine Greenberg, D. R., Khandwala, Y. S., Breyer, B. N., Minkow, R., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: Bicycle seat pressure on the perineum may impair arousal and clitoral erection, likely contributing to genital pain and numbness experienced by female cyclists.AIM: We aimed to identify the association between genital pain and numbness experienced by female cyclists and female sexual dysfunction (FSD).METHODS: Female cyclists were recruited to complete an online survey using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), a validated questionnaire to assess FSD. Cyclist demographics, experience, preferred riding style, use of ergonomic cycle modifications, and genital discomfort while riding were also queried. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors of FSD.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was FSFI score, which is used to diagnose FSD when the FSFI score is <26.55.RESULTS: Of the survey respondents, 178 (53.1%) completed the survey and FSFI questionnaire. Mean age was 48.1 years (±0.8 standard error [SE]), and the average riding experience was 17.1 years (±0.9 SE). Overall, 53.9% of female cyclists had FSD, 58.1% reported genital numbness, and 69.1% reported genital pain. After adjusting for age, body mass index, relationship status, smoking history, comorbidities, and average time spent cycling per week, females who reported experiencing genital numbness half the time or more were more likely to have FSD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.0; 95% CI, 1.5-23.6; P= .01), especially if localized to the clitoris (aOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.5; P= .02). Females that reported genital pain half the time or more while cycling also were more likely to have FSD (aOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.2-11.1; P= .02). Cyclists experiencing genital pain within the first hour of their ride were more likely to have FSD (aOR, 12.6; 95% CI, 2.5-63.1; P= .002). Frequency and duration of cycling were not associated with FSD. Analysis of FSFI domains found that the frequency of numbness was correlated with decreased arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction during intercourse, whereas the frequency of pain significantly reduced arousal, orgasm, and genital lubrication.CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Female cyclists that experience numbness and/or pain have higher odds of reporting FSD.STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Our study includes a validated questionnaire to assess FSD and queries specific characteristics and symptoms of genital pain and genital numbness; however, the study is limited by its cross-sectional survey design.CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need for cyclists to address genital pain and numbness experienced while cycling, and future studies are required to determine if alleviating these symptoms can reduce the impact of cycling on female sexual function. Greenberg GR, Khandwala YS, Breyer BN, etal. Genital Pain and Numbness and Female Sexual Dysfunction in Adult Bicyclists. J Sex Med 2019; XX:XXX-XXX.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.06.017

    View details for PubMedID 31402178

  • The association of bicycle-related genital numbness and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score: results from a large, multinational, cross-sectional study BJU INTERNATIONAL Baradaran, N., Awad, M., Gaither, T. W., Fergus, K. B., Ndoye, M., Cedars, B. E., Balakrishnan, A. S., Eisenberg, M. L., Sanford, T., Breyer, B. N. 2019; 124 (2): 336–41

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bju.14396

    View details for Web of Science ID 000481428300025

  • Demographics, Usage Patterns, and Safety of Male Users of Clomiphene in the United States. The world journal of men's health Guo, D. P., Zlatev, D. V., Li, S., Baker, L. C., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the demographics, usage patterns and complication rates of clomiphene use in male patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed male patients from ages 20 to 55 years old who were prescribed clomiphene citrate from 2001 to 2014 using the Truven Health MarketScan, a US claims database. We collected data regarding associated medical diagnoses, diagnostic testing, duration of use, and reported side effects including thrombotic events, vision problems, gynecomastia, mental disorders, liver disease, nausea, or skin problems.RESULTS: In total, 12,318 men took clomiphene and represented the primary study cohort, with a mean age of 37.8 years. The percentage of men prescribed clomiphene increased over the study period, as did the average age of clomiphene users. Associated diagnoses included male infertility (52.0%), testicular hypofunction (13.5%), erectile dysfunction (2.4%), and low libido (0.4%). Associated testing included semen analysis (43.7%), testosterone (23.5%), luteinizing hormone (19.3%), and follicle-stimulating hormone (21.1%) levels. The median time of clomiphene use was 3.6 months, with 63% of men stopping within 6 months. No increased risk of reported clomiphene side effects were apparent in men taking the medication.CONCLUSIONS: There is a rising prevalence of clomiphene usage without associated adverse side effects in the US. The variability in associated diagnoses, diagnostic testing, and duration of use suggest a need for greater awareness of the proper evaluation and treatment of the men who are prescribed clomiphene.

    View details for DOI 10.5534/wjmh.190028

    View details for PubMedID 31385473

  • The Impact of Clostridium Histolyticum Collagenase on the Prevalence and Management of Peyronie's Disease in the United States WORLD JOURNAL OF MENS HEALTH Sun, A. J., Li, S., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019; 37 (2): 234–39
  • Risk of cancer in infertile women: analysis of US claims data HUMAN REPRODUCTION Murugappan, G., Li, S., Lathi, R. B., Baker, V. L., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019; 34 (5): 894–902
  • Increased risk of incident chronic medical conditions in infertile women: analysis of US claims data Murugappan, G., Li, S., Lathi, R. B., Baker, V. L., Eisenberg, M. L. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2019
  • PRELIMINARY APPLICATION OF CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF FINDING RARE SPERMATOZOA IN MICRO-TESE SAMPLES. Badamjav, O., Reddy, V., Meyer, D., Eisenberg, M., Behr, B. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: E28
  • The risk of birth defects is not associated with semen parameters or mode of conception in offspring of men visiting a reproductive health clinic HUMAN REPRODUCTION Pastuszak, A. W., Herati, A. S., Eisenberg, M. L., Cengiz, C., Langlois, P. H., Kohn, T. P., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2019; 34 (4): 733–39
  • PATERNAL MEDICATION USE AND COMORBIDITY IN THE UNITED STATES: A REVIEW OF OVER 1 MILLION LIVE BIRTHS Sun, A., Li, S., Zhang, C., Eisenberg, M. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019: E556–E557
  • Risk of cancer in infertile women: analysis of us claims data. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) Murugappan, G., Li, S., Lathi, R. B., Baker, V. L., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    STUDY QUESTION: Is female infertility associated with higher risk of cancer?SUMMARY ANSWER: Although absolute risks are low, infertility is associated with higher risk of cancer compared to a group of non-infertile women.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertile women are at higher risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. Information on risk of non-gynecologic cancers is rare and conflicting, and the effect of pregnancy on these risk associations is known for only a minority of cancer types.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Retrospective cohort analysis between 2003 and 2016 using an insurance claims database.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: In all, 64 345 infertile women identified by infertility diagnosis, testing or treatment were compared to 3 128 345 non-infertile patients seeking routine gynecologic care. Women with prior diagnosis of cancer or within 6 months of index event were excluded. Main outcomes were development of any malignancy and individual cancers as identified by ICD-9/ICD-10 codes. Results were adjusted for age at index date, index year, nulliparity, race, smoking, obesity, number of visits per year and highest level of education.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Infertile women had an overall higher risk of developing cancer compared to non-infertile women (2.0 versus 1.7%, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.18; CI: 1.12-1.24). In addition, the risk of uterine cancer (0.10 versus 0.06%, aHR = 1.78; CI: 1.39-2.28), ovarian cancer (0.14 versus 0.09%, aHR 1.64; CI: 1.33-2.01), lung cancer (0.21 versus 0.21%, aHR = 1.38; CI: 1.01-1.88), thyroid cancer (0.21 versus 0.16%, aHR = 1.29; CI: 1.09-1.53), leukemia (0.10 versus 0.06%, aHR = 1.55; CI: 1.21-1.98) and liver and gallbladder cancer (0.05 versus 0.03%, aHR = 1.59; CI: 1.11-2.30) were higher in infertile women compared to non-infertile women. In a subgroup analysis of women in each cohort who became pregnant and had a delivery during enrollment, the risk of uterine and ovarian cancer were similar between infertile and non-infertile women. In a subgroup analysis excluding women with PCOS and endometriosis from both cohorts, the risk of uterine cancer was similar between infertile and non-infertile women.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Absolute risk of cancer was low, average follow up for each individual was limited, and average age at index date was limited. Insurance databases have known limitations.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Using claims-based data, we report that infertile women may have a higher risk of certain cancers in the years after infertility evaluation; continued follow up should be considered after reproductive goals are achieved.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): None.

    View details for PubMedID 30863841

  • The Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Erectile Dysfunction Treatment and Management Published in the Sexual Medicine Literature JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Greenberg, D. R., Richardson, M. T., Tijerina, J. D., Bass, M. B., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019; 16 (3): 394–401
  • Parental age and stillbirth: a population-based cohort of nearly 10 million California deliveries from 1991 to 2011 ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Mayo, J. A., Lu, Y., Stevenson, D. K., Shaw, G. M., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019; 31: 32–37
  • The Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Erectile Dysfunction Treatment and Management Published in the Sexual Medicine Literature. The journal of sexual medicine Greenberg, D. R., Richardson, M. T., Tijerina, J. D., Bass, M. B., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical condition that requires high-quality evidence to guide clinical practice; however, systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) often vary in quality, raising concerns regarding the validity of their results.AIM: To perform an objective analysis of SRs and MAs in ED treatment and management and to report on the quality of published literature.METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE of 12 high-impact urology journals was used to identify relevant publications. 2 authors independently performed searches, screened citations for eligibility, extracted data for analysis, and graded methodologic quality using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) criteria.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was AMSTAR score, which is a validated tool to evaluate the quality of SRs and MAs.RESULTS: 31 publications met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean AMSTAR score (± SD) among all publications was 6.5 (±2.2) of 11, reflecting "fair to good" quality. 74.2% of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on pharmaceutical therapy for ED, with 51.6% studying the effect of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Only 1 SR/MA studied intracavernosal injection therapy and vacuum erection devices. No publications studied intraurethral injection therapy or implantable penile prostheses. Although not statistically significant, there has been a trend of increasing quality of SRs/MAs over time (P= .072).CLINICAL IMPLICATION: The methodologic quality of SRs/MAs should be assessed to ensure high-quality evidence for clinical practice guidelines in ED treatment and management.STRENGTH & LIMITATION: The data showed that methodologic quality of SRs/MAs in the treatment and management of ED is increasing over time. 12 high-impact urology journals were included in our search, which may introduce selection bias in our results.CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights a need for increased effort to study second- and third-line treatments for patients who fail oral therapy. Greenberg DR, Richardson MT, Tijerina JD, etal. The Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Erectile Dysfunction Treatment and Management Published in the Sexual Medicine Literature. J Sex Med 2019;XX:XXX-XXX.

    View details for PubMedID 30773501

  • The risk of birth defects is not associated with semen parameters or mode of conception in offspring of men visiting a reproductive health clinic. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) Pastuszak, A. W., Herati, A. S., Eisenberg, M. L., Cengiz, C., Langlois, P. H., Kohn, T. P., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2019

    Abstract

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between semen parameters and birth defect (BD) rates in offspring of men evaluated for infertility?SUMMARY ANSWER: Among men undergoing infertility evaluation, there is no significant relationship between semen parameters and defect rates in live or still births, even when considering mode of conception.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Approximately 15% of couples have fertility difficulties, with up to a 50% male factor contribution. An increased risk of BDs exists in couples using ART, particularly IVF and ICSI, but it is unknown if this related to the ART procedures or an underlying male factor.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: To determine if the severity of male factor infertilty, as assessed via sperm quality and mode of conception, is associated with BD rates, we performed a retrospective cohort study. Fathers with semen analysis data in the Baylor College of Medicine Semen Database (BCMSD) were linked with their offspring using Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDFR) data between 1999 and 2009. In this 10-year period, a total of 1382 men were identified in linkage between the BCMSD and TBDFR. A total of 109 infants with and 2115 infants without BDs were identified.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: To determine the association between BDs and semen parameters, we used hierarchical linear modeling to determine odds ratios between BD rates, semen parameters, and mode of conception before and after adjustment for paternal, maternal and birth covariates. Semen parameters were stratified based on thresholds defined by the WHO fifth edition laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In total 4.9% of 2224 infants were identified with a BD. No statistically significant association was observed between BD rates and semen parameters, before or after adjustment for covariates. The association between sperm concentration and BDs demonstrated an odds ratio (OR) of 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-1.83); motility: OR 0.91 (0.52-2.22); and total motile count: OR 1.21 (0.70-2.08). Likewise, mode of conception, including infertility treatment and ART, did not affect BD rates (P > 0.05).LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: BDs recorded in the TBDFR only include live born infants or still births after 20 weeks, our study did not evaluate the effect of impaired semen parameters on developmental defects prior to 20 weeks of gestation. With 109 BDs, our statistical analysis was powered to detect moderate differences associated with particular semen parameters. Additionally, data about mode of conception was not available for 1053 of 2224 births.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: BD rates are not associated with semen quality or mode of conception. The current study suggests that the severity of male factor infertility does not impact the rate of congenital anomalies. This information is important when counseling couples concerned about the relationship between impaired semen quality and BDs.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Supported in part by the NIH Men's Reproductive Health Research (MRHR) K12 HD073917 (D.J.L.), the Multidisciplinary K12 Urologic Research (KURe) Career Development Program (D.J.L.), P01HD36289 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, NIH (D.J.L.), and by U01DD000494 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Title V Block Grant to the Texas Department of State Health Services. A.W.P. is a National Institutes of Health K08 Scholar supported by a Mentored Career Development Award (K08DK115835-01) from the from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. This work is also supported in part through a Urology Care Foundation Rising Stars in Urology Award (to A.W.P.) None of the authors has a conflict of interest.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable.

    View details for PubMedID 30753581

  • Increased Risk of Incident Chronic Medical Conditions in Infertile Women: Analysis of Us Claims Data. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Murugapppan, G., Li, S., Lathi, R. B., Baker, V. L., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: The risk of common chronic medical conditions among infertile women is not known.OBJECTIVE: To study the association between female infertility and risk of incident chronic disease.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis using the Optum de-identified Clinformatics© Datamart from 2003-2016. 64,345 infertile women were identified by infertility diagnosis, testing or treatment and compared to 3,128,345 non-infertile patients seeking routine gynecologic care. Women with prior diagnosis of the relevant chronic disease or cancer or with either diagnosis within six months of index event were excluded. Main outcome was diagnosis of incident chronic disease as identified by ICD-9/ICD-10 codes. Results were adjusted for age, index year, nulliparity, race, smoking, obesity, number of visits per year and highest level of education.RESULTS: Infertile patients were more likely to develop diabetes (aHR 1.44, CI 1.38-1.49), renal disease (aHR 1.22, CI 1.12-1.32), liver disease (aHR 1.25, CI 1.20-1.30), cerebrovascular disease (aHR 1.26, CI 1.15-1.38), ischemic heart disease (aHR 1.16, CI 1.09-1.24), other heart disease (aHR 1.16, CI 1.12-1.20), and drug abuse (aHR 1.24, CI 1.15-1.33) compared to non-infertile patients. Infertile patients were significantly less likely to develop alcohol abuse (aHR 0.86, CI 0.79-0.95) compared to non-infertile patients. Risk associations were similar after excluding women with PCOS and POI. In subgroup analyses of women who underwent pregnancy and childbirth during enrollment, several previously noted risk associations were attenuated compared to the overall cohort.CONCLUSION: While the absolute risk of chronic disease is low, infertility is associated with increased risk of incident chronic disease compared to a group of non-infertile women.

    View details for PubMedID 30710512

  • Male infertility and future cardiometabolic health: Does the association vary by sociodemographic factors? Urology Kasman, A. M., Li, S., Luke, B., Sutcliffe, A. G., Pacey, A. A., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    To determine whether the association between male infertility and incident cardiometabolic disease is modified by socioeconomics, race, or geographic region.Retrospective review of data from insurance claims from Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database. Subjects were men, 18-50 years old, with an associated diagnosis of infertility in the United States between 2003 and 2016. Analytic sample were men captured by the Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database with an associated diagnosis of infertility. Men were classified as either infertile, or not, based on diagnosis or procedural codes. Cardiometabolic health outcomes were then assessed using CPT codes for diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease. Confounding factors were controlled for such as race, education, socioecomonic status, and region. The main outcomes were development of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease.A total of 76,343 males were diagnosed with male factor infertility, 60,072 males who underwent fertility testing, and 183,742 males that underwent vasectomy (control population). For all men, infertile men had a higher risk of incident hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease when compared to those undergoing vasectomy. Identical associations were found across all education, income, racial, and geographic strata.Our study suggests that men with infertility have a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease in the years following a fertility evaluation regardless of race, region, or socioeconomic status.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2019.06.041

    View details for PubMedID 31377255

  • Microsurgical varicocelectomy: novel applications to optimize patient outcomes. Fertility and sterility Lipshultz, L. I., Ramasamy, R., Sandlow, J. I., Hotaling, J., Eisenberg, M., Niederberger, C., Brannigan, R. E. 2019; 112 (4): 632–39

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2019.08.057

    View details for PubMedID 31561866

  • Racial and Sociodemographic Differences of Semen Parameters Among US Men Undergoing a Semen Analysis UROLOGY Glazer, C., Li, S., Zhang, C., Giwercman, A., Bonde, J., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019; 123: 126–32
  • In Vitro Fertilization and Risk for Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: Associations with Treatment Parameters. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Luke, B., Brown, M. B., Eisenberg, M. L., Callan, C., Botting, B. J., Pacey, A., Sutcliffe, A. G., Baker, V. L. 2019

    Abstract

    Although in vitro fertilization (IVF) has been associated with an increased risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the association of risk with IVF treatment parameters is unclear.To evaluate risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy by maternal fertility status, and IVF treatment parameters.Women in 8 States who underwent IVF resulting in a live birth during 2004 through 2013 were linked to their infant's birth certificates. A 10:1 sample of births from non-IVF deliveries were selected for comparison. Those with an indication of infertility treatment on the birth certificate were categorized as subfertile and omitted for the study population; all others were categorized as fertile. The IVF pregnancies were additionally categorized by oocyte source (autologous vs donor) and embryo state (fresh vs thawed). Both the fertile and IVF births were limited to singletons only, and the IVF pregnancies were limited to those using partner sperm. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) were identified from the birth certificate, modeled using logistic regression, and reported as adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals. For analyses of IVF pregnancies from autologous oocytes-fresh embryos, the reference group was fertile women (subgroup analysis 1). For analyses within the IVF group, the reference group was autologous oocytes- fresh embryos (subgroup analysis 2).The study population included 1,465,893 pregnancies (1,382,311 births to fertile women and 83,582 births to IVF-treated women). Compared to fertile women, IVF women with autologous-fresh cycles did not have an increased risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy [AOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99, 1.08]. Among IVF births (subgroup analysis 2), the risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was increased for autologous-thawed, 1.30 [1.20, 1.40]; donor-fresh, 1.92 [1.71, 2.15]; donor-thawed, 1.70 [1.47, 1.96]. Excluding women with pregestational diabetes or chronic hypertension, and adjusting for body mass index and infertility diagnoses did not substantially change the results. When stratified by <34 weeks (early onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy) versus ≥34 weeks (late onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy), only the donor-fresh group had an increased risk for early-onset, but the risks for all other oocyte source-embryo state groups compared to autologous-fresh were increased for late-onset.The risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is increased for IVF-treated women and in pregnancies conceived via frozen embryo transfer (with both autologous or donor oocyte) and fresh donor oocyte embryo transfer. No increase in risk was seen with fresh autologous IVF cycles. Excluding women with pregestational diabetes or chronic hypertension, and adjusting for body mass index and infertility diagnoses did not substantially change the results.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.10.003

    View details for PubMedID 31629726

  • Parental age and stillbirth: a population-based cohort of nearly 10 million California deliveries from 1991 to 2011. Annals of epidemiology Mayo, J. A., Lu, Y., Stevenson, D. K., Shaw, G. M., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Parental age at delivery in the United States has been rising. Advanced maternal and paternal ages have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including stillbirth. However, these relationships come from studies that often do not present results for both mother and father concurrently. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of stillbirth for maternal and paternal age in the same cohort of deliveries.METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study of all live birth and stillbirth deliveries in California from 1991 to 2011. The individual associations between maternal and paternal ages and stillbirth were estimated with hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazard models. Age was modeled continuously with restricted cubic splines to account for nonlinear relationships. Mean parental age was used as the referent group.RESULTS: J-shaped associations between maternal and paternal ages were observed in crude models where older mothers and fathers had the highest hazard ratios for stillbirth. In maternal models, after adjusting for maternal and paternal covariates, young maternal age no longer showed increased hazard ratio for stillbirth, whereas the association with older mothers remained. In adjusted paternal models, the relationship between young paternal age and stillbirth was unchanged while the hazard ratio for older fathers was slightly smaller.CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for both parents' age, education, race/ethnicity, along with parity, older mothers and fathers were independently associated with elevated hazard ratios for stillbirth.

    View details for PubMedID 30642694

  • Male factor infertility and risk of multiple sclerosis: A register-based cohort study MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL Glazer, C., Tottenborg, S., Giwercman, A., Brauner, E., Eisenberg, M. L., Vassard, D., Magyari, M., Pinborg, A., Schmidt, L., Bonde, J. 2018; 24 (14): 1835–42
  • The Impact of Clostridium Histolyticum Collagenase on the Prevalence and Management of Peyronie's Disease in the United States. The world journal of men's health Sun, A. J., Li, S., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: We evaluated the impact of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) on rates of diagnosis, treatment, and corporal rupture in Peyronie's disease (PD). We examined the impact of CCH on cost of PD treatment.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted data on PD diagnosis (ICD-9 607.95 and ICD-10 N48.6), corporal rupture (ICD-9 959.13 and ICD-10 S39.840A), CCH use (J0775), penile injections (CPT 54200), and corporal rupture repair from 2008 to 2016 in men over 40 years old using the Clinformatics Data Mart Database (3.7 to 4.9 million males). We analyzed for prevalence of PD, rates of PD treatments, cost associated with treatment, and rates of corporal rupture and repair by year.RESULTS: The prevalence of PD was 0.29% in 2013 and did not increase after CCH entered the market in 2014. An average of 2.52% of men with PD received treatment before CCH, compared with 3.75% after (p<0.0001). Penile injection rates increased (1.34% vs. 2.61%, p<0.0001), while rates of surgical treatments decreased between these periods. There was no change in rate of corporal rupture in men with PD before (0.024%) and after (0.024%) CCH. Overall, only 20.0% of corporal ruptures were repaired. After CCH entered practice, a significant increase in cost occurred (p=0.013).CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of men with PD did not change after CCH. However, more men with PD received treatment due to an increase in penile injections. The cost of treating PD increased after CCH became available. The overall prevalence of corporal rupture did not change after CCH entered the market.

    View details for PubMedID 30588781

  • Racial and Sociodemographic Differences of Semen Parameters among US Men Undergoing a Semen Analysis. Urology Glazer, C. H., Li, S., Zhang, C. A., Giwercman, A., Bonde, J. P., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize sociodemographic differences in semen parameters among US undergoing a semen analysis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men that provided a semen sample were identified from insurance claims between 2007-2016. Differences in semen parameters were characterized according to age, race, education and region. Mean semen parameters and proportions of men with suboptimal parameters was compared and risks of oligospermia and azoospermia was assessed by logistic regression.RESULTS: Of the 7,263 men included, most men were White (55.1%), Hispanic (20.2%) or Asian (10.2%). Asians had the highest mean semen concentrations (69.2 * 106/mL) whereas Blacks had the lowest (51.3 * 106/mL). Men from the Midwest were more likely to have oligospermia (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.34-1.94) whereas men from the West were less likely (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.82-0.94) when compared with men from South. An association between education and sperm concentration was observed. For example, men with a high school diploma or less were more likely to have oligospermia (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) whereas men with at least a bachelor degree were less likely (OR 0.87; 95%CI 0. 0.76-1.0) when compared with men with less than a bachelor degree.CONCLUSION: As we observed differences in semen quality based on sociodemographic factors, these findings may have clinical implications as relying on a single reference value when guiding infertile couples may be problematic given these variations. Further work is warranted to understand the etiology of such differences and determine if different normative reference values may apply for different populations.

    View details for PubMedID 30300659

  • Trends in Prevalence, Management and Cost of Scrotal Pain in the United States between 2007 and 2014 UROLOGY PRACTICE Khandwala, Y. S., Zhang, C. A., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018; 5 (4): 272–77
  • Use of secondary contraception following vasectomy: insights from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2007-2011 TRANSLATIONAL ANDROLOGY AND UROLOGY Patel, D. P., Williams, L., Warner, L., O'Neil, M. E., Aston, K., Carrell, D. T., Grigorescu, V., Jamieson, D. J., Gannon, J. R., Eisenberg, M. L., Walsh, T. J., Hotaling, J. M. 2018; 7: S264–S270
  • Risk of Melanoma With Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Use Among Patients With Erectile Dysfunction, Pulmonary Hypertension, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. The journal of sexual medicine Shkolyar, E., Li, S., Tang, J., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is), a treatment for erectile dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension (pHTN), and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), have been implicated in melanoma development.AIM: We sought to determine the association between PDE5i use and melanoma development among patients with erectile dysfunction, pHTN, and LUTS.METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of subjects contained within the Truven Health MarketScan claims database, which provides information on insurance claims in the United States for privately insured individuals, from 2007-2015. Individuals taking PDE5i were identified through pharmacy claims. A comparison group of men diagnosed with conditions for which PDE5i are prescribed was assembled.OUTCOMES: Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of incident melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.RESULTS: Of 610,881 subjects prescribed PDE5i, 636 developed melanoma (0.10%). The control group had 8,711 diagnoses of melanoma. There was an association between increased PDE5i tablet use and melanoma (HR1.05, 95% CI 1.05-1.09). This association was also present between PDE5i use and basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07) and squamous cell carcinoma (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07). In patients with pHTN and LUTS prescribed PDE5is, there was no relationship between exposure and melanoma incidence (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48-1.13; and HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.10, respectively).CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is little evidence for a clinically relevant association between PDE5i use and melanoma incidence.STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Our current work represents the largest study to date evaluating the relationship between PDE5i use and melanoma risk, and the first to examine all current indications of PDE5i use among men and women. Limitations include a patient population limited to commercially insured individuals, unknown patient medication compliance, and lack of information on patient skin type, lifestyle, and sun-exposure habits.CONCLUSION: There is a slight association between higher-volume PDE5i use and development of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. This association among all skin cancers implies that confounding may account for the observed association. Shkolyar E, Li S, Tang J, etal. Risk of Melanoma With Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Use Among Patients With Erectile Dysfunction, Pulmonary Hypertension, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. J Sex Med 2018;XX:XXX-XXX.

    View details for PubMedID 29884444

  • Increased Risk of Incident Disease in Men with Peyronie's Disease: Analysis of US Claims Data JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Pastuszak, A. W., Rodriguez, K. M., Solomon, Z. J., Kohn, T. P., Lipshultz, L., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018; 15 (6): 894–901

    Abstract

    The subsequent health risks associated with Peyronie's disease (PD) are unknown.This cohort study assesses the risk of developing auto-immune conditions and common chronic health conditions after a diagnosis of PD. We hypothesize that an increase in auto-immune disease will be evident in men with PD, as has been suggested in smaller studies.We determined the longitudinal incidence of 13 auto-immune diseases and 25 common chronic conditions in a cohort from the Truven Health Analytics (Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) database from 2007-2013. The cohort included men with 1 of 3 exposures in 2007: (1) men with PD, (2) men with erectile dysfunction (ED) but not PD, and (3) men without PD or ED, matched on age and follow-up duration.To assess incidence, we utilized a Cox regression model adjusting for age, smoking, obesity, health care visits per year, urology visits per year, and years of follow-up.We included 8,728 men with PD; 204,147 men with ED; and 87,280 controls. Men with PD had an increased risk of developing benign prostatic hyperplasia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21, 95% CI 1.16-1.27), prostatitis (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.12-1.31), and lower urinary tract symptoms (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.16) when compared to both men with ED and age-matched controls without ED or PD even when controlling for the number of urology visits per year. Compared to controls, men with PD also had an increased risk of developing keloids. No significant risk for any auto-immune disease was observed.Clinicians should have heightened awareness for these relevant co-morbidities when treating men with PD.Utilizing a claims database provides one of the largest cohorts of men with PD ever published but claims databases lack some individual patient data such as risk factors and demographic information relevant to PD, including: penile injury, history of urologic procedures, and other lifestyle factors.Men with PD had a higher risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis, and keloids after a diagnosis of PD, but no increased risk of auto-immune conditions. These findings suggest a common etiology for these conditions that may manifest itself in diseases at different times in men's life cycle. Pastuszak AW, Rodriguez KM, Solomon ZJ, et al. Increased Risk of Incident Disease in Men with Peyronie's Disease: Analysis of U.S. Claims Data. J Sex Med 2018;15:894-901.

    View details for PubMedID 29803352

  • The association of bicycle-related genital numbness and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score: results from a large, multinational, cross-sectional study. BJU international Baradaran, N., Awad, M., Gaither, T. W., Fergus, K. B., Ndoye, M., Cedars, B. E., Balakrishnan, A. S., Eisenberg, M. L., Sanford, T., Breyer, B. N. 2018

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of genital numbness and erectile dysfunction in male cyclists.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cyclists were recruited through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs. This is a secondary analysis of a larger epidemiological population-based study that examined sexual and urinary wellness in athletes. We queried cycling habits and erectile function using Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM).RESULTS: A total of 2774 male cyclists were included in the analysis. Amongst cyclists, there was a statistically significant increase in the trend of genital numbness presence with more years of cycling (P = 0.002), more frequent weekly cycling (P < 0.001), and longer cycling distance at each ride (P < 0.001). Less frequent use of padded shorts (odds ratio [OR] 0.14, P < 0.001) and lower handlebar (OR 0.49, P < 0.001) were associated with numbness, but body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.1, P = 0.33) and age (OR 1.2, P = 0.15) were not. In a multivariate logistic regression model, after adjusting for age, BMI, and lifetime miles (calculated by average daily cycling mileage * cycling days/week * cycling years.), there were no statistically significant differences in mean SHIM score between cyclists with and cyclists without numbness (20.3 vs 20.2, P = 0.83). However, interestingly, the subset of cyclists who reported numbness in the buttock reported statistically significantly worse SHIM scores (20.3 vs 18.4, P < 0.001). This association was not present in cyclists who reported numbness in the scrotum, penis, or perineum and remained significant after adjusting for overall biking intensity.CONCLUSION: Cyclists report genital numbness in proportion with biking intensity but numbness is not associated with worse sexual function in this cohort.

    View details for PubMedID 29790643

  • Association between use of marijuana and time to pregnancy in men and women: findings from the National Survey of Family Growth FERTILITY AND STERILITY Kasman, A. M., Thoma, M. E., McLain, A. C., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018; 109 (5): 866–71

    Abstract

    To determine if regular use of marijuana has an impact on time to pregnancy.Retrospective review of cross-sectional survey data from male and female respondents aged 15-44 years who participated in the 2002, 2006-2010, and 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth.Not applicable.The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative population-based sample derived from stratified multistage area probability sampling of 121 geographic areas in the U.S. Our analytic sample was participants who were actively trying to conceive.Exposure status was based on the respondents' answers regarding their marijuana use in the preceding 12 months.The main outcome was estimated time to pregnancy, which was hypothesized before analysis to be delayed by regular marijuana use.A total of 758 male and 1,076 female participants responded that they were actively trying to conceive. Overall, 16.5% of men reported using any marijuana while attempting to conceive, versus 11.5% of women. The time ratio to pregnancy for never smokers versus daily users of marijuana in men was 1.08 (95% confidence interval 0.79-1.47) and in women 0.92 (0.43-1.95), demonstrating no statistically significant impact of marijuana use on time to pregnancy.Our study suggests that neither marijuana use nor frequency of marijuana use was associated with time to pregnancy for men and women.

    View details for PubMedID 29555335

  • Registries and Databases in Sexual Medicine: Utility? JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Sun, A. J., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018; 15 (4): 426–27

    View details for PubMedID 29609911

  • PEYRONIE'S DISEASE: THE IMPACT OF COLLAGENASE CLOSTRIDIUM HISTOLYTICUM ON DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, AND COST Sun, A., Li, S., Eisenberg, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E883
  • Cycling and Female Sexual and Urinary Function: Results From a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Gaither, T. W., Awad, M. A., Murphy, G. P., Metzler, I., Sanford, T., Eisenberg, M. L., Sutcliffe, S., Osterberg, E., Breyer, B. N. 2018; 15 (4): 510–18

    Abstract

    Bicycle riding has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation and exercise, especially among women, and previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cycling and sexual dysfunction, albeit using non-validated questionnaires.We aimed to explore the relationship between cycling and sexual and urinary dysfunction.Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs across 5 English-speaking countries. Swimmers and runners were recruited as a comparison group.Participants were queried using validated questionnaires, including the Female Sexual Function Index, the American Urological Association Symptom Index, and non-validated questions about history of urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital numbness, and genital saddle sores (all self-reported).3,118 (53.3%) Women completed the survey, comprising 1,053 (34%) non-cyclists, 1,656 (53%) low-intensity cyclists, and 409 (13%) high-intensity cyclists. After adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, tobacco use, race, marital status, urinary symptoms, and sexual activity, high-intensity cyclists had lower odds of self-reported sexual dysfunction compared to non-cyclists (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.7, P = .02). There were no statistically significant differences in urinary symptoms across groups. Compared to non-cyclists, both low- and high-intensity cyclists had higher odds of reporting a previous UTI (aOR 1.4, P < .001, and aOR 1.4, P = .009, respectively), genital numbness (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, P < .001, and OR 9.1, P < .001, respectively), and saddle sores (OR 6.3, P < .001, and OR 22.7, P < .001, respectively).Women cyclists were more likely to report other genitourinary conditions, including UTIs, genital numbness, and saddle sores.This is the largest study comparing cyclists to other athletes with respect to sexual and urinary function. The study is limited by its cross-sectional design and sampling methods. We found that women cyclists were no more likely to report sexual dysfunction or urinary symptoms than swimmers or runners. Gaither TW, Awad MA, Murphy GP, et al. Cycling and Female Sexual and Urinary Function: Results From a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study. J Sex Med 2018;15:510-518.

    View details for PubMedID 29548713

  • The Relationship between Neonatal Circumcision, Urinary Tract Infection, and Health. The world journal of men's health Eisenberg, M. L., Galusha, D., Kennedy, W. A., Cullen, M. R. 2018

    Abstract

    The risk-benefit profile of neonatal circumcision is not clear. Most studies have focused on urinary tract infections but other health sequelae have not been evaluated. While evidence supports benefits of circumcision, a lack of randomized trials has been cited as a weakness. National guidelines provide mixed recommendations regarding neonatal circumcision. We review the weight of evidence and utilize current statistical methodology on observational data to examine the risks and benefits of neonatal circumcision.

    View details for PubMedID 29623700

  • A MAGNETIC LEVITATION PLATFORM FOR THE ISOLATION OF MATURE SPERM FROM TESE/TESA SAMPLES Durmus, G., Gupta, R., Badamjav, O., Reddy, V., Eisenberg, M. L., Behr, B., Demirci, U. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E26–E27
  • Cycling, and Male Sexual and Urinary Function: Results from a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Awad, M. A., Gaither, T. W., Murphy, G. P., Chumnarnsongkhroh, T., Metzler, I., Sanford, T., Sutcliffe, S., Eisenberg, M. L., Carroll, P. R., Osterberg, E., Breyer, B. N. 2018; 199 (3): 798–803
  • Male infertility: a biomarker of individual and familial cancer risk FERTILITY AND STERILITY Hanson, B. M., Eisenberg, M. L., Hotaling, J. M. 2018; 109 (1): 6–19

    Abstract

    Associations between male infertility and cancer are gaining clinical attention. Relationships between infertility and cancer have traditionally been studied in women, but recent work has focused on the male component of reproduction. Infertile men are at an elevated risk to develop various malignancies later in life, primarily genitourinary malignancies such as testicular and prostate cancer. Rates of testicular and high-grade prostate cancer in infertile men appear to be at least double the risk in the general population. The link between infertility and malignancy highlights the importance of thorough evaluation and long-term follow up-beyond a simple semen analysis. A detailed urologic evaluation, possibly including scrotal ultrasound, may be beneficial to screen infertile men for testicular cancer. Publications have also demonstrated that male infertility can be a biomarker for cancer risk in first- and second-degree relatives. Testicular cancer risk in first-degree relatives of infertile men is 52% higher than the risk in relatives of fertile control men, and male infertility has been associated with a two- to threefold elevation in risk of childhood cancer in the siblings of infertile men. Links between infertility and malignancy are multifactorial, and exact mechanistic explanations are still not fully understood. Although more studies are needed to assess levels of risk and create screening recommendations in this population, understanding the relationship between male infertility and malignancy is crucial to provide comprehensive counseling for infertile men and their families.

    View details for PubMedID 29307404

  • Cycling, and Male Sexual and Urinary Function: Results from a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study. The Journal of urology Awad, M. A., Gaither, T. W., Murphy, G. P., Chumnarnsongkhroh, T., Metzler, I., Sanford, T., Sutcliffe, S., Eisenberg, M. L., Carroll, P. R., Osterberg, E. C., Breyer, B. N. 2018; 199 (3): 798–804

    Abstract

    We explored the relation of cycling to urinary and sexual function in a large multinational sample of men.Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook® advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs. Swimmers and runners were recruited as a comparison group. Cyclists were categorized into low and high intensity cyclists. Participants were queried using validated questionnaires, including SHIM (Sexual Health Inventory for Men), I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and NIH-CPSI (National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index), in addition to questions about urinary tract infections, urethral stricture, genital numbness and saddle sores.Of 5,488 complete survey responses 3,932 (72%) were included in our analysis. On multivariate analysis swimmers/runners had a lower mean SHIM score than low and high intensity cyclists (19.5 vs 19.9 and 20.7, p = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively). No significant differences were found in I-PSS or NIH-CPSI scores, or urinary tract infection history. Cyclists had statistically higher odds of urethral stricture compared to swimmers/runners (OR 2.5, p = 0.042). Standing more than 20% of the time while cycling significantly reduced the odds of genital numbness (OR 0.4, p = 0.006). Adjusting the handlebar higher or even with the saddle had lower odds of genital numbness and saddle sores (OR 0.8, p = 0.005 and 0.6, p <0.001, respectively).Cyclists had no worse sexual or urinary functions than swimmers or runners but cyclists were more prone to urethral stricture. Increased time standing while cycling and a higher handlebar height were associated with lower odds of genital sores and numbness.

    View details for PubMedID 29031767

  • Use of secondary contraception following vasectomy: insights from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2007-2011. Translational andrology and urology Patel, D. P., Williams, L., Warner, L., O'Neil, M. E., Aston, K., Carrell, D. T., Grigorescu, V., Jamieson, D. J., Gannon, J. R., Eisenberg, M. L., Walsh, T. J., Hotaling, J. M. 2018; 7 (Suppl 3): S264–S270

    Abstract

    To assess postpartum use of secondary contraception with vasectomy within Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS).Secondary contraception and type of method used were assessed among married women reporting partner vasectomy 4 months after a recent live birth in female residents of 15 US states and New York City who participated in the 2007-2011 PRAMS.Between 2007 and 2011, 1,004 married women who had a recent live birth participating in PRAMS reported they and their partners relied on vasectomy for postpartum contraception. Among these couples, 57.8% reported not using additional forms of contraception postpartum. Of those reporting additional contraception, condoms were most commonly used (50.0%), followed by oral contraceptive pills (26.5%), and withdrawal (9.5%). Multivariable modeling showed that use of secondary contraception was twice as high among women reporting a second birth versus women reporting a fourth or higher birth [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) =2.0 (1.1-3.2)]. No other sociodemographic characteristics (maternal age, maternal race, parental education, household income) were significantly associated with use of secondary contraception with vasectomy.Most couples within PRAMS reporting partner vasectomy as postpartum contraception did not use secondary contraception in the months immediately after vasectomy, and, of those who did, most relied on less effective methods. Clinicians need to better understand reasons for limited use of secondary contraception with vasectomy to improve counseling strategies for reducing unintended pregnancy.

    View details for PubMedID 30159231

  • Association Between Marijuana Use and Sexual Frequency in the United States: A Population-Based Study JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Sun, A. J., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017; 14 (11): 1342–47

    Abstract

    Marijuana use is increasingly prevalent in the United States. Effects of marijuana use on sexual function are unclear, with contradictory reports of enhancement and detriment existing.To elucidate whether a relation between marijuana use and sexual frequency exists using a nationally representative sample of reproductive-age men and women.We analyzed data from cycle 6 (2002), cycle 7 (2006-2010), and continuous survey (2011-2015) administrations of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. We used a multivariable model, controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and anthropographic characteristics, to evaluate whether a relationship between marijuana use and sexual frequency exists.Sexual frequency within the 4 weeks preceding survey administration related to marijuana use and frequency in the year preceding survey administration.The results of 28,176 women (average age = 29.9 years) and 22,943 men (average age = 29.5) were analyzed. More than 60% of men and women were Caucasian, and 76.1% of men and 80.4% of women reported at least a high school education. After adjustment, female monthly (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.07-1.68, P = .012), weekly (IRR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.15-1.60, P < .001), and daily (IRR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.01-1.32, P = .035) marijuana users had significantly higher sexual frequency compared with never users. Male weekly (IRR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06-1.41, P = .006) and daily (IRR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.21-1.53, P < .001) users had significantly higher sexual frequency compared with never users. An overall trend for men (IRR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11, P < .001) and women (IRR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04-1.10, P < .001) was identified showing that higher marijuana use was associated with increased coital frequency.Marijuana use is independently associated with increased sexual frequency and does not appear to impair sexual function.Our study used a large well-controlled cohort and clearly defined end points to describe a novel association between marijuana use and sexual frequency. However, survey responses were self-reported and represent participants only at a specific point in time. Participants who did not answer questions related to marijuana use and sexual frequency were excluded.A positive association between marijuana use and sexual frequency is seen in men and women across all demographic groups. Although reassuring, the effects of marijuana use on sexual function warrant further study. Sun AJ, Eisenberg ML. Association Between Marijuana Use and Sexual Frequency in the United States: A Population-Based Study. J Sex Med 2017;14:1342-1347.

    View details for PubMedID 29110804

  • Evaluation of external vibratory stimulation as a treatment for chronic scrotal pain in adult men: A single center open label pilot study SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PAIN Khandwala, Y. S., Serrano, F., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017; 17: 403–7

    Abstract

    Chronic scrotal pain is a common yet poorly understood urologic disease. Current treatment paradigms are sub-optimal and include anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids as well as invasive surgical management such as microdenervation of the spermatic cord. In this study, the efficacy of external vibratory stimulation (EVS) was evaluated as an alternative treatment option for idiopathic scrotal pain.Ten consecutive patients presenting to an academic urology clinic between December 2016 and April 2017 with scrotal pain were prospectively enrolled. After a comprehensive history and physical exam, patients were presented with and oriented to a spherical vibratory device that they were instructed to use topically each day for four weeks. Average and maximum pain severity, frequency, and bother scores were tracked at 2-week intervals using a visual analog scale (0-10) via survey. Descriptive statistics facilitated interpretation of individual changes in pain.Nine men, with a median age of 46 years, completed at least 2 weeks of the study intervention. 78% (7/9) of men achieved some improvement in daily scrotal pain levels. Overall, average pain decreased from 4.9 to 2.7 (p=0.009) while maximum pain severity decreased from 6.3 to 4.0 (p=0.013). The frequency of pain also decreased for 55.6% (5/9) of men. No severe side effects were noted by any of the participants though several patients reported mild paresthesia only during application of the device. The majority of men expressed interest in continuing treatment after conclusion of the study.External vibratory stimulation has been suggested as a promising non-invasive tool to alleviate chronic pain. As a proof-of-concept, we implemented EVS to treat men with idiopathic orchialgia. The majority of patients noted benefit in both severity and frequency of pain. Given its low risk profile, EVS deserves further evaluation and inclusion in treatment guidelines as a promising experimental therapy for a disease with few conservative treatment options available to providers.In this longitudinal study, external vibratory stimulation was found to decrease chronic scrotal pain without any adverse effects. The use of this non-invasive, non-pharmaceutical therapy to treat chronic scrotal pain has the potential to decrease physician and patient dependence on surgical procedures and opioid prescriptions. Future randomized, double blind clinical trials with a placebo arm are required to corroborate these findings and establish the true efficacy of EVS.

    View details for PubMedID 29126848

  • Male factor infertility and risk of multiple sclerosis: A register-based cohort study. Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) Glazer, C. H., Tottenborg, S. S., Giwercman, A., Brauner, E. V., Eisenberg, M. L., Vassard, D., Magyari, M., Pinborg, A., Schmidt, L., Bonde, J. P. 2017: 1352458517734069

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Gender, possibly due to the influence of gonadal hormones, is presumed to play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have evaluated whether male infertility is associated with MS.OBJECTIVE: To study the association between male factor infertility and prevalent as well as incident MS.METHOD: Our cohort was established by linkage of the Danish National in vitro fertilization (IVF) registry to The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry and consisted of 51,063 men whose partners had undergone fertility treatment in all public and private fertility clinics in Denmark between 1994 and 2015.RESULTS: With a median age of 34 years at baseline, 24,011 men were diagnosed with male factor infertility and 27,052 did not have male factor infertility and made up the reference group. Men diagnosed with male factor infertility had a higher risk of prevalent (odds ratio (OR) = 1.61, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-2.51) and incident MS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.28, 95% CI 0.76-2.17) when compared to the reference group.CONCLUSION: This nationwide cohort study has shown, for the first time, an association between male infertility and MS which may be due to underlying common etiologies such as hypogonadism, shared genetics, or a joint autoimmune component.

    View details for PubMedID 29027840

  • Semen quality and pregnancy loss in a contemporary cohort of couples recruited before conception: data from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Sapra, K. J., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Louis, G. 2017; 108 (4): 613–19

    Abstract

    To study the relationship between semen quality and pregnancy loss in a cohort of couples attempting to conceive.Observational prospective cohort.Not applicable.Three hundred and forty-four couples with a singleton pregnancy observed daily through 7 postconception weeks of gestation.None.Association between semen quality and pregnancy loss.Ninety-eight (28%) of the couples experienced a pregnancy loss after singleton pregnancy. No differences were observed in semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm viability, or sperm morphology (World Health Organization [WHO] and strict criteria) by couple's pregnancy loss status irrespective of whether they were analyzed continuously or as dichotomous variables per the WHO 5th edition semen criteria. A dichotomous DNA fragmentation measure of ≥30% was statistically significantly associated with pregnancy loss. No association was identified with other sperm morphometric or movement measures. Of the 70 couples who re-enrolled after a pregnancy loss, 14 experienced a second loss. Similar findings were identified when examining semen quality from couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.Although a few trends were identified (e.g., DNA fragmentation), general semen parameters seemed to have little relation with risk of pregnancy loss or recurrent pregnancy loss at the population level. However, given that 30% of pregnancies end in miscarriage and half the fetal genome is paternal in origin, the findings await corroboration.

    View details for PubMedID 28863939

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5657506

  • Practical applications of sperm DNA fragmentation testing and its role in infertility TRANSLATIONAL ANDROLOGY AND UROLOGY Khandwala, Y. S., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017; 6: S397–S398

    View details for PubMedID 29082151

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5643692

  • Validity of Claims Data for the Identification of Male Infertility CURRENT UROLOGY REPORTS Khandwala, Y. S., Zhang, C. A., Li, S., Cullen, M. R., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017; 18 (9): 68

    Abstract

    We sought to determine whether infertile men can accurately be identified within a large insurance claims database to validate its use for reproductive health research.Prior literature suggests that men coded for infertility are at higher risk for chronic disease though it was previously unclear if these diagnostic codes correlated with true infertility. We found that the specificity of one International Classification of Disease (9th edition) code in predicting abnormal semen parameters was 92.4%, rising to 99.8% if a patient had three different codes for infertility. The positive predictive value was as high as 85%. The use of claims data for male infertility research has been rapidly progressing due to its high power and feasibility. The high specificity of ICD codes for men with abnormal semen parameters is reassuring and validates prior studies as well as future investigation into men's health.

    View details for PubMedID 28718160

  • Racial Variation in Semen Quality at Fertility Evaluation. Urology Khandwala, Y. S., Zhang, C. A., Li, S., Behr, B., Guo, D., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017

    Abstract

    To identify racial differences in semen quality among men living in the same geographic area and seeking fertility evaluation.Men obtaining a semen analysis for infertility evaluation or treatment between 2012 and 2016 at a single center were identified, and demographic data including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and age were described. Mean semen parameters and the proportions of men with suboptimal parameters based on the World Health Organization's fifth edition criteria were also compared based on race. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted incorporating age, BMI, and year of evaluation. Further subanalyses based on BMI were subsequently performed.White men produced greater volumes of semen on average; however, Asian men had higher sperm concentrations and total sperm count. A lower proportion of Asian men compared to white men had semen quality in the suboptimal range for most semen parameters, whereas a higher proportion of white men were found to have azoospermia. Stratification by BMI groups attenuated the observed differences between whites and Asians, yet Asian male semen quality remained higher.Among men evaluated for infertility at a single center, Asians had lower volume but higher sperm concentrations compared with whites, which was influenced by differences in azoospermia prevalence. Although anthropometric and demographic factors attenuated the differences, even after adjustment, the contrasts remained. Our study suggests that racial differences exist in semen quality at the time of infertility evaluation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2017.03.064

    View details for PubMedID 28522219

  • The Relationship Between Offspring Sex Ratio and Vasectomy Utilization UROLOGY Lamberts, R. W., Guo, D. P., Li, S., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017; 103: 112-116

    Abstract

    To determine if there was an association between vasectomy utilization and offspring sex ratio (male offspring : total offspring), as offspring sex preference may have an impact on family planning in the United States.Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we calculated the number of sons and daughters of all men stratified by vasectomy status. We utilized a logistic regression model to determine if vasectomy utilization varies based on offspring sex ratio while accounting for known factors that impact vasectomy utilization.Of these men, 30,927 (30.8%) underwent vasectomy. Marital status, race, age, education level, region or state, and number of offspring were all significantly correlated with vasectomy utilization (P < .01). The sex ratio for vasectomized fathers (51.3%) was significantly higher than for fathers who had not undergone vasectomy (50.7%, P < .01). This difference remained even after we stratified by the total number of offspring: vasectomized men with 4 or more children had a sex ratio of 947 girls per 1000 boys, whereas the no vasectomy group had a sex ratio of 983 girls per 1000 boys (P < .01). For men with at least 2 children, each additional son increased the likelihood of vasectomy by 4% (P < .01), whereas each additional daughter led to a 2% decrease in vasectomy utilization (P = .03).Vasectomized fathers have a higher proportion of sons compared with non-vasectomized fathers, suggesting that offspring sex ratio is associated with a man's decision to undergo vasectomy. Further research is indicated to understand how offspring sex ratio impacts a man's contraceptive decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2016.11.039

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400429800031

  • Male Infertility and Risk of Nonmalignant Chronic Diseases: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Evidence SEMINARS IN REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE Glazer, C., Bonde, J., Eisenberg, M. L., Giwercman, A., Haervig, K., Rimborg, S., Vassard, D., Pinborg, A., Schmidt, L., Brauner, E. 2017; 35 (3): 282–90

    View details for PubMedID 28658712

  • Human semen quality and the secondary sex ratio ASIAN JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Bae, J., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Eisenberg, M. L., Louis, G. M. 2017; 19 (3): 374-381

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between semen quality and the secondary sex ratio (SSR), defined as the ratio of male to female live births. Our study cohort comprised 227 male partners who were enrolled prior to conception in Michigan and Texas between 2005 and 2009, and prospectively followed through delivery of a singleton birth. The male partners provided a baseline and a follow-up semen sample a month apart. Semen analysis was conducted to assess 27 parameters including five general characteristics, six sperm head measures, 14 morphology measures, and two sperm chromatin stability assay measures. Modified Poisson regression models with a robust error variance were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of a male birth for each semen parameter, after adjusting for potential confounders. Of the 27 semen parameters, only the percentage of bicephalic sperm was significantly associated with the SSR (2 nd vs 1 st quartile, RR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.45-0.95, P = 0.03; 4 th vs 1 st quartile, RR, 0.61, 95% CI, 0.38-1.00, P < 0.05 before rounding to two decimal places), suggestive of a higher percentage of bicephalic sperm being associated with an excess of female births. Given the exploratory design of the present study, this preconception cohort study suggests no clear signal that human semen quality is associated with offspring sex determination.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/1008-682X.173445

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400828700019

  • Trends in Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use from 2003 to 2013 among Reproductive-Age Men in the United States JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Rao, P. K., Boulet, S. L., Mehta, A., Hotaling, J., Eisenberg, M. L., Honig, S. C., Warner, L., Kissin, D. M., Nangia, A. K., Ross, L. S. 2017; 197 (4): 1121-1126

    Abstract

    Although testosterone replacement therapy use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade, to our knowledge trends in testosterone replacement therapy use among reproductive-age men have not been investigated. We assessed changes in testosterone replacement therapy use and practice patterns among 18 to 45-year-old American men from 2003 to 2013 and compared them to older men.This is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of men 18 to 45 and 56 to 64 years old who were enrolled in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Databases throughout each given calendar year from 2003 to 2013, including 5,094,868 men in 2013. Trends in the yearly rates of testosterone replacement therapy use were calculated using Poisson regression. Among testosterone replacement therapy users, the Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess temporal trends in age, formulation type, semen analysis and serum testosterone level testing during the 12 months preceding the documented use of testosterone replacement therapy.Between 2003 and 2013, there was a fourfold increase in the rate of testosterone use among 18 to 45-year-old men from 29.2/10,000 person-years to 118.1/10,000 person-years (p <0.0001). Among testosterone replacement therapy users, topical gel formulations were initially most used. Injection use then doubled between 2009 and 2012 (23.5% and 46.2%, respectively) and surpassed topical gel use in 2013. In men 56 to 64 years old there was a statistically significant threefold increase in testosterone replacement therapy use (p <0.0001), which was significantly smaller than the fourfold increase in younger men (p <0.0001).In 2003 to 2013, testosterone replacement therapy use increased fourfold in men 18 to 45 years old compared to threefold in older men. This younger age group should be a focus for future studies due to effects on fertility and unknown long-term sequelae.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2016.10.063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398050600062

  • DEMOGRAPHICS, USAGE PATTERNS, AND SAFETY OF MALE USERS OF CLOMIPHENE IN THE UNITED STATES Zlatev, D. V., Li, S., Baker, L. C., Eisenberg, M. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: E1342
  • Trends in Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use from 2003 to 2013 among Reproductive-Age Men in the United States. journal of urology Rao, P. K., Boulet, S. L., Mehta, A., Hotaling, J., Eisenberg, M. L., Honig, S. C., Warner, L., Kissin, D. M., Nangia, A. K., Ross, L. S. 2017; 197 (4): 1121-1126

    Abstract

    Although testosterone replacement therapy use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade, to our knowledge trends in testosterone replacement therapy use among reproductive-age men have not been investigated. We assessed changes in testosterone replacement therapy use and practice patterns among 18 to 45-year-old American men from 2003 to 2013 and compared them to older men.This is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of men 18 to 45 and 56 to 64 years old who were enrolled in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Databases throughout each given calendar year from 2003 to 2013, including 5,094,868 men in 2013. Trends in the yearly rates of testosterone replacement therapy use were calculated using Poisson regression. Among testosterone replacement therapy users, the Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess temporal trends in age, formulation type, semen analysis and serum testosterone level testing during the 12 months preceding the documented use of testosterone replacement therapy.Between 2003 and 2013, there was a fourfold increase in the rate of testosterone use among 18 to 45-year-old men from 29.2/10,000 person-years to 118.1/10,000 person-years (p <0.0001). Among testosterone replacement therapy users, topical gel formulations were initially most used. Injection use then doubled between 2009 and 2012 (23.5% and 46.2%, respectively) and surpassed topical gel use in 2013. In men 56 to 64 years old there was a statistically significant threefold increase in testosterone replacement therapy use (p <0.0001), which was significantly smaller than the fourfold increase in younger men (p <0.0001).In 2003 to 2013, testosterone replacement therapy use increased fourfold in men 18 to 45 years old compared to threefold in older men. This younger age group should be a focus for future studies due to effects on fertility and unknown long-term sequelae.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2016.10.063

    View details for PubMedID 27789218

  • Is human fecundity changing? A discussion of research and data gaps precluding us from having an answer HUMAN REPRODUCTION Smarr, M. M., Sapra, K. J., Gemmill, A., Kahn, L. G., Wise, L. A., Lynch, C. D., Factor-Litvak, P., Mumford, S. L., Skakkebaek, N. E., Slama, R., Lobdell, D. T., Stanford, J. B., Jensen, T. K., Boyle, E. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Turek, P. J., Sundaram, R., Thoma, M. E., Louis, G. M. 2017; 32 (3): 499-504

    Abstract

    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen quality, ovulation) or couple-based (e.g. time-to-pregnancy) endpoints. Population monitoring of fecundity is challenging, and often defaults to relying on rates of births (fertility) or adverse outcomes such as genitourinary malformations and reproductive site cancers. In light of reported declines in semen quality and fertility rates in some global regions among other changes, the question as to whether human fecundity is changing needs investigation. We review existing data and novel methodological approaches aimed at answering this question from a transdisciplinary perspective. The existing literature is insufficient for answering this question; we provide an overview of currently available resources and novel methods suitable for delineating temporal patterns in human fecundity in future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/dew361

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398060700004

  • Effects of age on fertility and sexual function FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Meldrum, D. 2017; 107 (2): 301-304

    Abstract

    As paternal age increases in the developed world, more attention has been given to the effects of age on male reproductive and sexual function. Although the biologic potential for reproductive continues for most of a man's life, changes in sperm production do occur. In addition, erectile function changes with age, caused by the same factors that lead to other vascular disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.12.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396910200004

    View details for PubMedID 28160919

  • Novel centrifugal technology for measuring sperm concentration in the home FERTILITY AND STERILITY Schaff, U. Y., Fredriksen, L. L., Epperson, J. G., Quebral, T. R., Naab, S., Sarno, M. J., Eisenberg, M. L., Sommer, G. J. 2017; 107 (2): 358-?

    Abstract

    To evaluate the analytical performance and usability of the Trak Male Fertility Testing System, a semiquantitative (categorical) device recently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared for measuring sperm concentration in the home by untrained users.A three-site clinical trial comparing self-reported lay user results versus reference results obtained by computer-aided semen analysis (CASA).Simulated home use environments at fertility centers and urologist offices.A total of 239 untrained users.None.Sperm concentration results reported from self-testing lay users and laboratory reference method by CASA were evaluated semiquantitatively against the device's clinical cutoffs of 15 M/mL (current World Health Organization cutoff) and 55 M/mL (associated with faster time to pregnancy). Additional reported metrics include assay linearity, precision, limit of detection, and ease-of-use ratings from lay users.Lay users achieved an accuracy (versus the reference) of 93.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84.1%-97.4%) for results categorized as ≤15 M/mL, 82.4% (95% CI 73.3%-88.9%) for results categorized as 15-55 M/mL, and 95.5% (95% CI 88.9%-98.2%) for results categorized as >55 M/mL. When measured quantitatively, Trak results had a strong linear correlation with CASA measurements (r = 0.99). The precision and limit of detection studies show that the device has adequate reproducibility and detection range for home use. Subjects generally rated the device as easy to use.The Trak System is an accurate tool for semiquantitatively measuring sperm concentration in the home. The system may enable screening and longitudinal assessment of sperm concentration at home.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02475395.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.10.025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396910200016

    View details for PubMedID 27887718

  • Is human fecundity changing? A discussion of research and data gaps precluding us from having an answer. Human reproduction Smarr, M. M., Sapra, K. J., Gemmill, A., Kahn, L. G., Wise, L. A., Lynch, C. D., Factor-Litvak, P., Mumford, S. L., Skakkebaek, N. E., Slama, R., Lobdell, D. T., Stanford, J. B., Jensen, T. K., Boyle, E. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Turek, P. J., Sundaram, R., Thoma, M. E., Buck Louis, G. M. 2017

    Abstract

    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen quality, ovulation) or couple-based (e.g. time-to-pregnancy) endpoints. Population monitoring of fecundity is challenging, and often defaults to relying on rates of births (fertility) or adverse outcomes such as genitourinary malformations and reproductive site cancers. In light of reported declines in semen quality and fertility rates in some global regions among other changes, the question as to whether human fecundity is changing needs investigation. We review existing data and novel methodological approaches aimed at answering this question from a transdisciplinary perspective. The existing literature is insufficient for answering this question; we provide an overview of currently available resources and novel methods suitable for delineating temporal patterns in human fecundity in future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/dew361

    View details for PubMedID 28137753

  • The sixth vital sign: what reproduction tells us about overall health. Proceedings from a NICHD/CDC workshop. Human reproduction open Cedars, M. I., Taymans, S. E., DePaolo, L. V., Warner, L., Moss, S. B., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017; 2017 (2): hox008

    Abstract

    STUDY QUESTION: Does the fertility status of an individual act as a biomarker for their future health?SUMMARY ANSWER: Data support an association between reproductive health and overall health for men and women.WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Various chronic conditions, such as diabetes, obesity and cancer, can compromise fertility, but there are limited data for the converse situation, in which fertility status can influence or act as a marker for future health. Data reveal an association between infertility and incident cardiovascular disease and cancer in both men and women.STUDY DESIGN SIZE AND DURATION: A National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention workshop in April 2016 was convened that brought together experts in both somatic diseases and conditions, and reproductive health. Goals of the workshop included obtaining information about the current state of the science linking fertility status and overall health, identifying potential gaps and barriers limiting progress in the field, and outlining the highest priorities to move the field forward.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING AND METHODS: Approximately 40 experts participated in the workshop.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: While the etiology remains uncertain for infertility, there is evidence for an association between male and female infertility and later health. The current body of evidence suggests four main categories for considering biological explanations: genetic factors, hormonal factors, in utero factors, and lifestyle/health factors. These categories would be key to include in future studies to develop a comprehensive and possibly standardized look at fertility status and overall health. Several themes emerged from the group discussion including strategies for maximizing use of existing resources and databases, the need for additional epidemiologic studies and public health surveillance, development of strategies to frame research so results could ultimately influence clinical practice, and the identification of short and long-term goals and the best means to achieve them.LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: Further research may not indicate an association between fertility status and overall health.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Currently medical care is compartmentalized. Reproductive medicine physicians treat patients for a short period of time before they transition to others for future care. Going forward, it is critical to take an interdisciplinary patient care approach that would involve experts in a broad range of medical specialties in order to more fully understand the complex interrelationships between fertility and overall health. If infertility is confirmed as an early marker of chronic disease then screening practices could be adjusted, as they are for patients with a family history of malignancy.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: Funding for the workshop was provided by the Fertility and Infertility Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health and the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control. There are no conflicts of interest to declare. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the National Institutes of Health.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable.

    View details for PubMedID 30895226

  • Hypertension and Male Fertility. The world journal of men's health Guo, D., Li, S., Behr, B., Eisenberg, M. L. 2017; 35 (2): 59–64

    Abstract

    As the age of paternity rises in the developed world, issues of chronic disease may affect prospective fathers. Given the high prevalence of hypertension, researchers have begun to explore the relationship between hypertensive disease and male fertility. The current literature suggests an association between hypertension and semen quality. The use of various antihypertensive medications has also been linked to impaired semen parameters, making it difficult to discern whether the association exists with hypertension or its treatment. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed associations are causal.

    View details for PubMedID 28868816

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5583372

  • The Relationship Between Offspring Sex Ratio and Vasectomy Utilization. Urology Lamberts, R. W., Guo, D. P., Li, S., Eisenberg, M. L. 2016

    Abstract

    To determine if there was an association between vasectomy utilization and offspring sex ratio (male offspring : total offspring), as offspring sex preference may have an impact on family planning in the United States.Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we calculated the number of sons and daughters of all men stratified by vasectomy status. We utilized a logistic regression model to determine if vasectomy utilization varies based on offspring sex ratio while accounting for known factors that impact vasectomy utilization.Of these men, 30,927 (30.8%) underwent vasectomy. Marital status, race, age, education level, region or state, and number of offspring were all significantly correlated with vasectomy utilization (P < .01). The sex ratio for vasectomized fathers (51.3%) was significantly higher than for fathers who had not undergone vasectomy (50.7%, P < .01). This difference remained even after we stratified by the total number of offspring: vasectomized men with 4 or more children had a sex ratio of 947 girls per 1000 boys, whereas the no vasectomy group had a sex ratio of 983 girls per 1000 boys (P < .01). For men with at least 2 children, each additional son increased the likelihood of vasectomy by 4% (P < .01), whereas each additional daughter led to a 2% decrease in vasectomy utilization (P = .03).Vasectomized fathers have a higher proportion of sons compared with non-vasectomized fathers, suggesting that offspring sex ratio is associated with a man's decision to undergo vasectomy. Further research is indicated to understand how offspring sex ratio impacts a man's contraceptive decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2016.11.039

    View details for PubMedID 27919667

  • Improving the Precision of the Male Fertility Evaluation EUROPEAN UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L. 2016; 70 (6): 924–25

    View details for PubMedID 27417032

  • Leydig cell tumor found incidentally during microscopic testicular sperm extraction in patient with mosaic Klinefelter syndrome: case report FERTILITY AND STERILITY Shaw, N. M., Stauffer, C., Eisenberg, M. L. 2016; 106 (6): 1344-1347

    Abstract

    To report the finding and management of a case of Leydig cell tumor discovered during the infertility evaluation of a patient with mosaic Klinefelter syndrome.Single case report.Academic hospital.Patient seeking assistance with fertility after a diagnosis of mosaic Klinefelter syndrome.The patient underwent microscopic testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) for sperm identification after the diagnosis of mosaic Klinefelter syndrome. Abnormal testicular tissue was identified during mTESE and histologically confirmed to be a Leydig cell tumor. The patient was informed of this incidental discovery and later underwent orchiectomy for conservative oncologic control.Histologic testicular assessment.Patient was found to have no viable sperm on mTESE, but achieved oncologic control with bilateral orchiectomy.The presented case emphasizes the importance of awareness and expedient appropriate management to achieve oncologic control of a rare tumor with low malignant potential discovered during otherwise routine mTESE. In particular, it highlights the role of the infertility specialist in aiding in diagnosis and treatment of incidental and rare findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.07.1116

    View details for Web of Science ID 000386829800018

    View details for PubMedID 27523297

  • Diabetes, medical comorbidities and couple fecundity. Human reproduction Eisenberg, M. L., Sundaram, R., Maisog, J., Buck Louis, G. M. 2016; 31 (10): 2369-2376

    Abstract

    What is the relationship between couple's health and fecundity in a preconception cohort?Somatic health may impact fecundity in men and women as couples whose male partner had diabetes or whose female partner had two or more medical conditions had a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP).The impact of somatic health on human fecundity is hypothesized given the reported declines in spermatogenesis and ovulation among individuals with certain medical comorbidities.A population-based prospective cohort study recruiting couples from 16 counties in Michigan and Texas (2005-2009) using sampling frameworks allowing for identification of couples planning pregnancy in the near future. Five hundred and one couples desiring pregnancy and discontinuing contraception were followed-up for 12 months or until a human chorionic gonadotropin pregnancy was detected.In all, 33 (21.4%) female and 41 (26.6%) male partners had medical conditions at baseline.Couples' medical comorbidity was associated with pregnancy status. Diabetes in either partner was associated with diminished fecundity, as measured by a longer TTP. Specifically, fecundability odds ratios (FORs) were below 1, indicating a longer TTP, for male partners with diabetes (0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.86) even in adjusted models (0.35, 95% CI: 0.13-0.88). Female partners with diabetes had comparable reductions in FORs; however, the analyses did not reach statistical significance (0.26, 95% CI: 0.03-1.98). Female partners with two or more medical conditions had a significantly longer TTP compared with women with no health problems (0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.92). Importantly, the presence of medical conditions was not associated with sexual frequency. We cannot rule out residual confounding, Type 2 errors for less prevalent medical conditions, or chance findings in light of the multiple comparisons made in the analysis.The findings require cautious interpretation given that medical diagnoses are subject to possible reporting errors, although we are unaware of any potential biases that may have been introduced, as participants were unaware of how long it would take to become pregnant upon enrollment.The current report suggests a relationship between male and female diabetes and fecundity, and possibly somatic health more globally. Moreover, while the mechanism is uncertain, if corroborated, our data suggest that early evaluation and treatment may be warranted for diabetics prior to attempting to conceive.Intramural research of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Contract nos. #N01-HD-3-3355, N01-HD-3-3356 and N01-HD-3-3358). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/dew200

    View details for PubMedID 27591240

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5027928

  • Diabetes, medical comorbidities and couple fecundity HUMAN REPRODUCTION Eisenberg, M. L., Sundaram, R., Maisog, J., Louis, G. M. 2016; 31 (10): 2369-2376

    Abstract

    What is the relationship between couple's health and fecundity in a preconception cohort?Somatic health may impact fecundity in men and women as couples whose male partner had diabetes or whose female partner had two or more medical conditions had a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP).The impact of somatic health on human fecundity is hypothesized given the reported declines in spermatogenesis and ovulation among individuals with certain medical comorbidities.A population-based prospective cohort study recruiting couples from 16 counties in Michigan and Texas (2005-2009) using sampling frameworks allowing for identification of couples planning pregnancy in the near future. Five hundred and one couples desiring pregnancy and discontinuing contraception were followed-up for 12 months or until a human chorionic gonadotropin pregnancy was detected.In all, 33 (21.4%) female and 41 (26.6%) male partners had medical conditions at baseline.Couples' medical comorbidity was associated with pregnancy status. Diabetes in either partner was associated with diminished fecundity, as measured by a longer TTP. Specifically, fecundability odds ratios (FORs) were below 1, indicating a longer TTP, for male partners with diabetes (0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.86) even in adjusted models (0.35, 95% CI: 0.13-0.88). Female partners with diabetes had comparable reductions in FORs; however, the analyses did not reach statistical significance (0.26, 95% CI: 0.03-1.98). Female partners with two or more medical conditions had a significantly longer TTP compared with women with no health problems (0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.92). Importantly, the presence of medical conditions was not associated with sexual frequency. We cannot rule out residual confounding, Type 2 errors for less prevalent medical conditions, or chance findings in light of the multiple comparisons made in the analysis.The findings require cautious interpretation given that medical diagnoses are subject to possible reporting errors, although we are unaware of any potential biases that may have been introduced, as participants were unaware of how long it would take to become pregnant upon enrollment.The current report suggests a relationship between male and female diabetes and fecundity, and possibly somatic health more globally. Moreover, while the mechanism is uncertain, if corroborated, our data suggest that early evaluation and treatment may be warranted for diabetics prior to attempting to conceive.Intramural research of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Contract nos. #N01-HD-3-3355, N01-HD-3-3356 and N01-HD-3-3358). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/dew200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000386087000025

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5027928

  • Relationship between paternal somatic health and assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Fertility and sterility Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Wise, L. A., Lynch, C. D., Nakajima, S., Meyers, S. A., Behr, B., Baker, V. L. 2016; 106 (3): 559-565

    Abstract

    To study the association between paternal medical comorbidities and the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART).Retrospective cohort study.Academic reproductive medicine center.We analyzed fresh ART cycles uszing freshly ejaculated sperm from the male partner of couples undergoing ART cycles from 2004 until 2014. We recorded patient and partner demographic characteristics. The cohort was linked to hospital billing data to obtain information on selected male partners' comorbidities identified using ICD-9-CM codes.None.Fertilization, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, implantation, and live-birth rates as well as birth weights and gestational ages.In all, we identified 2,690 men who underwent 5,037 fresh ART cycles. Twenty-seven percent of men had at least one medical diagnosis. Men with nervous system diseases had on average lower pregnancy rates (23% vs. 30%) and live-birth rates (15% vs. 23%) than men without nervous system diseases. Lower fertilization rates were also observed among men with respiratory diseases (61% vs. 64%) and musculoskeletal diseases (61% vs. 64%) relative to those without these diseases. In addition, men with diseases of the endocrine system had smaller children (2,970 vs. 3,210 g) than men without such diseases. Finally, men with mental disorders had children born at an earlier gestational age (36.5 vs. 38.0 weeks).The current report identified a possible relationship between a man's health history and IVF outcomes. As these are potentially modifiable factors, further research should determine whether treatment for men's health conditions may improve or impair IVF outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.04.037

    View details for PubMedID 27179785

  • Comparability and reproducibility of adult male anogenital distance measurements for two different methods. Andrology Mendiola, J., Oñate-Celdrán, J., Samper-Mateo, P., Arense-Gonzalo, J. J., Torres-Roca, M., Sánchez-Rodríguez, C., García-Escudero, D., Fontana-Compiano, L. O., Eisenberg, M. L., Swan, S. H., Torres-Cantero, A. M. 2016; 4 (4): 626-631

    Abstract

    The distance from the genitals to the anus, anogenital distance, reflects androgen concentration during prenatal development in mammals. The use of anogenital distance in human studies is still very limited and the quality and consistency of measurements is an important methodological issue. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of adult male anogenital distance measurements by two different methods. All men were attending an outpatient clinic at a university hospital and underwent an andrological examination and completed a brief questionnaire. Two variants of anogenital distance [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGDAS ) and to the cephalad insertion of the penis (AGDAP )] by two methods (lithotomy or frog-legged position) were assessed in 70 men. Within and between coefficient of variations, intra-class correlation coefficients, two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, and scatter and Bland-Altman plots were calculated. The two methods produced similar values for AGDAP but different estimates for AGDAS . Nonetheless, the overall agreement (ICC ≥ 0.80) was acceptable for both measures. Therefore, both methods are internally consistent and adequate for epidemiological studies, and may be used depending on the available medical resources, clinical setting, and populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.12202

    View details for PubMedID 27153294

  • Choice of underwear and male fecundity in a preconception cohort of couples. Andrology Sapra, K. J., Eisenberg, M. L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Buck Louis, G. M. 2016; 4 (3): 500-508

    Abstract

    Our objective was to investigate the relationship between male underwear-type worn during daytime/bedtime and male fecundity as measured by semen quality and time-to-pregnancy. We used data from a prospective preconception cohort conducted in 16 counties in Michigan and Texas, USA. 501 couples were enrolled and followed for 12 months of trying, which facilitated capture of time-to-pregnancy (in cycles), 6-cycle conception delay, and 12-month infertility. Male partners provided semen samples via in-home collection for next-day semen analysis comprised of 35 semen quality endpoints. At enrollment, men provided information on type of underwear worn during daytime and bedtime and were classified into 6 categories by underwear choice (n = 491): (i) briefs day/night, (ii) boxer-briefs day/night, (iii) boxers day/night, (iv) briefs day and boxers/none at night, (v) boxer-briefs day and boxers/none at night, (vi) boxers day and none at night. 473 (96%) men had semen analysis performed. Men switching from their usual daytime underwear to boxers/none for bed (groups 4, 5, 6) had the most evidence of change in semen quality endpoints (10 of 11 differences) relative to men wearing briefs day/night (group 1). Group 4 men had lower percent of sperm with coiled tail (β = -0.18, 95% CI: -0.35, -0.01), higher percent round (β = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.42), number of immature sperm (β = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.77), and amplitude head displacement (β = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.10, 1.03). Group 5 men had higher sperm head perimeter (β=0.17, 95% CI: 0.002, 0.34), amplitude head displacement (β = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.91), percent cytoplasmic droplet (β = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.77) and high DNA stainability (β=0.39, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.78). After false discovery rate control, no differences remained significant. No significant differences in time-to-pregnancy, conception delay, or infertility were observed. In summary, male underwear choice is associated with few differences in semen parameters; no association with time-to-pregnancy is observed providing reassurance to couples attempting pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.12163

    View details for PubMedID 26939021

  • Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer ASIAN JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Conti, S. L., Eisenberg, M. L. 2016; 18 (3): 420-424

    Abstract

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/1008-682X.175097

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374857800024

    View details for PubMedID 26975491

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4854094

  • Trends in Testosterone Prescription and Public Health Concerns UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Gabrielsen, J. S., Najari, B. B., Alukal, J. P., Eisenberg, M. L. 2016; 43 (2): 261-?

    Abstract

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) has become increasingly popular since the turn of the century. Most prescriptions in the U.S. are written by primary care providers, endocrinologists, or urologists. The FDA has requests pharmaceutical companies provide more long term data on efficacy and safety of testosterone products. Results from these studies will help define the appropriate population for TST going forward. It is hoped that these data combined with physician and public education will minimize inappropriate prescribing and allow those likely to benefit from TST to receive it.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ucl.2016.01.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376792400015

    View details for PubMedID 27132584

  • Choice of underwear and male fecundity in a preconception cohort of couples ANDROLOGY Sapra, K. J., Eisenberg, M. L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Louis, G. M. 2016; 4 (3): 500-508

    View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.12163

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375881200019

  • VASECTOMY AND THE RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER IN A PROSPECTIVE US COHORT: ANALYSIS IN THE PRESENCE OF SELECTION BIAS Davenport, M., Li, S., Brooks, J., Cullen, M., Eisenberg, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2016: E34
  • VARICOCELES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF CARDIAC DISEASE AND OTHER COMORBIDITIES: AN ANALYSIS OF US CLAIMS DATA. Dallas, K. B., Wang, N. N., Li, S., Baker, L. C., Eisenberg, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2016: E1155
  • INCREASED RISK OF AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS IN INFERTILE MEN: ANALYSIS OF US CLAIMS DATA Brubaker, W. D., Li, S., Baker, L. C., Eisenberg, M. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2016: E1153–E1154
  • Human semen quality and the secondary sex ratio. Asian journal of andrology Bae, J., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Eisenberg, M. L., Buck Louis, G. M. 2016

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between semen quality and the secondary sex ratio (SSR), defined as the ratio of male to female live births. Our study cohort comprised 227 male partners who were enrolled prior to conception in Michigan and Texas between 2005 and 2009, and prospectively followed through delivery of a singleton birth. The male partners provided a baseline and a follow-up semen sample a month apart. Semen analysis was conducted to assess 27 parameters including five general characteristics, six sperm head measures, 14 morphology measures, and two sperm chromatin stability assay measures. Modified Poisson regression models with a robust error variance were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of a male birth for each semen parameter, after adjusting for potential confounders. Of the 27 semen parameters, only the percentage of bicephalic sperm was significantly associated with the SSR (2 nd vs 1 st quartile, RR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.45-0.95, P = 0.03; 4 th vs 1 st quartile, RR, 0.61, 95% CI, 0.38-1.00, P < 0.05 before rounding to two decimal places), suggestive of a higher percentage of bicephalic sperm being associated with an excess of female births. Given the exploratory design of the present study, this preconception cohort study suggests no clear signal that human semen quality is associated with offspring sex determination.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/1008-682X.173445

    View details for PubMedID 26975484

  • Decline in sperm count and motility in young adult men from 2003 to 2013: observations from a U.S. sperm bank. Andrology Centola, G. M., Blanchard, A., Demick, J., Li, S., Eisenberg, M. L. 2016; 4 (2): 270-276

    Abstract

    Controversy exists regarding stability of semen quality over time with papers reporting decrease, increase or stable parameters in heterogeneous populations. The current study examined semen parameters of young adult men from 2003 to 2013 at an urban U.S. sperm bank. Semen parameters were analyzed before and after cryopreservation for a total of 9425 specimens from 489 individuals. Demographic information was obtained from a social and medical history questionnaire. Following 2-3 days abstinence, the specimens were collected at the laboratory and assessed by uniform technicians and techniques. The data were analyzed using generalized linear regression after adjustment for age, days of abstinence, for repeated samples, as well as by the Cochran-Armitage trend test. The within variability was accounted for by the repeated measures model. All p values were two-sided with p < 0.05 considered significant. There was a significant decline in sperm concentration (-3.55, 95% CI -4.87, -2.23; p < 0.001), total motility (-1.23, 95% CI -1.65, -0.82; p < 0.001), total count (-10.75, 95% CI -15.95, -5.54; p < 0.001) and total motile count (-9.43, 95% CI -13.14, -5.73; p < 0.001). There was no significant change in semen volume (0.03, 95% CI -0.02, 0.09; p = 0.2). The post-thaw total motility significantly (-2.30, 95% CI -2.72, -1.87; p < 0.001) decreased with time. Importantly, demographic and lifestyle factors were stable or improved over the study period. There was a decline in age (ptrend  = 0.003) and alcohol use (ptrend  = 0.005) and an increase in college GPA (Grade Point Average) (ptrend  = 0.02). BMI (ptrend  = 0.73), educational attainment (ptrend  = 0.2), race/ethnicity (ptrend  = 0.53), and lifestyle habits (weekly exercise, ptrend  = 0.21; smoking, ptrend  = 0.99; marital status, ptrend  = 0.85) remained constant. Uniform technicians and techniques over the study period make measurement bias unlikely. This report demonstrates a decline in semen quality among young adult men in the Boston area who were attending or completed a college education during the past 10 years, and requires further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.12149

    View details for PubMedID 26789272

  • Increased risk of incident chronic medical conditions in infertile men: analysis of United States claims data FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Cullen, M. R., Baker, L. C. 2016; 105 (3): 629-636

    Abstract

    To determine the incidence of chronic medical conditions of men with infertility.Retrospective cohort study.Not applicable.Subjects contained within the Truven Health MarketScan claims database from 2001 to 2009.Not applicable.The development of chronic medical conditions including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, renal disease, pulmonary disease, liver disease, depression, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, injury, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder.In all, 13,027 men diagnosed with male factor infertility were identified with an additional 23,860 receiving only fertility testing. The average age was 33.1 years for men diagnosed with infertility and 32.8 years for men receiving testing alone. After adjusting for confounding factors, men diagnosed with male factor infertility had a higher risk of developing diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.53), ischemic heart disease (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.19-1.84), alcohol abuse (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.05), and drug abuse (1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63) compared with men who only received infertility testing. Similar patterns were identified when comparing those with male factor infertility to vasectomized men. The association between male factor infertility and later health outcomes were strongest for men with longer follow-up.In this cohort of patients in a national insurance database, men diagnosed with male factor infertility had a significantly higher risk of adverse health outcomes in the years after an infertility evaluation. These findings suggest the overall importance of men's reproductive health and warrant additional investigation to understand the association and identify interventions to improve outcomes for these patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.11.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373406300015

    View details for PubMedID 26674559

  • Decline in sperm count and motility in young adult men from 2003 to 2013: observations from a US sperm bank ANDROLOGY Centola, G. M., Blanchard, A., Demick, J., Li, S., Eisenberg, M. L. 2016; 4 (2): 270-276

    View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.12149

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372417000010

  • PARENTAL SOURCE OF ANEUPLOIDY MAY BE DIFFERENT BETWEEN SPORADIC AND RECURRENT MISCARRIAGES Apple, M., Shah, M., Eisenberg, M., Lathi, R. B. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2016: E4
  • Risks beyond reproduction for infertile men FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L. 2016; 105 (2): 300–301

    View details for PubMedID 26677791

  • Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends: Influences of Environment and Genetic Susceptibility. Physiological reviews Skakkebaek, N. E., Rajpert-De Meyts, E., Buck Louis, G. M., Toppari, J., Andersson, A., Eisenberg, M. L., Jensen, T. K., Jørgensen, N., Swan, S. H., Sapra, K. J., Ziebe, S., Priskorn, L., Juul, A. 2016; 96 (1): 55-97

    Abstract

    It is predicted that Japan and European Union will soon experience appreciable decreases in their populations due to persistently low total fertility rates (TFR) below replacement level (2.1 child per woman). In the United States, where TFR has also declined, there are ethnic differences. Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor semen quality, childlessness, changed sex ratio, and increasing demand for assisted reproductive techniques. We present evidence that several adult male reproductive problems arise in utero and are signs of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although TDS might result from genetic mutations, recent evidence suggests that it most often is related to environmental exposures of the fetal testis. However, environmental factors can also affect the adult endocrine system. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, we conclude that environmental exposures arising from modern lifestyle, rather than genetics, are the most important factors in the observed trends. These environmental factors might act either directly or via epigenetic mechanisms. In the latter case, the effects of exposures might have an impact for several generations post-exposure. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. We highlight a number of topics that need attention by researchers in human physiology, pathophysiology, environmental health sciences, and demography.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/physrev.00017.2015

    View details for PubMedID 26582516

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4698396

  • Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Cancer Incidence. The world journal of men's health Eisenberg, M. L. 2015; 33 (3): 125-129

    Abstract

    While early studies demonstrated a positive association between testosterone and prostate cancer, evidence on the nature of the relationship has evolved with time and newer data. Studies examining links between baseline testosterone levels as well as testosterone therapy and incident prostate cancer, reveal a more complex relationship. Moreover, investigators have reported their initial experiences with supplementing testosterone in men with a history of both treated and untreated prostate cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.5534/wjmh.2015.33.3.125

    View details for PubMedID 26770932

  • Selling blood and gametes during tough economic times: insights from Google search. Canadian journal of urology Wu, J. A., Ngo, T. C., Rothman, C., Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L. 2015; 22 (5): 7973-7977

    Abstract

    To use Google Insights search volume and publicly available economic indicators to test the hypothesis that sperm, egg, and blood donations increase during economic downturns and to demonstrate the feasibility of using Google search volume data to predict national trends in actual sperm, egg, and blood donations rates.Cross-correlation statistical analysis comparing Google search data for terms relating to blood, egg, and sperm donations with various economic indicators including the S&P 500 closing values, gross domestic product (GDP), the U.S. Index of Leading Indicators (U.S. Leading Index), gross savings rate, mortgage interest rates, unemployment rate, and consumer price index (CPI) from 2004-2011. A secondary analysis determined the Pearson correlation coefficient between Google search data with actual sperm, egg, and blood donation volume in the U.S. as measured by California Cryobank, the National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System, and the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey, respectively. Significance of cross-correlation and Pearson correlation analysis as indicated by p value.There were several highly significant cross-correlation relationships between search volume and various economic indicators. Correlation between Google search volume for the term 'sperm donation,' 'egg donation,' and 'blood donation' with actual number of sperm, egg and blood donations in the United States demonstrated Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.2 (p > 0.10), -0.1 (p > 0.10), and 0.07 (p > 0.10), respectively. Temporal analysis showed an improved correlation coefficient of 0.9 (p < 0.05) for blood donation when shifted 12 months later relative to Google search volume.Google search volume data for search terms relating to sperm, egg, and blood donation increase during economic downturns. This finding suggests gamete and bodily fluid donations are influenced by market forces like other commodities. Google search may be useful for predicting blood donation trends but is more limited in predicting actual semen and oocyte donation patterns.

    View details for PubMedID 26432967

  • Invited Commentary: The Association Between Marijuana Use and Male Reproductive Health AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Eisenberg, M. L. 2015; 182 (6): 482–84

    Abstract

    Approximately 15% of all couples are unable to conceive after a year and are labeled infertile. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to lifestyle factors that may impact fertility. In the United States, it is estimated that there are more than 17 million current users of marijuana with 4.6 million using marijuana almost daily. Although common, to date, little data exist on the impact of marijuana use on male fertility. In the current issue of the Journal, Gundersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(6):473-481) provide data examining the relationship between marijuana use and semen quality from young men recruited out of the general Danish population. Men who reported daily marijuana use displayed significant lower sperm concentration and sperm counts compared with nonusers, while testosterone levels were higher. The current report provides important information for patients and providers regarding the negative association of marijuana use on semen quality. Although the benefit of marijuana cessation on recovery is uncertain, further study on the impact of marijuana use on male reproductive health is warranted as more states explore marijuana legalization.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwv137

    View details for Web of Science ID 000361756000002

    View details for PubMedID 26283091

  • Relationship between Vasectomy and Sexual Frequency JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Guo, D. P., Lamberts, R. W., Eisenberg, M. L. 2015; 12 (9): 1905-1910

    Abstract

    Men who are considering vasectomy as a means of contraception may have significant anxiety about their future sexual potency. As a result, couples may choose other forms of contraception with lower efficacy.We sought to determine the relationship between vasectomy and the frequency of sexual intercourse.We analyzed data from cycles 6 (2002) to 7 (2006-2008) of the National Survey of Family Growth to compare the frequency of sexual intercourse of men who had undergone vasectomy with men who had not. Analysis was performed using data from male and female responders, and excluded men who had never had sex and those below age 25. We constructed a multivariate logistic regression model to adjust for demographic, socioeconomic, reproductive, and health factors.The main outcome measure was the sexual frequency in the last 4 weeks.Among male responders, a total of 5838 men met criteria for our study; 353 had undergone vasectomy. For vasectomized men, the average frequency of sexual intercourse was 5.9 times per month compared with 4.9 times for nonvasectomized men. After adjusting for age, marital status, race, education, health, body mass index, children, and income, vasectomized men had an 81% higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI] 6-201%) of having intercourse at least once a week compared with nonvasectomized men. A total number of 5211 female respondents reported 670 of their partners had undergone vasectomy. For partners of vasectomized men, the average frequency of intercourse was 6.3 times per month, compared with 6.0 times for partners of nonvasectomized men. After adjustment, women with vasectomized partners had a 46% higher odds (95% CI 5-103%) of having sexual intercourse at least once a week compared with women with nonvasectomized partners (P = 0.024).Vasectomy is not associated with decreased sexual frequency. This finding may be helpful to couples as they consider contraceptive options.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jsm.12962

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363456400008

    View details for PubMedID 26272461

  • Demographic and socio-economic differences between men seeking infertility evaluation and those seeking surgical sterilization: from the National Survey of Family Growth BJU INTERNATIONAL Hotaling, J. M., Patel, D. P., Brant, W. O., Myers, J. B., Cullen, M. R., Eisenberg, M. L. 2015; 116 (2): 288-292

    Abstract

    To identify differences in demographic and socio-economic factors between men seeking infertility evaluation and those undergoing vasectomy, to address disparities in access to these services.Data from Cycle 6 and Cycle 7 (2002 and 2006-2008) of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were reviewed. The NSFG is a multistage probability survey designed to capture a nationally representative sample of households with men and women aged 15-45 years in the USA. The variables analysed included age, body mass index, self-reported health, alcohol use, race, religious affiliation, marital status, number of offspring, educational attainment, income level, insurance status and metropolitan home designation. Our primary outcome was the correlation of these demographic and socio-economic factors with evaluation for male infertility or vasectomy.Of the 11 067 men identified through the NSFG, 466 men (4.2%) sought infertility evaluation, representing 2 187 455 men nationally, and 326 (2.9%) underwent a vasectomy, representing 1 510 386 men nationally. Those seeking infertility evaluation were more likely to be younger and have fewer children (P = 0.001, 0.001) and less likely to be currently married (78 vs 74%; P = 0.010) or ever married (89 vs 97%; P = 0.002). Men undergoing a vasectomy were more likely to be white (86 vs 70%; P = 0.001). Men seeking infertility evaluation were more likely to have a college or graduate degree compared with men undergoing a vasectomy (68 vs 64%; P = 0.015). There was no difference between the two groups for all other variables.While differences in demographic characteristics such as age, offspring number and marital status were identified, measures of health, socio-economic status, religion and insurance were similar between men undergoing vasectomy and those seeking infertility services. These factors help characterize the utilization of male reproductive health services in the USA and may help address disparities in access to these services and improve public health strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bju.13012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358529500024

  • Adult Ureterocele Presenting with Ureteral Obstruction and Urosepsis during Pregnancy UROLOGY JOURNAL Harris, C. R., Alwaal, A., Yang, G., Eisenberg, M. L., Breyer, B. N. 2015; 12 (4): 2285-2286

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363226100015

    View details for PubMedID 26341774

  • Sperm Parameters and Semen Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Helicobacter pylori-infected Men UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L. 2015; 86 (1): 46–47

    View details for PubMedID 26142580

  • Prognostic features for testicular cancers (TCs): Can this be gleaned from pathology reports? Srinivas, S., Eisenberg, M., Skinner, E. C. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2015
  • Relationship between physical occupational exposures and health on semen quality: data from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study. Fertility and sterility Eisenberg, M. L., Chen, Z., Ye, A., Buck Louis, G. M. 2015; 103 (5): 1271-1277

    Abstract

    To study the relationship among occupation, health, and semen quality in a cohort of men attempting to conceive.Observational prospective cohort.Not applicable.A total of 501 couples discontinuing contraception were followed for 1 year while trying to conceive; 473 men (94%) provided one semen sample, and 80% provided a second sample.None.Semen data obtained through at-home semen collection with next-day analysis/quantification.In all, complete data were available for 456 men, with a mean age of 31.8 years. Work-related heavy exertion was consistently associated with lower semen concentration and total sperm count. Thirteen percent of men who reported heavy exertion displayed oligospermia, compared with 6% who did not report workplace exertion. Shift work, night work, vibration, noise, heat, and prolonged sitting were not associated with semen quality. Men with high blood pressure had significantly lower strict morphology scores compared with normotensive men (17% vs. 21%). In contrast, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and composite of total comorbidities were not associated with semen quality. The number of medications a man was taking as a proxy of health status was associated with semen quality. There was a negative association between number of medications and sperm count.A negative relationship among occupational exertion, hypertension, and the number of medications with semen quality was identified. As these are potentially modifiable factors, further research should determine whether treatment or cessation may improve male fecundity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.02.010

    View details for PubMedID 25765658

  • Relationship between physical occupational exposures and health on semen quality: data from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Chen, Z., Ye, A., Louis, G. M. 2015; 103 (5): 1271-1277

    Abstract

    To study the relationship among occupation, health, and semen quality in a cohort of men attempting to conceive.Observational prospective cohort.Not applicable.A total of 501 couples discontinuing contraception were followed for 1 year while trying to conceive; 473 men (94%) provided one semen sample, and 80% provided a second sample.None.Semen data obtained through at-home semen collection with next-day analysis/quantification.In all, complete data were available for 456 men, with a mean age of 31.8 years. Work-related heavy exertion was consistently associated with lower semen concentration and total sperm count. Thirteen percent of men who reported heavy exertion displayed oligospermia, compared with 6% who did not report workplace exertion. Shift work, night work, vibration, noise, heat, and prolonged sitting were not associated with semen quality. Men with high blood pressure had significantly lower strict morphology scores compared with normotensive men (17% vs. 21%). In contrast, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and composite of total comorbidities were not associated with semen quality. The number of medications a man was taking as a proxy of health status was associated with semen quality. There was a negative association between number of medications and sperm count.A negative relationship among occupational exertion, hypertension, and the number of medications with semen quality was identified. As these are potentially modifiable factors, further research should determine whether treatment or cessation may improve male fecundity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.02.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353843700031

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4417418

  • Increased Risk of Cancer in Infertile Men: Analysis of US Claims Data JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Brooks, J. D., Cullen, M. R., Baker, L. C. 2015; 193 (5): 1596-1601

    Abstract

    Aberrations in reproductive fitness may be a harbinger of medical diseases in men. Data suggest a higher risk of testicular cancer in infertile men. However, the relationship between infertility and other cancers remains uncertain.We analyzed subjects from the Truven Health MarketScan® claims database from 2001 to 2009. Infertile men were identified through diagnosis and treatment codes. Comparison groups were created of men who underwent vasectomy and a control cohort of men who were not infertile and had not undergone vasectomy. The incidence of cancer was compared to national U.S. estimates. Infertile men were also compared to men who underwent vasectomy and the control cohort using a Cox regression model.A total of 76,083 infertile men were identified with an average age of 35.1 years. Overall 112,655 men who underwent vasectomy and 760,830 control men were assembled. Compared to age adjusted national averages, infertile, vasectomy and control subjects in the study cohorts had higher rates of all cancers and many individual cancers. In time to event analysis, infertile men had a higher risk of cancer than those who underwent vasectomy or controls. Infertile men had a higher risk of testis cancer, nonHodgkin lymphoma and all cancers than the vasectomy and control groups.Consistent with prior reports, we identified an increased risk of testicular cancer in infertile men. The current data also suggest that infertile men are at a mildly increased risk of all cancers in the years after infertility evaluation. Future research should focus on confirming these associations and elucidating pathways between infertility and cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2014.11.080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353113200052

    View details for PubMedID 25463997

  • Anogenital distance as a measure of human male fertility JOURNAL OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTION AND GENETICS Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2015; 32 (3): 479-484

    Abstract

    In humans, recent studies have correlated anogenital distance (AGD) in adult men to testicular function. While studies of a group of men suggest an association, the utility of AGD in an infertility evaluation remains uncertain. We sought to determine the utility of AGD to predict male fertility.Between 2010 and 2011, men were recruited at a urology clinic to participate. AGD was measured using digital calipers in men being evaluated at a urology clinic. ANOVA and ROC analyses were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen parameters.In all, 473 men were included in the analysis with a mean age of 43 ± 13 years. Anogenital distance was significantly longer in men with higher sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count. In order to evaluate the discriminating ability of AGD, ROC curves were created comparing AGD and total testis volume. The area under the curve (AUC) was significantly larger for total testis volume compared to AGD when evaluating fertility (0.71 vs 0.63, p = 0.02). Similarly, there was a trend towards a higher AUC for testis volume compared to AGD for sperm concentration and total sperm count. Stratification of men with long/short AGD and large/small testes also did not improve the predictive value of AGD.While AGD is associated with sperm production on a population level, at the individual level the distinction based AGD alone cannot accurately estimate the efficiency of spermatogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10815-014-0410-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351509400021

    View details for PubMedID 25533333

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4363236

  • Testosterone therapy and mortality risk INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMPOTENCE RESEARCH Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Herder, D., LAMB, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2015; 27 (2): 46-48

    Abstract

    Recent data suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in men on testosterone therapy (TT). To date, there are no long-term, prospective studies to determine safety. In such cases, retrospective observational studies can be helpful. We examined our patient database to determine whether TT altered the risk of all-cause mortality in men. We queried our hormone database for all men with a serum testosterone level and then examined charts to determine testosterone status. In all, 509 men had charts available for review. We linked our patient records to the National Death Index to determine mortality. Of the 509 men who met inclusion criteria, 284 were on TT and 225 did not use testosterone. Age (mean 54 years) and follow-up time (mean 10 years) were similar for both groups. In all, 19 men died--10 (4.4%) men not on TT and 9 (3.2%) men on TT. After adjusting for age and year of evaluation, there was no significant difference in the risk of death based on TT (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.36-2.35, P=1.0). There appears to be no change in mortality risk overall for men utilizing long-term testosterone therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ijir.2014.29

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351022400002

    View details for PubMedID 25078049

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4312542

  • Testosterone therapy and cancer risk. BJU international Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Betts, P., Herder, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2015; 115 (2): 317-321

    Abstract

    To determine if testosterone therapy (TT) status modifies a man's risk of cancer.The Urology clinic hormone database was queried for all men with a serum testosterone level and charts examined to determine TT status. Patient records were linked to the Texas Cancer Registry to determine the incidence of cancer. Men accrued time at risk from the date of initiating TT or the first office visit for men not on TT. Standardised incidence rates and time to event analysis were performed.In all, 247 men were on TT and 211 did not use testosterone. In all, 47 men developed cancer, 27 (12.8%) were not on TT and 20 (8.1%) on TT. There was no significant difference in the risk of cancer incidence based on TT (hazard ratio [HR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-1.9; P = 1.8). There was no difference in prostate cancer risk based on TT status (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.54-2.50).There was no change in cancer risk overall, or prostate cancer risk specifically, for men aged >40 years using long-term TT.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bju.12756

    View details for PubMedID 24684569

  • The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) Eisenberg, M. L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Sundaram, R., Schisterman, E. F., Louis, G. M. 2015; 30 (2): 493-494

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deu322

    View details for PubMedID 25516559

  • Relationship between semen production and medical comorbidity FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Behr, B., Pera, R. R., Cullen, M. R. 2015; 103 (1): 66-71

    Abstract

    To study the relationship between semen quality and current health status in a cohort of men evaluated for infertility.Cross-sectional study.Fertility clinic.Nine thousand three hundred eighty-seven men evaluated for infertility between 1994 and 2011.None.Charlson comorbidity index, medical diagnoses by organ system.At the time of evaluation, 9,387 men with a mean age of 38 years had semen data available. Of these men, 44% had at least one medical diagnosis unrelated to infertility. When stratifying the cohort by the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), differences in all measured semen parameters were identified. Men with a higher CCI had lower semen volume, concentration, motility, total sperm count, and morphology scores. In addition, men with diseases of the endocrine, circulatory, genitourinary, and skin diseases all showed significantly higher rates of semen abnormalities. Upon closer examination of diseases of the circulatory system, men with hypertensive disease, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular disease, and nonischemic heart disease all displayed higher rates of semen abnormalities.The current report identified a relationship between medical comorbidites and male semen production. Although genetics help guide a man's sperm production, his current condition and health play an important role.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.10.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346911400015

    View details for PubMedID 25497466

  • Demographic and socio-economic differences between men seeking infertility evaluation and those seeking surgical sterilization: from the National Survey of Family Growth. BJU international Hotaling, J. M., Patel, D. P., Brant, W. O., Myers, J. B., Cullen, M. R., Eisenberg, M. L. 2015; 116 (2): 288–92

    Abstract

    To identify differences in demographic and socio-economic factors between men seeking infertility evaluation and those undergoing vasectomy, to address disparities in access to these services.Data from Cycle 6 and Cycle 7 (2002 and 2006-2008) of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were reviewed. The NSFG is a multistage probability survey designed to capture a nationally representative sample of households with men and women aged 15-45 years in the USA. The variables analysed included age, body mass index, self-reported health, alcohol use, race, religious affiliation, marital status, number of offspring, educational attainment, income level, insurance status and metropolitan home designation. Our primary outcome was the correlation of these demographic and socio-economic factors with evaluation for male infertility or vasectomy.Of the 11 067 men identified through the NSFG, 466 men (4.2%) sought infertility evaluation, representing 2 187 455 men nationally, and 326 (2.9%) underwent a vasectomy, representing 1 510 386 men nationally. Those seeking infertility evaluation were more likely to be younger and have fewer children (P = 0.001, 0.001) and less likely to be currently married (78 vs 74%; P = 0.010) or ever married (89 vs 97%; P = 0.002). Men undergoing a vasectomy were more likely to be white (86 vs 70%; P = 0.001). Men seeking infertility evaluation were more likely to have a college or graduate degree compared with men undergoing a vasectomy (68 vs 64%; P = 0.015). There was no difference between the two groups for all other variables.While differences in demographic characteristics such as age, offspring number and marital status were identified, measures of health, socio-economic status, religion and insurance were similar between men undergoing vasectomy and those seeking infertility services. These factors help characterize the utilization of male reproductive health services in the USA and may help address disparities in access to these services and improve public health strategies.

    View details for PubMedID 25777585

  • Semen quality, infertility and mortality in the USA HUMAN REPRODUCTION Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Behr, B., Cullen, M. R., Galusha, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2014; 29 (7): 1567-1574

    Abstract

    What is the relationship between semen parameters and mortality in men evaluated for infertility?Among men undergoing an infertility evaluation, those with abnormal semen parameters have a higher risk of death, suggesting a possible common etiology between infertility and mortality.Conflicting data exist that suggest either an inverse relationship or no relationship between semen quality and mortality.A study cohort was identified from two centers, each specializing in infertility care. In California, we identified men with data from 1994 to 2011 in the Stanford Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility semen database. In Texas, we identified men with data from 1989 to 2009 contained in the andrology database at the Baylor College of Medicine Special Procedures Laboratory who were evaluated for infertility. Mortality was determined by data linkage to the National Death Index or Social Security Death Index. Comorbidity was estimated based on calculation of the Charlson Comorbidity Index or Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services-Hierarchical Condition Categories Model.In all, 11,935 men were evaluated for infertility from 1989 to 2011. During 92 104 person years of follow-up, 69 of 11,935 men died (0.58%). The mean age at infertility evaluation was 36.6 years with a mean follow-up of 7.7 years.Compared with the general population, men evaluated for infertility had a lower risk of death with 69 deaths observed compared with 176.7 expected (Standardized mortality rate 0.39, 95% CI 0.30-0.49). When stratified by semen parameters, however, men with impaired semen parameters (i.e. male factor infertility) had significantly higher mortality rates compared with men with normal parameters (i.e. no male factor infertility). Low semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, total sperm count and total motile sperm count were all associated with higher risk of death. In contrast, abnormal sperm morphology was not associated with mortality. While adjusting for current health status attenuated the association between semen parameters and mortality, men with two or more abnormal semen parameters still had a 2.3-fold higher risk of death compared with men with normal semen (95% CI 1.12-4.65).Our cohort represents infertile men, which may limit generalizability. As comorbidity relied on administrative data, granular information on each man regarding infertility diagnosis and lifestyle factors was unavailable.Men with impaired semen parameters have an increased mortality rate in the years following an infertility evaluation suggesting semen quality may provide a marker of health.This study is supported in part by P01HD36289 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (to D.J.L. and L.I.L.). The project was also partially supported by an NIH CTSA award number UL1 RR025744. None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deu106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338126500027

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4059337

  • Semen quality, infertility and mortality in the USA. Human reproduction Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Behr, B., Cullen, M. R., Galusha, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2014; 29 (7): 1567-1574

    Abstract

    What is the relationship between semen parameters and mortality in men evaluated for infertility?Among men undergoing an infertility evaluation, those with abnormal semen parameters have a higher risk of death, suggesting a possible common etiology between infertility and mortality.Conflicting data exist that suggest either an inverse relationship or no relationship between semen quality and mortality.A study cohort was identified from two centers, each specializing in infertility care. In California, we identified men with data from 1994 to 2011 in the Stanford Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility semen database. In Texas, we identified men with data from 1989 to 2009 contained in the andrology database at the Baylor College of Medicine Special Procedures Laboratory who were evaluated for infertility. Mortality was determined by data linkage to the National Death Index or Social Security Death Index. Comorbidity was estimated based on calculation of the Charlson Comorbidity Index or Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services-Hierarchical Condition Categories Model.In all, 11,935 men were evaluated for infertility from 1989 to 2011. During 92 104 person years of follow-up, 69 of 11,935 men died (0.58%). The mean age at infertility evaluation was 36.6 years with a mean follow-up of 7.7 years.Compared with the general population, men evaluated for infertility had a lower risk of death with 69 deaths observed compared with 176.7 expected (Standardized mortality rate 0.39, 95% CI 0.30-0.49). When stratified by semen parameters, however, men with impaired semen parameters (i.e. male factor infertility) had significantly higher mortality rates compared with men with normal parameters (i.e. no male factor infertility). Low semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, total sperm count and total motile sperm count were all associated with higher risk of death. In contrast, abnormal sperm morphology was not associated with mortality. While adjusting for current health status attenuated the association between semen parameters and mortality, men with two or more abnormal semen parameters still had a 2.3-fold higher risk of death compared with men with normal semen (95% CI 1.12-4.65).Our cohort represents infertile men, which may limit generalizability. As comorbidity relied on administrative data, granular information on each man regarding infertility diagnosis and lifestyle factors was unavailable.Men with impaired semen parameters have an increased mortality rate in the years following an infertility evaluation suggesting semen quality may provide a marker of health.This study is supported in part by P01HD36289 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (to D.J.L. and L.I.L.). The project was also partially supported by an NIH CTSA award number UL1 RR025744. None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.

    View details for PubMedID 24838701

  • Parental age at delivery and a mans semen quality HUMAN REPRODUCTION Priskorn, L., Jensen, T. K., Lindahl-Jacobsen, R., Skakkebaek, N. E., Bostofte, E., Eisenberg, M. L. 2014; 29 (5): 1097-1102

    Abstract

    Is parental age at delivery associated with a man's semen quality?In this large register-based study both mother's and father's age are found to have minimal effects on semen quality in men.Both maternal and paternal age have been associated with a range of adverse health effects in the offspring. Given the varied health effects of parental age upon offspring, and the sensitivity of genital development to external factors, it is plausible that the age of a man's mother and father at conception may impact his reproductive health. To our knowledge this is the first examination of the effects of parental age on semen quality.A retrospective cohort study of 10 965 men with semen data and parental data.The study was based on Danish men referred to the Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory due to infertility in their partnership. Men born from 1960 and delivering a semen sample until year 2000 were included. The men were linked to the Danish Civil Registration System to obtain information on parent's age at delivery. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for impaired semen quality. Linear regression analyses were used to examine a relationship between semen parameters and paternal age.There were no convincing effect of either mother's or father's age on a man's semen quality. As no trends were noted, the few statistically significant results are likely attributable to chance.Information regarding individual subject characteristics which may impact sperm production (i.e. smoking, BMI) were not available. While our sample size was large, we cannot exclude the possibility that a trend may have been identified with a still larger sample. In addition, the Danish Civil Registration System is merely administrative and hence does not discriminate between biological and adopted children. However, the low rate of adoption (≈2%) suggests that misclassification would have a minimal impact. The men were all referred to the laboratory for infertility problems in their partnership and, therefore, do not represent the general population. We, however, compared semen quality among men within the cohort, and it is therefore less important whether they, in fact, represent the general population.The current study found no link between parental age and a son's semen quality, suggesting other factors may explain recent impairments in men's reproductive health.This work was supported by the Hans and Nora Buchard's Fund and the Kirsten and Freddy Johansen's Fund. No competing interests.Not relevant.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deu039

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334921400021

    View details for PubMedID 24578474

  • Fertility issues in cancer survivorship. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians Kort, J. D., Eisenberg, M. L., Millheiser, L. S., Westphal, L. M. 2014; 64 (2): 118-134

    Abstract

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Breakthroughs in cancer diagnosis and treatment have led to dramatic improvements in survival and the need to focus on survivorship issues. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be gonadotoxic, resulting in impaired fertility. Techniques to help cancer survivors reproduce have been improving over the past decade. Discussion of the changes to a patient's reproductive health after cancer treatment is essential to providing comprehensive quality care. The purpose of this review is to aid in pre- and posttreatment counseling, focusing on fertility preservation and other strategies that may mitigate risks to the patient's reproductive, sexual, and overall health. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:118-134. (©) 2013 American Cancer Society.

    View details for DOI 10.3322/caac.21205

    View details for PubMedID 24604743

  • Impact of fresh versus cryopreserved testicular sperm upon intracytoplasmic sperm injection pregnancy outcomes in men with azoospermia due to spermatogenic dysfunction: a meta-analysis FERTILITY AND STERILITY Ohlander, S., Hotaling, J., Kirshenbaum, E., Niederberger, C., Eisenberg, M. L. 2014; 101 (2): 344-349

    Abstract

    To determine if clinical pregnancy rates and fertilization rates with the use of cryopreserved sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in patients with azoospermia due to spermatogenic dysfunction (i.e., nonobstructive azoospermia) are similar to those with fresh sperm.Systematic review and meta-analysis.Academic medical center.Azoospermic men secondary to spermatogenic dysfunction.Not applicable.Clinical pregnancy rate, fertilization rate.Eleven studies met criteria for the outcome of clinical pregnancy rate. Seventy-nine (28.7%) of 275 intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using fresh testicular sperm resulted in a clinical pregnancy, compared with 84 (28.1%) of 299 intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using cryopreserved sperm (relative risk [RR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.33). Ten studies met criteria for the outcome of fertilization rate. A total of 1,422 (52.9%) of 2,687 oocytes injected with fresh testicular sperm were fertilized, compared with 1,490 (54.0%) of 2,757 oocytes injected with cryopreserved sperm (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02).In men with azoospermia due to spermatogenic dysfunction, there is no statistical difference between the use of fresh versus cryopreserved-thawed testicular sperm when assessing clinical pregnancy or fertilization rates in couples undergoing ICSI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.10.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330578000014

    View details for PubMedID 24345355

  • Use of fresh versus cryopreserved sperm. Fertility and sterility Ohlander, S., Hotaling, J., Kirshenbaum, E., Niederberger, C., Eisenberg, M. L. 2014; 101 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.12.017

    View details for PubMedID 24485506

  • The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study. Human reproduction Eisenberg, M. L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Sundaram, R., Schisterman, E. F., Buck Louis, G. M. 2014; 29 (2): 193-200

    Abstract

    What is the relationship between body size, physical activity and semen parameters among male partners of couples attempting to become pregnant?Overweight and obesity are associated with a higher prevalence of low ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and total sperm count.Higher BMI is associated with impaired semen parameters, while increasing waist circumference (WC) is also associated with impaired semen parameters in infertile men.Data from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study were utilized. The LIFE study is a population-based prospective cohort of 501 couples attempting to conceive in two geographic areas (Texas and Michigan, USA) recruited in 2005-2009. Couples were recruited from four counties in Michigan and 12 counties in Texas to ensure a range of environmental exposures and lifestyle characteristics. In person interviews were conducted to ascertain demographic, health and reproductive histories followed by anthropometric assessment.We categorized BMI (kg/m(2)) as <25.0 (underweight and normal), 25.0-29.9 (overweight) 30.0-34.9 (obese, class I) and ≥35 (obese, class II) for analysis. Data were available for analysis in 468 men (93% participation), with a mean ± SD age of 31.8 ± 4.8 years, BMI of 29.8 ± 5.6 kg/m(2) and WC of 100.8 ± 14.2 cm. The majority of the cohort (82%) was overweight or obese with 58% reporting physical activity <1 time/week. The median sperm concentration for the men in the cohort was 60.2 M/ml with 8.6% having oligospermia (<15 M/ml).When examining semen parameters, ejaculate volume showed a linear decline with increasing BMI and WC (P < 0.01). Similarly, the total sperm count showed a negative linear association with WC (P < 0.01). No significant relationship was seen between body size (i.e. BMI or WC) and semen concentration, motility, vitality, morphology or DNA fragmentation index. The percentage of men with abnormal volume, concentration and total sperm increased with increasing body size (P < 0.05). No relationship between physical activity and semen parameters was identified.Our cohort was largely overweight and sedentary, which may result in limited external validity, i.e. generalizability. The lack of physical activity did preclude examination of exercise more frequently than once per week, thus our ability to examine more active individuals is limited.Body size (as measured by BMI or WC) is negatively associated with semen parameters with little influence of physical activity. Our findings are the first showing a relationship between WC and semen parameters in a sample of men without known infertility. Given the worldwide obesity epidemic, further study of the role of weight loss to improve semen parameters is warranted.Supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Contracts #N01-HD-3-3355, N01-HD-3-3356 and N01-HD-3-3358). There are no competing interests.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/det428

    View details for PubMedID 24306102

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3896223

  • Semen quality and time to pregnancy: the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study FERTILITY AND STERILITY Louis, G. M., Sundaram, R., Schisterman, E. F., Sweeney, A., Lynch, C. D., Kim, S., Maisog, J. M., Gore-Langton, R., Eisenberg, M. L., Chen, Z. 2014; 101 (2): 453-462

    Abstract

    To assess semen parameters and couple fecundity as measured by time to pregnancy (TTP).Observational prospective cohort with longitudinal measurement of TTP.Sixteen Michigan/Texas counties.A total of 501 couples discontinuing contraception were followed for 1 year while trying to conceive; 473 men (94%) provided one semen sample, and 80% provided two samples.None.Using prospectively measured TTP, fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for 36 individual semen quality parameters accounting for repeated semen samples, time off contraception, abstinence, enrollment site, and couples' ages, body mass indices, and serum cotinine concentrations.In adjusted models, semen quality parameters were associated with significantly shorter TTP as measured by FORs >1: percent motility, strict and traditional morphology, sperm head width, elongation factor, and acrosome area. Significantly longer TTPs or FORs <1 were observed for morphologic categories amorphous and round sperm heads and neck/midpiece abnormalities. No semen quality parameters achieved significance when simultaneously modeling all other significant semen parameters and covariates, except for percent coiled tail when adjusting for sperm concentration (FOR 0.99; 95% CI 0.99-1.00). Male age was consistently associated with reduced couple fecundity (FOR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99), reflecting a longer TTP across all combined models. Female but not male body mass index also conferred a longer TTP (FOR 0.98; 95% CI 0.96-0.99).Several semen measures were significantly associated with TTP when modeled individually but not jointly and in the context of relevant couple-based covariates.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.10.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330578000030

    View details for PubMedID 24239161

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3946620

  • The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study HUMAN REPRODUCTION Eisenberg, M. L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Sundaram, R., Schisterman, E. F., Louis, G. M. 2014; 29 (2): 193-200

    Abstract

    What is the relationship between body size, physical activity and semen parameters among male partners of couples attempting to become pregnant?Overweight and obesity are associated with a higher prevalence of low ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and total sperm count.Higher BMI is associated with impaired semen parameters, while increasing waist circumference (WC) is also associated with impaired semen parameters in infertile men.Data from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study were utilized. The LIFE study is a population-based prospective cohort of 501 couples attempting to conceive in two geographic areas (Texas and Michigan, USA) recruited in 2005-2009. Couples were recruited from four counties in Michigan and 12 counties in Texas to ensure a range of environmental exposures and lifestyle characteristics. In person interviews were conducted to ascertain demographic, health and reproductive histories followed by anthropometric assessment.We categorized BMI (kg/m(2)) as <25.0 (underweight and normal), 25.0-29.9 (overweight) 30.0-34.9 (obese, class I) and ≥35 (obese, class II) for analysis. Data were available for analysis in 468 men (93% participation), with a mean ± SD age of 31.8 ± 4.8 years, BMI of 29.8 ± 5.6 kg/m(2) and WC of 100.8 ± 14.2 cm. The majority of the cohort (82%) was overweight or obese with 58% reporting physical activity <1 time/week. The median sperm concentration for the men in the cohort was 60.2 M/ml with 8.6% having oligospermia (<15 M/ml).When examining semen parameters, ejaculate volume showed a linear decline with increasing BMI and WC (P < 0.01). Similarly, the total sperm count showed a negative linear association with WC (P < 0.01). No significant relationship was seen between body size (i.e. BMI or WC) and semen concentration, motility, vitality, morphology or DNA fragmentation index. The percentage of men with abnormal volume, concentration and total sperm increased with increasing body size (P < 0.05). No relationship between physical activity and semen parameters was identified.Our cohort was largely overweight and sedentary, which may result in limited external validity, i.e. generalizability. The lack of physical activity did preclude examination of exercise more frequently than once per week, thus our ability to examine more active individuals is limited.Body size (as measured by BMI or WC) is negatively associated with semen parameters with little influence of physical activity. Our findings are the first showing a relationship between WC and semen parameters in a sample of men without known infertility. Given the worldwide obesity epidemic, further study of the role of weight loss to improve semen parameters is warranted.Supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Contracts #N01-HD-3-3355, N01-HD-3-3356 and N01-HD-3-3358). There are no competing interests.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/det428

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330842800003

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3896223

  • Diabetes Severity, Metabolic Syndrome, and the Risk of Erectile Dysfunction JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Weinberg, A. E., Eisenberg, M., Patel, C. J., Chertow, G. M., Leppert, J. T. 2013; 10 (12): 3102-3109

    Abstract

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is more common in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and/or the metabolic syndrome (MetS).The aim of this study is to investigate the associations among proxy measures of diabetic severity and the presence of MetS with ED in a nationally representative U.S. data sample.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of adult participants in the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.ED was ascertained by self-report. T2DM severity was defined by calculated measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance (IR). IR was estimated using fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels and the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) definition. We classified glycemic control using hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. Logistic regression models, adjusted for sociodemographics, risk factors, and comorbidities, were fitted for each measure of T2DM severity, MetS, and the presence of ED.Proxy measures of glycemic control and IR were associated with ED. Participants with FPG between 100-126 mg/dL (5.6-7 mmol/L) and ≥ 126 mg/dL (>7 mmol/L) had higher odds of ED, odds ratio (OR) 1.22 (confidence interval or CI, 0.83-1.80), and OR 2.68 (CI, 1.48-4.86), respectively. Participants with HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (38.8-46.4 mmol/mol) and ≥ 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) had higher odds of ED (OR 1.73 [CI, 1.08-2.76] and 3.70 [CI, 2.19-6.27], respectively). When FPI and HOMA-IR were evaluated by tertiles, there was a graded relation among participants in the top tertile. In multivariable models, a strong association remained between HbA1c and ED (OR 3.19 [CI,1.13-9.01]). MetS was associated with >2.5-fold increased odds of self reported ED (OR 2.55 [CI, 1.85-3.52]).Poor glycemic control, impaired insulin sensitivity, and the MetS are associated with a heightened risk of ED.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jsm.12318

    View details for PubMedID 24010555

  • Increased risk of cancer among azoospermic men. Fertility and sterility Eisenberg, M. L., Betts, P., Herder, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2013; 100 (3): 681-685 e1

    Abstract

    To determine whether men with azoospermia are at an elevated risk of developing cancer in the years following an infertility evaluation.Cohort study.United States andrology clinic.A total of 2,238 men with complete records were evaluated for infertility at a single andrology clinic in Texas from 1989 to 2009.None.Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to the Texas Cancer Registry.In all, 451 men had azoospermia, and 1,787 were not azoospermic, with a mean age at infertility evaluation of 35.7 years. Compared with the general population, infertile men had a higher risk of cancer, with 29 cases observed compared with 16.7 expected (standardized incidence rate [SIR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.5). When stratifying by azoospermia status, azoospermic men had an elevated risk of cancer (SIR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.4). Infertile men without azoospermia had a trend toward a higher rate of cancer (SIR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.2). The Cox regression model revealed that azoospermic men had 2.2-fold higher cancer risk compared with nonazoospermic men (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8).Men with azoospermia have an increased risk of subsequently developing cancer, suggesting a possible common etiology between azoospermia and cancer development. Additional follow-up of azoospermic men after reproductive efforts end may be warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.05.022

    View details for PubMedID 23790640

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and the androgen receptor CAG repeat length. Asian journal of andrology Eisenberg, M. L., Hsieh, T., Pastuszak, A. W., McIntyre, M. G., Walters, R. C., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2013; 15 (2): 286-289

    Abstract

    Anogenital distance (AGD) is used to define degree of virilization of genital development, with shorter length being associated with feminization and male infertility. The first exon of the androgen receptor (AR) consists of a polymorphic sequence of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats, with longer CAG repeat lengths being associated with decreased receptor function. We sought to determine if there is an association between AGD and AR CAG repeat length. A cross-sectional, prospective cohort of men evaluated at a urology clinic at a single institution was recruited. AGD (the distance from the posterior scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured. Sanger DNA sequence analysis was used to define CAG repeat length. AGD and CAG repeat lengths in 195 men were determined. On unadjusted analysis, there was no linear relationship between CAG repeat length and PL (P=0.17) or AGD (P=0.31). However, on sub-population analyses, those men with longer CAG repeat lengths (>26) had significantly shorter AGDs compared to men with shorter CAG repeat lengths. For example, the mean AGD was 41.9 vs. 32.4 mm with a CAG repeat length ≤26 vs. >26 (P=0.01). In addition, when stratifying the cohort based on AGD, those with AGD less than the median (i.e. 40 mm) had a longer CAG repeat length compared to men with an AGD >40 mm (P=0.02). In summary, no linear relationship was found between AGD and AR CAG repeat length overall.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/aja.2012.126

    View details for PubMedID 23334200

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and age ANDROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Hsieh, T., Lipshultz, L. I. 2013; 1 (1): 90-93

    Abstract

    In humans, recent studies have correlated anogenital distance (AGD) in adult men to intrinsic testicular function. Although rodent studies suggest that AGD is determined in utero and remains constant in adult life, it is not certain if AGD remains constant across a man's adult life. We sought to determine if adult male AGD varies based on age. A cross-sectional study of men being evaluated at a men's health clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital callipers. anova and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status and age. In all, 473 men were included in the analysis with a mean age of 43 ± 13 years. The mean AGD for the group was 39 ± 13 mm. Anogenital distance did not vary between age categories for the entire group, for fathers, and for childless men. Moreover, penile length also remained constant across age categories. On adjusted analyses stratified by fatherhood status, there was no relationship between AGDp and age. The current cross-sectional study demonstrates that anogenital distance, defined as the distance from the posterior scrotum to the anal verge, is similar for men of different ages. As such, AGD may provide a measure for genital development and function throughout adult life. However, confirmation with longitudinal studies is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.2047-2927.2012.00019.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315461700013

    View details for PubMedID 23258635

  • Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer PATERNAL INFLUENCES ON HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS Conti, S. L., Eisenberg, M. L., Carrell, D. 2013: 93–102
  • Increased cancer risk and azoospermia. Fertility and sterility Eisenberg, M. L., Betts, P., Herder, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.06.025

    View details for PubMedID 23850299

  • Anogenital distance and the risk of prostate cancer. BJU international Eisenberg, M. L. 2012; 110 (11): E711-?

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11524.x

    View details for PubMedID 22984939

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and the efficacy of varicocele repair. BJU international Eisenberg, M. L., Shy, M., Herder, D., Walters, R. C., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 110 (11): E927-30

    Abstract

    Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Anogenital distance (AGD) is a marker of genital development and adult testicular function. To date, there is no data on the clinical utility of using such an anthropomorphic variable. About 30% of men will have no improvement in semen parameters after varicocele repair. It is currently difficult to assess which patients are most likely to benefit from surgical repair. The present study showed that men with a longer AGD had a higher likelihood of improvement after varicocelectomy. As such, AGD may allow clinicians to better counsel men on the efficacy of varicocele repair.• To investigate whether anogenital distance (AGD) can identify men most likely to show improved semen parameters after varicocele ligation, as AGD has been shown to correlate with intrinsic adult testicular function.• Men with varicoceles who were evaluated at a men's reproductive health clinic in Houston were recruited. • AGD (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) was measured using digital callipers. • Logistic regression was used to compare outcomes after stratifying men based on AGD.• In all, 46 men with a mean (sd) age of 33.1 (6.3) years with postoperative semen data were recruited. • Semen concentration, motility, and total motile sperm count all showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < 0.01). • While 48% of men with a shorter AGD had improvements in sperm concentration postoperatively, 84% of men with a longer AGD improved (P = 0.01). • There was a trend toward a lower percentage of men (62% vs 84%) with shorter AGDs showing improvements in total motile sperm count (P = 0.09).• AGD may provide a novel metric to assess intrinsic testicular function and predict efficacy of varicocele repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11154.x

    View details for PubMedID 22520827

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and the efficacy of varicocele repair BJU INTERNATIONAL Eisenberg, M. L., Shy, M., Herder, D., Walters, R. C., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 110 (11C): E927-E930

    Abstract

    Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Anogenital distance (AGD) is a marker of genital development and adult testicular function. To date, there is no data on the clinical utility of using such an anthropomorphic variable. About 30% of men will have no improvement in semen parameters after varicocele repair. It is currently difficult to assess which patients are most likely to benefit from surgical repair. The present study showed that men with a longer AGD had a higher likelihood of improvement after varicocelectomy. As such, AGD may allow clinicians to better counsel men on the efficacy of varicocele repair.• To investigate whether anogenital distance (AGD) can identify men most likely to show improved semen parameters after varicocele ligation, as AGD has been shown to correlate with intrinsic adult testicular function.• Men with varicoceles who were evaluated at a men's reproductive health clinic in Houston were recruited. • AGD (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) was measured using digital callipers. • Logistic regression was used to compare outcomes after stratifying men based on AGD.• In all, 46 men with a mean (sd) age of 33.1 (6.3) years with postoperative semen data were recruited. • Semen concentration, motility, and total motile sperm count all showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < 0.01). • While 48% of men with a shorter AGD had improvements in sperm concentration postoperatively, 84% of men with a longer AGD improved (P = 0.01). • There was a trend toward a lower percentage of men (62% vs 84%) with shorter AGDs showing improvements in total motile sperm count (P = 0.09).• AGD may provide a novel metric to assess intrinsic testicular function and predict efficacy of varicocele repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11154.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315029700025

  • PARENTHOOD, HOST RESISTANCE TO THE COMMON COLD, AND IMPAIRED FERTILITY PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Eisenberg, M. L. 2012; 74 (9): 988-988

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PSY.0b013e318273880f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311131800017

    View details for PubMedID 23107840

  • Seasonal Fluctuations in Testosterone-Estrogen Ratio in Men From the Southwest United States JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Moskovic, D. J., Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 33 (6): 1298-1304

    Abstract

    Although controversial, seasonal variations in testosterone have been observed in several populations of men throughout the world. This finding might have an impact on screening and treatment of hypogonadism. We examined the circannual patterns of sex hormones in the Southwest United States. A prospectively assembled database of almost 11 000 patients in a men's health practice was used to collect data on testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). Patient age, address, and date of visit were recorded. Of note, testosterone-estrogen ratio (T/E ratio) and free testosterone were calculated values. The data were grouped by month and by season (3-month intervals beginning with June, July, and August as summer). Analysis of variance was used to compare hormone levels between seasonal and monthly data sets, with P < .05 regarded as statistical significance. Statistically significant differences in estradiol (P = .02), T/E ratio (P < .01), FSH (P = .02), and SHBG (P < .01) were observed between seasons. Peak-to-trough variations were as follows: 6% for estradiol, 16.5% for T/E ratio, 11.0% for FSH, and 11.6% for SHBG. The T/E ratio peaked in the spring and was at its nadir in the fall. No differences in testosterone (P = .21), LH (P = .25), free testosterone (P = .08), and DHEA-S (P = .11) were observed. Statistically significant evidence of variation in estradiol and T/E ratio were identified in the men included in this study. Although this is consistent with seasonal body habitus changes, physical activity levels, and hypothesized hormonal patterns, the variability reported in the literature makes further trials covering a broader geographic region important to confirm the findings.

    View details for DOI 10.2164/jandrol.112.016386

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312113200032

    View details for PubMedID 22790643

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and azoospermia in adult men INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Shy, M., Walters, R. C., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 35 (5): 726-730

    Abstract

    Anogenital distance (AGD) is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies in which decreased male AGD has been associated with testicular dysfunction. The objective of the study was to investigate whether anogenital distance could distinguish men with obstructive azoospermia (OA) from those with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). To accomplish this, azoospermic men were recruited and evaluated at a men's reproductive health clinic in Houston, TX. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital calipers. Testis size was estimated by physical examination. Logistic regression was used to compare AGD lengths in men with OA and men with NOA. A total of 69 OA men (mean age: 44.2 ± 9.2) and 29 NOA men (mean age: 32.8 ± 4.8) were recruited. The NOA men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD than the men with OA (AGD: 36.3 vs. 41.9 mm, p = 0.01). An AGD of less than 30 mm, had a 91% specificity in accurately classifying NOA. Moreover, after adjustment for age, race, and BMI, an AGD of less than 30 mm yielded a significantly increased odds of NOA compared to OA (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.0, 30.7). In summary, AGD may provide a novel metric for assessing testicular function in men and in distinguishing OA from NOA.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01275.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308642100014

    View details for PubMedID 22519659

  • Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients ASIAN JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Murthy, L., Hwang, K., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 14 (5): 683-686

    Abstract

    In recent years, investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations. While men bear the sex-determining chromosome, the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio. We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm. We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Y chromosomes/total chromosomes). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters. A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH. For the entire cohort, the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%. Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02). After multivariable adjustment, a higher sperm concentration, total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01). As a man's sperm production declines, so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm. Thus, a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/aja.2012.58

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308666400009

    View details for PubMedID 22842703

  • Caucasian male infants and boys with hypospadias exhibit reduced anogenital distance HUMAN REPRODUCTION Hsieh, M. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Hittelman, A. B., Wilson, J. M., Tasian, G. E., Baskin, L. S. 2012; 27 (6): 1577-1580

    Abstract

    Animal models of endocrine dysfunction have associated male genital defects with reduced anogenital distance (AGD). Human studies have correlated shorter AGD with exposure to putative endocrine disruptors in the environment but have not examined AGD in hypospadiac boys. We measured AGD in boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals.Data were collected prospectively on boys undergoing urologic procedures at the University of California San Francisco and the Children's Hospital of Oakland, CA, USA. Data included age, race, height, weight, BMI, urologic diagnoses and AGD. To minimize any potential effects of race on observed AGD, we examined only Caucasian boys. Differences between boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals were examined through two-tailed Student's t-tests.One hundred and nineteen Caucasian boys ranging in age from 4 to 86 months underwent AGD measurement, of which 42 and 77 were boys with normal genitals and hypospadias, respectively. The mean (±SD) AGD of boys with hypospadias was 67 ± 1.2 versus 73 ± 1 mm for boys with normal genitals (P = 0.002). In these age-unmatched patient groups, there were also differences in age, height and weight (P = 0.0001, 0.0002 and 0.0004, respectively). After age matching (all <2 years of age), boys with hypospadias (n= 26) still featured a shorter AGD than boys with normal genitals (n= 26; 62 ± 2 versus 68 ± 2 mm respectively, P = 0.033) but the differences in age, height and weight were no longer significant.In humans, hypospadias may indeed be associated with reduced AGD. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these preliminary findings and to determine their etiology.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/des087

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304530900004

    View details for PubMedID 22434852

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3357195

  • The Relationship Between Anogenital Distance and Reproductive Hormone Levels in Adult Men JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Jensen, T. K., Walters, R. C., Skakkebaek, N. E., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 187 (2): 594-598

    Abstract

    Anogenital distance is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies in which decreased distance has been associated with testicular dysfunction. In this study we investigated whether anogenital distance was associated with reproductive hormone levels in adult men.A total of 116 men (mean age 36.1 ± 8.0 years) were evaluated at an andrology clinic in Houston. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length were measured using digital calipers. Testis size was estimated by physical examination. Linear regression was used to determine correlations between genital measurements and hormone levels.Anogenital distance (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) and penile length (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with serum testosterone levels while total testis size was not (r = 0.17, p = 0.07). No relationship between genital length and luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone or estradiol was identified. After adjusting for age the serum testosterone increased by 20.1 ng/dl (95% CI 1.8, 38.4; p = 0.03) for each 1 cm increase in anogenital distance. On multivariable models no statistically significant relationship existed between penile length and testosterone levels. Moreover men with hypogonadal testosterone levels (less than 300 ng/dl) had a significantly shorter anogenital distance compared to men with higher testosterone levels (31.6 vs 37.3 mm, p = 0.02).Anogenital distance may provide a novel metric to assess testicular function in men. Assuming that anogenital distance at birth predicts adult anogenital distance, our findings suggest a fetal origin for adult testicular function.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2011.10.041

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299070400082

    View details for PubMedID 22177168

  • IS VITAMIN D ASSOCIATED WITH ED? A REVIEW OF A COMPUTERIZED MEDICAL RECORD SYSTEM AT A TERTIARY CARE MEDICAL CENTER Shindel, A., Smith, J., Eisenberg, M., Breyer, B. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2012: 7–7
  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANOGENITAL DISTANCE AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE LEVELS IN ADULT MEN Eisenberg, M., Jensen, T., Walters, R., Skakkebaek, N., Lipshultz, L. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2012: 17–17
  • Men Who Seek Infertility Care May Not Represent the General US Population: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth UROLOGY Hotaling, J. M., Davenport, M. T., Eisenberg, M. L., Vandeneeden, S. K., Walsh, T. J. 2012; 79 (1): 123-127

    Abstract

    To examine the National Survey of Family Growth to identify differences in the characteristics of men who did and did not seek infertility care to determine whether such men are representative of the U.S. population.We analyzed the data from the 2002 (cycle 6) National Survey of Family Growth. In-home interviews were conducted from March 2002 to February 2003. A total of 4928 men were surveyed, with underrepresented groups sampled at greater rates to provide an adequate sample size for meaningful statistical analyses. The use of infertility services was queried by a single question: "Have you been to a doctor to talk about ways to help have a baby together?" The demographic and socioeconomic variables, including age, marital status, number of children, race, religion, income, education, and insurance status were analyzed for the 2161 men surveyed who were aged 30-45 years. We performed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the predictors of infertility service use.Marital status and education level were strongly associated with infertility care seeking. In the adjusted analysis, married men were 9 times (odds ratio 9.3, 95% confidence interval 4.1-20.9) more likely to seek care than unmarried men, and men with a college degree and those with an advanced degree were 3 times (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.0) and 5 times (odds ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 2.1-10.5) more likely to seek care, respectively.Men seeking infertility care in the United States tend to be married, older, and more educated than those not seeking care. Given these findings, some results of male infertility studies from cohorts of men from infertility referral centers might not apply to the U.S. population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2011.09.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298671000031

    View details for PubMedID 22119258

  • Fatherhood and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study HUMAN REPRODUCTION Eisenberg, M. L., Park, Y., Hollenbeck, A. R., Lipshultz, L. I., Schatzkin, A., Pletcher, M. J. 2011; 26 (12): 3479-3485

    Abstract

    Fertility potential and reproductive fitness may reflect a man's future health, given that over one-third of the male human genome is involved in reproduction. We sought to determine if offspring number predicts cardiovascular death in the US men.Using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, 137,903 men (aged 50-71) without prior cardiovascular disease were followed-up for an average of 10.2 years. International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition, codes were used to establish the cause of death, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the association between offspring number and cardiovascular death while accounting for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.Almost all (92%) participants had fathered at least one child and 50% had three or more offspring. A total of 3082 men died of cardiovascular causes during follow-up for an age-adjusted incidence rate of 2.70 per 1000 person-years. Compared with fathers, after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, childless men had a 17% [hazard ratio (HR): 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.32] increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease contracted in the study period, and this elevated risk appeared to extend also to men with only one child. In comparison with fathers of five or more children, adjusted relative hazards for cardiovascular mortality of this sort were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.92-1.22) for four children, 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for three children, 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for two children, 1.11 (0.95-1.30) for one child and 1.21 (1.03-1.41) for no children.Married men who have no children have a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease contracted after the age of 50 than men with two or more children.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/der305

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297058000033

    View details for PubMedID 21946940

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3212876

  • Fecundity and sex ratio of offspring in an infertile cohort FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Schembri, M., Croughan, M. S., Walsh, T. J. 2011; 96 (4): 833-836

    Abstract

    To determine whether male and female subfecundity is associated with the gender ratio.Retrospective cohort study.Reproductive endocrinology clinics in California.A cohort of 30,448 women who sought infertility treatment or evaluation in California between 1990 and 1998 was identified. A fertile comparison group was assembled after matching data from vital statistics records.Not applicable.Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of a male birth based on fertility status.We identified 5,293 infertile women and 6,730 fertile matched women in the live-birth and fetal death records. There were 6,178 children born to women evaluated and/or treated for infertility, compared with 9,131 born to fertile women, for a total of 15,309 births. There was no significant difference in the secondary sex ratio between births in the infertile cohort and the fertile cohort or on the basis of male factor infertility versus female factor infertility. After controlling for confounding factors, there was no difference in sex ratio based on the use of advanced reproductive technologies, duration of infertility treatment, or the type of infertility.This study found no statistical evidence to support an association between infertility and secondary sex ratio.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.07.1141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295938800015

    View details for PubMedID 21864839

  • Use of Google Insights for Search to Track Seasonal and Geographic Kidney Stone Incidence in the United States UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., Sen, S., Aaronson, D. S., Stoller, M. L., Erickson, B. A., Eisenberg, M. L. 2011; 78 (2): 267-271

    Abstract

    To determine whether Internet search volume for kidney stones has seasonal and geographic distributions similar to known kidney stone incidence.Google Insights for Search analyzes a portion of Google web searches from all Google domains to compute how many searches are performed for a given term relative to the total number of searches done over a specific time interval and geographic region. Selected terms related to kidney stones were examined to determine which most closely tracked kidney stone incidence. Google Insights for Search data were correlated with hospital admissions for the emergent treatment of nephrolithiasis found through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Ambient temperature in Seattle and New York were compared with search volume for these regions to display qualitative relationships.The term "kidney stones" had the highest seasonal correlation of terms examined (r = .81, P = .0014). Google Insights for Search output and national Inpatient Sample admissions also correlated when regions were compared (r = .90, P = .005). Qualitative relationships between ambient temperatures and kidney stone search volume do exist.Internet search volume activity for kidney stones correlates with temporal and regional kidney stone insurance claims data. In the future, with improved modeling of search detection algorithms and increased Internet usage, search volume has the potential to serve as a surrogate for kidney stone incidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2011.01.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293577100010

    View details for PubMedID 21459414

  • Words of wisdom: Re: Does varicocele repair improve male infertility? An evidence-based perspective from a randomized, controlled trial. European urology Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2011; 60 (2): 395-?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.05.025

    View details for PubMedID 21703969

  • Socioeconomic disparities in the use and success of fertility treatments: analysis of data from a prospective cohort in the United States FERTILITY AND STERILITY Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Glidden, D., Millstein, S. G., Cedars, M., Walsh, T. J., Showstack, J., Pasch, L. A., Adler, N., Katz, P. P. 2011; 96 (1): 95-101

    Abstract

    To determine the effect of income, education, and race on the use and outcomes of infertility care.Prospective cohort.Eight community and academic infertility practices.Three hundred ninety-one women presenting for an infertility evaluation.Face-to-face and telephone interviews and questionnaires.Use of infertility services and odds of pregnancy. Linear and logistic regression used to assess relationship between racial and socioeconomic characteristics, use of infertility services, and infertility outcomes.After adjustment for age and demographic and fertility characteristics, college-educated couples (β = $5,786) and households earning $100,000-$150,000 (β = $6,465) and ≥$150,000 (β = $8,602) spent significantly more on infertility care than their non-college-educated, lower-income counterparts. Higher income and college-educated couples were much more likely to use more cycles of higher-intensity fertility treatment. The increased cost of infertility care was primarily explained by these differences in number and type of infertility treatment. Even after adjustment for these factors and total amount spent on fertility care, having a college degree was associated with persistently higher odds of achieving a pregnancy (OR = 1.9).Education and household income were independently associated with the amount of money spent on fertility care. This relationship was primarily explained by types and intensity of infertility treatments used. Having at least a college degree was independently associated with improved odds of pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.04.054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292283000039

    View details for PubMedID 21616487

  • The Relationship between Anogenital Distance, Fatherhood, and Fertility in Adult Men PLOS ONE Eisenberg, M. L., Hsieh, M. H., Walters, R. C., Krasnow, R., Lipshultz, L. I. 2011; 6 (5)

    Abstract

    Anogenital distance (AGD), a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men.A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count).A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4) and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7) were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, p<0.01). The difference in AGD persisted even after accounting for ethnic and anthropomorphic differences. In addition to fatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03) and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01). On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters.A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0018973

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290483600004

    View details for PubMedID 21589916

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3092750

  • Contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students CONTRACEPTION Rowen, T. S., Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Breyer, B. N., Drey, E. A., Shindel, A. W. 2011; 83 (5): 459-465

    Abstract

    Previous studies indicate that the sexual beliefs and mores of students in medical professions may influence their capacity to care for patients' sexuality and contraception issues. Students also represent a large sample of reproductive-age individuals. In this study, we examined contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students.Students using online medical student social and information networks enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February and July of 2008 were invited to participate via email and published announcements in an Internet-based survey consisting of a questionnaire that assessed ethnodemographic factors, year in school and sexual history. We also collected information about current use of contraceptive and barrier methods. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses.Among our 2269 complete responses, at least one form of contraception was being utilized by 71% of men and 76% of women. Condoms were the most popular form of contraceptive, utilized by 1011 respondents (50% of men and 40% of women). Oral contraceptive pills were the contraceptive of choice for 34% of men and 41% of women. Decreased rates of contraception use were associated with being black or Asian, not being in a relationship and having more sexual dysfunction in female respondents. Students who reported comfort discussing sexual issues with patients were more likely to use effective contraceptive methods themselves. Ten percent of this of sexually active medical students was not currently using contraception.There are significant differences in contraceptive use based on demographics, even at the highest education levels. The personal contraception choices of medical students may influence their ability to accurately convey information about contraception to their patients. In addition, medical students may personally benefit from improved knowledge of effective contraceptive practices.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.contraception.2010.09.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289821600013

    View details for PubMedID 21477690

  • HIV Status is An Independent Risk Factor for Reporting Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., Van Den Eeden, S. K., Horberg, M. A., Eisenberg, M. L., Deng, D. Y., Smith, J. F., Shindel, A. W. 2011; 185 (5): 1710-1715

    Abstract

    HIV/AIDS is a worldwide epidemic. Limited evidence suggests that men infected with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk for lower urinary tract symptoms. We determined whether HIV/AIDS status is an independent risk factor for self-reported bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms in a large contemporary cohort.We performed a cross-sectional, Internet based survey of urinary quality of life outcomes in adult HIV infected and HIV uninfected men who have sex with men. The main outcome measure was International Prostate Symptom Score.Of respondents with complete data 1,507 were HIV uninfected (median age 42 years, mean 43) and 323 HIV infected (median age 45 years, mean 45.1). Of the HIV infected respondents 148 were nonAIDS defining HIV infected and 175 were AIDS defining HIV infected. After adjusting for age and other comorbid conditions, nonAIDS defining HIV infected and AIDS defining HIV infected status increased the odds of severe lower urinary tract symptoms by 2.07 (95% CI 1.04-3.79) and 2.49 (95% CI 1.43-4.33), respectively. HIV infected men had a worse total International Prostate Symptom Score for all domains including quality of life compared to HIV uninfected men. Within the population of men with HIV, those with AIDS had worse mean total International Prostate Symptom Score and all individual International Prostate Symptom Score components relative to nonAIDS defining HIV infected men.HIV status is an independent risk factor for bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. The odds of severe lower urinary tract symptoms are greater in HIV infected men with a history of AIDS.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2010.12.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289279600050

    View details for PubMedID 21420120

  • Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Park, Y., Brinton, L. A., Hollenbeck, A. R., Schatzkin, A. 2011; 40 (2): 480-487

    Abstract

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory.We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics.When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction < 0.01). A trend for the lower risk of prostate cancer among unscreened fathers compared with childless men was seen for low-grade prostate cancer (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-1.01), high-grade prostate cancer (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.37-1.04) and even fatal prostate cancer (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.07-1.12). The number of children fathered was not related to prostate cancer (P(trend) = 0.17). In addition, men's inability to sire female offspring showed a weak positive association with prostate cancer in the PSA unscreened study subjects.Our findings suggest fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ije/dyq163

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289165800028

    View details for PubMedID 20959354

  • Re: Estimating the Number of Vasectomies Performed Annually in the United States: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2011; 185 (4): 1541-1542

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288430200141

    View details for PubMedID 21345456

  • Costs of infertility treatment: results from an 18-month prospective cohort study FERTILITY AND STERILITY Katz, P., Showstack, J., Smith, J. F., Nachtigall, R. D., Millstein, S. G., Wing, H., Eisenberg, M. L., Pasch, L. A., Croughan, M. S., Adler, N. 2011; 95 (3): 915-921

    Abstract

    To examine resource use (costs) by women presenting for infertility evaluation and treatment over 18 months, regardless of treatment pursued.Prospective cohort study in which women were followed for 18 months.Eight infertility practices.Three hundred ninety-eight women recruited from infertility practices.Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and after 4, 10, and 18 months of follow-up. Medical records were abstracted after 18 months to obtain details of services used.Per-person and per-successful-outcome costs.Treatment groups were defined as highest intensity treatment use. Twenty percent of women did not pursue cycle-based treatment; approximately half pursued IVF. Median per-person costs ranged from $1,182 for medications only to $24,373 and $38,015 for IVF and IVF-donor egg groups, respectively. Estimates of costs of successful outcomes (delivery or ongoing pregnancy by 18 months) were higher--$61,377 for IVF, for example--reflecting treatment success rates. Within the time frame of the study, costs were not significantly different for women whose outcomes were successful and women whose outcomes were not.Although individual patient costs vary, these cost estimates developed from actual patient treatment experiences may provide patients with realistic estimates to consider when initiating infertility treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.11.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287480300014

    View details for PubMedID 21130988

  • Pentoxifylline treatment and penile calcifications in men with Peyronie's disease ASIAN JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Smith, J. F., Shindel, A. W., Huang, Y., Clavijo, R. I., Flechner, L., Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L., Lue, T. F. 2011; 13 (2): 322-325

    Abstract

    This retrospective cohort study from a single clinical practice enrolled patients with evidence of calcified Peyronie's disease (PD) plaques detected on penile ultrasound at the time of initial presentation. The primary objective was to describe the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) treatment on subtunical calcifications in men with PD. A PD-specific questionnaire was administered and sonographic evaluations were performed at baseline and follow-up visits. Descriptive statistics and χ(2) analysis were used to characterize the effect of PTX on calcified tunical plaques. In all, 71 men (mean age: 51.9 years) with PD and sonographic evidence of calcification were identified. Of them, 62 of these men were treated with PTX for a mean duration of 1 year, and nine with vitamin E or no treatment. Improvement or stabilization in calcium burden at follow-up was noted in 57 (91.9%) of men treated with PTX versus four (44.4%) of those not treated with PTX (P<0.001). PTX users were much less likely to have a subjective worsening of their clinical condition (25.0% versus 78.3%, P=0.002). Treatment with PTX appeared to stabilize or reduce calcium content in PD plaques. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to further explore this effect.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/aja.2010.117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288074400035

    View details for PubMedID 21102473

  • The importance of tumor palpability and transrectal ultrasonographic appearance in the contemporary clinical staging of prostate cancer UROLOGIC ONCOLOGY-SEMINARS AND ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Eisenberg, M. L., Cowan, J. E., Davies, B. J., Carroll, P. R., Shinohara, K. 2011; 29 (2): 171-176

    Abstract

    An accurate assessment of the clinical stage of prostate cancer is important to determine the most appropriate treatments for patients. Most centers rely on digital rectal examination, given conflicting results in the literature regarding the role of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS).Since ultrasound technologies as well as physician experience have improved, the contemporary impact of TRUS on the clinical staging of prostate cancer was assessed.In 2002, a standardized form to evaluate TRUS findings in order to rank the clinical suspicion of extracapsular extension (ECE) was used for all prostate cancer patients evaluated at UCSF. Preoperative clinical findings were compared with pathological staging as assessed by analysis of radical prostatectomy specimens from 2002 to 2007 (n = 620).Mean patient age was 58 ± 6.6 years with a mean PSA of 7.0 ± 4.5; 157/620 (25.3%) had pathologic ECE. Evidence of ECE by TRUS was associated with higher pathologic stage (P < 0.00001) and higher rates of biochemical failure after prostatectomy (P = 0.0006). Overall, TRUS had a 31% sensitivity, 92% specificity, 58% positive predictive value, and 80% negative predictive value with an area under the curve of 0.77 for the detection of ECE. TRUS alone was significantly more accurate in predicting ECE than commonly used nomograms or tables (P < 0.001) when examining patients with impalpable tumors.In the current era, TRUS provides an accurate method to assess a cancer stage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.01.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288342700012

    View details for PubMedID 19362864

  • Tunica-sparing ossified Peyronie's plaque excision BJU INTERNATIONAL Eisenberg, M. L., Smith, J. F., Shindel, A. W., Lue, T. F. 2011; 107 (4): 622-625

    Abstract

    Ossified Peyronie's plaques may require surgical excision because of the palpable problems and penile curvature that result. As tunical excision can result in impotence and decrease penile sensation, we describe a novel method of tunical preserving excision of such lesions.We evaluated 12 men with dorsal penile curvature between 10° and 90°. Penile plaque size ranged from 1 to 5 cm. 80% had painful erections. An artificial erection was induced with intracavernous injection of papaverine to assess penile deformity. Via a circumcising or ventral incision, plication sutures were placed to correct penile curvature. A lateral longitudinal corporotomy was made and the calcified/ossified portion was dissected free from the tunica albuginea/plaque of the corpora cavernosa. Watertight tunical closure was then performed.Postoperatively, 80% of men reported erections always adequate for intercourse and normal sensation with a mean follow-up of 7 months (range 2.1-14.5 months). All patients required simultaneous penile plication to ensure a straight phallus. Pathologic evaluation of plaque specimens all showed bone fragments.Tunica-sparing excision of the ossified/calcified portion of Peyronie's plaques shows a durable benefit for large, ossified lesions and maintains potency and penile sensation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09546.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286767300016

    View details for PubMedID 20804484

  • Sexual Function and Depressive Symptoms Among Female North American Medical Students JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Shindel, A. W., Eisenberg, M. L., Breyer, B. N., Sharlip, I. D., Smith, J. F. 2011; 8 (2): 391-399

    Abstract

    Depression and sexual dysfunction are often comorbid.We explored the relationship between sexuality, sexual dysfunction, and depressive symptoms in female medical students in North America.Female North American medical students were invited to participate in an internet survey. The CES-D was utilized to screen for depressive symptoms and an abbreviated Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) was used to quantify anxiety symptoms.Subjects completed an ethnodemographic survey, a sexuality survey, and modified instruments for the quantification of sexual function (the Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI] and the Index of Sexual Life [ISL]). Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between sexuality and depressive symptoms.There were 1,241 female subjects with complete data on CES-D and STAI. Mean age was 25.4 years. Depressive symptoms (CES-D>16) were present in 46% of respondents and were more common in subjects with anxiety symptoms. Subjects who were Caucasian, younger than 28, heterosexual, and in a relationship were least likely to report depressive symptoms. High risk of female sexual dysfunction (HRFSD) was significantly associated with greater likelihood of depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.25, P<0.001). After adjusting for ethnodemographic and sexual history factors, HRFSD remained significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR 1.85, P<0.001). Analysis of FSFI and ISL domains indicated that depressive symptoms were most directly associated with worse orgasmic function, interference in sex life from stress and lack of partner, and lower general life satisfaction (P<0.05). Interestingly, greater ISL-sexual satisfaction was associated with greater odds of depressive symptoms (OR 1.40, P=0.01).Depressive symptoms are common in female medical students. HRFSD is associated with depressive symptoms, although the relationship is complex when psychosocial factors are included in the multivariate model. Attention to sexuality factors from student health providers may enhance quality-of-life, academic achievement, and patient care.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02085.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286838900008

    View details for PubMedID 21054793

  • Management for Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Posterior Urethral and Bladder Neck Stenosis With Stents JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Erickson, B. A., McAninch, J. W., Eisenberg, M. L., Washington, S. L., Breyer, B. N. 2011; 185 (1): 198-203

    Abstract

    Prostate cancer treatment has the potential to lead to posterior urethral stricture. These strictures are sometimes recalcitrant to dilation and urethrotomy alone. We present our experience with the Urolume® stent for prostate cancer treatment related stricture.A total of 38 men with posterior urethral stricture secondary to prostate cancer treatment were treated with Urolume stenting. Stents were placed in all men after aggressive urethrotomy over the entire stricture. A successfully managed stricture was defined as open and stable for greater than 6 months after any necessary secondary procedures.The initial success rate was 47%. After a total of 31 secondary procedures in 19 men, including additional stent placement in 8 (18%), the final success rate was 89% at a mean ± SD followup of 2.3 ± 2.5 years. Four cases (11%) in which treatment failed ultimately requiring urinary diversion (3) or salvage prostatectomy (1). Incontinence was noted in 30 men (82%), of whom 19 (63%) received an artificial urinary sphincter a mean of 7.2 ± 2.4 months after the stent. Subanalysis revealed that irradiated men had longer strictures (3.6 vs 2.0 cm, p = 0.003) and a higher post-stent incontinence rate (96% vs 50%, p < 0.001) than men who underwent prostatectomy alone but the initial failure rate was similar (54% vs 50%, p = 0.4).Urolume stenting is a reasonable option for severe post-prostate cancer treatment stricture when patients are unwilling or unable to undergo open reconstructive surgery. Incontinence should be expected. The need for additional procedures is common and in some men may be required periodically for the lifetime of the stent.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2010.09.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285141900064

    View details for PubMedID 21074796

  • Varicocele-induced infertility: Newer insights into its pathophysiology. Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2011; 27 (1): 58-64

    Abstract

    The association between varicoceles and male infertility has been known since the 1950s; however, the pathophysiology of the process remains uncertain. The primary proposed hypotheses involve hyperthermia, venous pressure, testicular blood flow, hormonal imbalance, toxic substances, and reactive oxygen species. It is difficult to identify a single or dominant factor, and it is likely that many of these factors contribute to the infertile phenotype seen in clinical practice. Moreover, patient lifestyle and genetic factors likely affect patient susceptibilities to the varicocele insult. While the current studies have weaknesses, they provide building blocks for futures studies into the pathophysiology of the varicocele.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0970-1591.78428

    View details for PubMedID 21716891

  • Fertility treatments and outcomes among couples seeking fertility care: data from a prospective fertility cohort in the United States FERTILITY AND STERILITY Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Millstein, S. G., Nachtigall, R. D., Sadetsky, N., Cedars, M. I., Katz, P. P. 2011; 95 (1): 79-84

    Abstract

    To determine the relationship between number of fertility treatment cycles and pregnancy rates.Prospective cohort study.Eight community and academic infertility practices.Four hundred eight (408) couples presenting for an infertility evaluation.Face-to-face and telephone interviews and questionnaires.Incidence of pregnancy. Cox regression analysis compared the efficacy of cycle-based fertility treatments with no cycle-based fertility treatment after multivariable adjustment.Couples using one to two medications-only cycles had a significantly higher pregnancy rate (hazard ratio [HR] 4.7 [95% confidence interval 1.3-16.6]), a benefit that did not persist after three or more cycles (HR 0.6 [0.1-3.2]). Couples using IUI for one (HR 2.9 [1.4-5.8]), two (HR 2.0 [0.9-4.5]), and three cycles (HR 4.5 [1.8-10.9]) were more likely to achieve a pregnancy. No additional benefit was seen for couples using four or more IUI cycles (HR 1.0 [0.4-2.6]). In vitro fertilization was associated with significant benefit for couples using one (HR 2.8 [1.5-5.2]) and two cycles (HR 2.2 [1.2-4.1]). Couples using three or more IVF cycles had a non-statistically significant higher likelihood of pregnancy (HR 1.3 [0.7-2.4]).Cycle-based fertility treatments may offer a point of diminishing returns for infertile couples: two cycles of medications only, three cycles of IUI, and two cycles of IVF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.06.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285411600021

    View details for PubMedID 20659733

  • Sexual Function and Depressive Symptoms among Male North American Medical Students JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Smith, J. F., Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L., Sharlip, I. D., Shindel, A. W. 2010; 7 (12): 3909-3917

    Abstract

    The role of sexuality as an association of medical student well-being has not been extensively studied.We explored the relationship between depressive symptoms, sexuality, and sexual dysfunction in male North American medical students.North American medical students were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was utilized to screen for depressive symptoms.Subjects completed an ethnodemographic survey, a sexuality survey, and instruments for the quantification of anxiety, sexuality, and psychosocial function. Descriptive statistics, odds ratios (ORs), and logistic regression were used to analyze our data.There were 844 male subjects with complete data on the CES-D and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index. Depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) were present in 37% of respondents and were more common in subjects with greater levels of anxiety. Subjects who were in sexual relationships and/or had frequent sexual activity were less likely to be depressed compared to other subjects. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was associated with significantly greater likelihood of depressive symptoms (OR 2.90 and 9.27 for depressive symptoms in men with mild or moderate/severe ED relative to men without ED, P < 0.01). After adjusting for ethnodemographic and sexual history factors, ED remained significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR 2.87 and 6.59 for depressive symptoms in men with mild or moderate/severe ED relative to men without ED after adjustment, P ≤ 0.01). Inclusion of data related to psychosocial/relationship factors in the multivariate model eliminated the significant association between ED and depressive symptoms (OR 1.59 and 2.29 for depressive symptoms in men with mild or moderate/severe ED relative to men without ED after adjustment with the Self-Esteem and Relationship quality instrument, P > 0.05), suggesting that psychosocial factors were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than erectile function.Healthy sexuality and relationships may be protective against depressive symptoms in medical students. Attention to these factors may enhance medical student well-being.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02033.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284850800011

    View details for PubMedID 21059174

  • Estimating the Number of Vasectomies Performed Annually in the United States: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2010; 184 (5): 2068-2072

    Abstract

    While hospital discharge and ambulatory surgery registries provide accurate estimates of female sterilization procedures, current estimates of male sterilization rates are lacking since these procedures are done in many settings. Population based data are used to estimate annual sterilization numbers.We analyzed data on 4,928 men and 7,643 women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. We determined the year of vasectomy in men and the year of tubal ligation in women who reported a history of surgical sterilization. After accounting for the complex survey design of the National Survey of Family Growth we calculated the estimated number of individuals who underwent surgical sterilization in the United States.A total of 141 men reported vasectomy, representing an overall 6% prevalence in National Survey of Family Growth survey population, while 1,173 women (16%) reported tubal ligation. Using National Survey of Family Growth data an estimated 175,000 to 354,000 vasectomies were done yearly from 1998 to 2002. In the same period the National Survey of Family Growth estimated that 546,000 to 789,000 tubal ligations were done annually in the United States. This compares closely to the 596,000 to 687,000 tubal ligations calculated using ambulatory surgery and hospital discharge data from a similar period.The estimated annual number of tubal ligations from the National Survey of Family Growth is in line with the current literature using hospital discharge and ambulatory surgery registries, suggesting the accuracy of the method of estimating surgical sterilization numbers. This suggests that the National Survey of Family Growth may be used to provide an estimate of vasectomy use in the United States.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2010.06.117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282679200086

    View details for PubMedID 20850832

  • Predictors of not pursuing infertility treatment after an infertility diagnosis: examination of a prospective US cohort FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Smith, J. F., Millstein, S. G., Nachtigall, R. D., Adler, N. E., Pasch, L. A., Katz, P. P. 2010; 94 (6): 2369-2371

    Abstract

    We studied a prospective cohort of 434 couples in Northern California and found that 13% did not pursue any form of infertility treatment after their initial consultation. Although age, education, and financial concerns remain important for patients in choosing whether to pursue infertility treatment, depressive symptoms may also be a barrier to achieving reproductive goals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.03.068

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283441400097

    View details for PubMedID 20471010

  • The impact of infertility on family size in the USA: data from the National Survey of Family Growth HUMAN REPRODUCTION Breyer, B. N., Smith, J. F., Shindel, A. W., Sharlip, I. D., Eisenberg, M. L. 2010; 25 (9): 2360-2365

    Abstract

    Investigators have postulated that family size may be influenced by biologic fertility potential in addition to sociodemographic factors. The aim of the current study is to determine if a diagnosis of infertility is associated with family size in the USA.We analyzed data from the male and female samples of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth using multivariable logistic regression models to determine the relationship between infertility and family size while adjusting for sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics.In the survey, 4409 women and 1739 men met the inclusion criteria, of whom 10.2% and 9.7%, respectively, were classified as infertile, on the basis of having sought reproductive assistance. Infertile females had a 34% reduced odds of having an additional child compared with women who did not seek reproductive assistance. For each additional 6 months it took a woman to conceive her first child, the odds of having a larger family fell by 9% and the odds of having a second child were reduced by 11%. A diagnosis of male infertility reduced the odds of having a larger family more than a diagnosis of female infertility.A diagnosis of infertility, especially male factor, is associated with reduced odds of having a larger family, implicating a biologic role in the determination of family size in the USA.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deq152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281343700026

    View details for PubMedID 20601679

  • Perceived negative consequences of donor gametes from male and female members of infertile couples FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Smith, J. F., Millstein, S. G., Walsh, T. J., Breyer, B. N., Katz, P. P. 2010; 94 (3): 921-926

    Abstract

    To determine the views toward donor sperm and eggs of both men and women. The use of donor sperm or ova becomes an option for some infertile couples.Prospective cohort of infertile couples.Eight California reproductive endocrinology practices.Infertile couples (n=377) were recruited after an initial infertility clinic visit.From questionnaires administered at recruitment, ratings concerning the impact of the use of donor gametes were assessed. Differences between men and women in attitudes toward donor gametes were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression was used to identify independent predictors of attitudes toward gametes.Women's attitudes toward donor sperm were significantly more negative than their attitudes toward donor eggs (5.1+/-1.4 vs. 4.7+/-1.6). Similarly, male donor gamete attitude scores were higher for donor sperm compared with donor eggs (4.9+/-1.6 vs. 4.1+/-1.6). Both men and women agreed that the use of donor sperm was more likely to have negative effects on their relationship and negative societal ramifications. Female donor gamete attitude scores were predicted by marital status, race, and education, whereas men's scores were independent of all measured factors.Both men and women view the use of donor sperm with more skepticism compared with the use of donor eggs, suggesting a unique underlying perception regarding the use of male donor gametes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.04.049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280407900016

    View details for PubMedID 19523614

  • Use of Google in Study of Noninfectious Medical Conditions EPIDEMIOLOGY Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L. 2010; 21 (4): 584-585

    View details for DOI 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181e080cd

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279038600024

    View details for PubMedID 20539114

  • The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Sexuality and Sexual Practices in North American Medical Students JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Breyer, B. N., Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Ando, K. A., Rowen, T. S., Shindel, A. W. 2010; 7 (7): 2391-2400

    Abstract

    There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed.To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations.An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008.All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]).There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005).In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the dissimilarities represent differing relative prevalence of sexual problems or discrepancies in patterns of sex behavior and interpretation of the survey questions.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01794.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279620100010

    View details for PubMedID 20384941

  • Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Quantitative 24-Hour Urine Chemistries in Patients With Nephrolithiasis UROLOGY Eisner, B. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Stoller, M. L. 2010; 75 (6): 1289-1293

    Abstract

    To examine the relationship between body mass index and 24-hour urine constituents in a population of stone-forming patients.A total of 880 patients who presented to a metabolic stone clinic for initial evaluation were analyzed. Patients were stratified by gender and divided into quartiles of body mass index. Associations between body mass index (BMI) and urine parameters were explored using bivariate and multivariate linear regression.On bivariate analysis, increasing body mass index was associated with a significant increase in sodium, calcium, citrate, uric acid, magnesium, calcium oxalate, uric acid, and a decrease in pH in men. In women, it was associated with a significant increase in sodium, uric acid, oxalate, uric acid, and decreasing pH. On multivariate analysis, BMI was associated only with increases in sodium and calcium oxalate and decrease in pH in men. In women, multivariate analysis demonstrated positive association between BMI and urine sodium, creatinine, and phosphate and a negative relationship with urine citrate and sulfate.Increasing body mass index was related to several risk factors for urinary stone disease in this study, including increasing urine sodium and decreasing pH in men and increasing urine uric acid, sodium, and decreasing urine citrate in women. Just as general recommendations for patients with nephrolithiasis include high voided volumes, low dietary sodium, and low animal protein intake, perhaps weight reduction should be included as part of the counseling of stone-formers to optimize 24-hour urine parameters.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2009.09.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278221100015

    View details for PubMedID 20018350

  • Selective arterial embolization of angiomyolipoma leading to pulmonary hypertension CANADIAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Lee, F., Aaronson, D. S., Blaschko, S., Barbosa, P., Wu, A. K., Eisenberg, M., Erickson, B. A., McAninch, J. W. 2010; 17 (3): 5232-5235

    Abstract

    To report two cases of secondary pulmonary hypertension resulting from microsphere extravasation following selective arterial embolization of renal angiomyolipoma, its diagnosis, and management.We reviewed the cases of two patients at the University of California, San Francisco, treated with selective arterial embolization for management of their angiomyolipoma (AML) using Tris-Acryl Gelatin Microspheres.Both patients were women, ages 51 and 77. Indications for treatment were the following: Patient 1 was treated for a large asymptomatic AML. Patient 2 was treated for a symptomatic, bleeding AML. Both patients developed progressive hypoxia following selective arterial embolization using Tris-Acryl Gelatin Microspheres. Each patient underwent a subsequent work up including a CT chest, echocardiogram, and chest x-ray. Both demonstrated significant pulmonary hypertension following their procedure and were discharged with supplemental oxygen.Selective arterial embolization of AML with microsphere extravasation into the pulmonary vasculature can lead to pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279294100020

    View details for PubMedID 20566024

  • Increased Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer Among Infertile Men CANCER Walsh, T. J., Schembri, M., Turek, P. J., Chan, J. M., Carroll, P. R., Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Van Den Eeden, S. K., Croughan, M. S. 2010; 116 (9): 2140-2147

    Abstract

    It has been reported that fatherhood status may be a risk factor for prostate cancer. In the current study, the authors examined the subsequent occurrence of prostate cancer in a cohort of men evaluated for infertility to determine whether male infertility is a risk factor for prostate cancer.A total of 22,562 men who were evaluated for infertility from 1967 to 1998 were identified from 15 California infertility centers and linked to the California Cancer Registry. The incidence of prostate cancer was compared with the incidence in an age-matched and geography-matched sample of men from the general population. The risk of prostate cancer in men with and those without male factor infertility was modeled using a Cox proportional hazards regression model.A total of 168 cases of prostate cancer that developed after infertility were identified. Men evaluated for infertility but not necessarily with male factors were not found to have an increased risk of cancer compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 0.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.8-1.1). This risk was found to be highest for men with male factor infertility who developed high-grade prostate cancer (SIR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0). On multivariate analyses, men with male factor infertility were found to be 2.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with high-grade prostate cancer (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8).Men with male factor infertility were found to have an increased risk of subsequently developing high-grade prostate cancer. Male infertility may be an early and identifiable risk factor for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25075

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277111900012

    View details for PubMedID 20309846

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2893877

  • The adjunctive use of power Doppler imaging in the preoperative assessment of prostate cancer BJU INTERNATIONAL Eisenberg, M. L., Cowan, J. E., Carroll, P. R., Shinohara, K. 2010; 105 (9): 1237-1240

    Abstract

    To determine if the adjunctive use of power Doppler imaging (PDI) could provide prognostic utility in the treatment of prostate cancer, as an accurate prediction of the clinical behaviour of prostate cancer is important to determine appropriate treatment.Most centres rely on a digital rectal examination or transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) to assess the clinical stage of patients. In 2002, we began using a standardized form to evaluate TRUS findings and PDI findings. We compared preoperative clinical findings with those from pathological analysis of 620 radical prostatectomy specimens from 2002 to 2007.The mean (sd) patient age was 58 (6.6) years with a mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 7.0 (4.5) ng/mL. Of the 620 specimens 157 (25.3%) had evidence of extracapsular extension on pathological evaluation; 443 (71.5%) men had a hypervascular lesion seen on TRUS, while 177 (28.5%) patients had none. There was no difference in preoperative PSA level, grade or stage of tumour. Furthermore, rates of biochemical recurrence or secondary treatment did not differ based on PDI findings. As a tool to help locate prostate tumours, PDI improved the specificity of TRUS but did not improve the overall accuracy or sensitivity.PDI provides little prognostic utility to assess risk in prostate cancer. However, PDI might improve the specificity of TRUS in identifying prostate tumours and could have a role in image guidance for focal therapy of prostate cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.08958.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276486900008

    View details for PubMedID 19888980

  • The use of complementary and alternative fertility treatment in couples seeking fertility care: data from a prospective cohort in the United States FERTILITY AND STERILITY Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Millstein, S. G., Nachtigall, R. D., Shindel, A. W., Wing, H., Cedars, M., Pasch, L., Katz, P. P. 2010; 93 (7): 2169-2174

    Abstract

    To determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among couples seeking fertility care and to identify the predictors of CAM use in this population.Prospective cohort study.Eight community and academic infertility practices.A total of 428 couples presenting for an infertility evaluation.Interviews and questionnaires.Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine therapy.After 18 months of observation, 29% of the couples had utilized a CAM modality for treatment of infertility; 22% had tried acupuncture, 17% herbal therapy, 5% a form of body work, and 1% meditation. An annual household income of > or = $200,000 (odds ratio 2.8, relative to couples earning <$100,000), not achieving a pregnancy (odds ratio 2.3), and a positive attitude toward CAM use at baseline were independently associated with CAM use.A substantial minority of infertile couples use CAM treatments. CAM was chosen most commonly by wealthier couples, those not achieving a pregnancy, and those with a baseline belief in the effectiveness of CAM treatments.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.02.054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277608200012

    View details for PubMedID 20338559

  • Prognostic Implications of an Undetectable Ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen Level after Radical Prostatectomy EUROPEAN UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Davies, B. J., Cooperberg, M. R., Cowan, J. E., Carroll, P. R. 2010; 57 (4): 622-629

    Abstract

    The prognostic meaning of an undetectable ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (USPSA) level after prostatectomy remains unclear.To determine whether an undetectable USPSA level obtained after surgery is a predictor of biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival.From the Urologic Oncology Database at the University of California San Francisco, 525 men were identified who had a USPSA measurement 1-3 mo postoperatively with at least 2 yr of follow-up. All preoperative and pathologic criteria were recorded.Patients were stratified based on their initial USPSA level. We defined an undetectable USPSA level at ≤0.05 ng/ml. Recurrence was defined as two consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ≥0.2 ng/ml or secondary treatment.We found that 456 patients (87%) had undetectable USPSA and 69 patients (13%) had detectable USPSA immediately postprostatectomy. A 5-yr recurrence-free rate of 86% was found in the undetectable USPSA group compared with 67% in the detectable USPSA group (p<0.01). For patients with pT3 disease, men with an undetectable USPSA had a 5-yr BCR-free survival rate of 78% compared with 40% for men with a detectable USPSA (p<0.01). A multivariable analysis confirmed that patients with an undetectable USPSA were 67% less likely to recur (hazard ratio: 0.33; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.55). As the detection level of PSA is lowered, the false-positive rate of BCR necessarily increases. A limitation of the study is its retrospective nature.An undetectable USPSA after radical prostatectomy is a prognostic indicator of BCR-free survival at 5 yr and may aid in predicting outcome in higher risk patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eururo.2009.03.077

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275739300017

    View details for PubMedID 19375843

  • Are Sonographic Characteristics Associated With Progression to Surgery in Men With Peyronie's Disease? JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., Shindel, A. W., Huang, Y., Eisenberg, M. L., Weiss, D. A., Lue, T. F., Smith, J. F. 2010; 183 (4): 1484-1488

    Abstract

    Traditionally, diagnosis and treatment plans for Peyronie's disease have been based on history and physical examination. Penile ultrasound provides rapid, anatomical information to establish disease severity, and to monitor progression and response to medical therapy. We determined the relationship between ultrasound characteristics and progression to surgical intervention in men with Peyronie's disease.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 518 patients with Peyronie's disease. Patients completed a Peyronie's disease specific questionnaire detailing medical history, health related behaviors and Peyronie's disease characteristics, and underwent sonographic evaluation of the penis. Measurements of subtunical calcifications, septal fibrosis, tunical thickening (tunica thickness greater than 2 mm) and intracavernous fibrosis were made. Progression to surgery was determined from the medical record.In this cohort (mean patient age 53.8 years, range 20 to 78) 31% of patients had calcifications, 50% had tunical thickening, 20% had septal fibrosis and 15% had intracavernous fibrosis. Overall 25% of the cohort progressed to surgical intervention after an average followup of 1.25 years (range 0 to 7.6). Patients who underwent surgery were more likely to have subtunical calcifications present at the first clinic visit (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.16-2.62). No other sonographic characteristics were associated with progression to surgery. After adjustment for age, marital status, degree of curvature, additional penile deformity, difficulty with penetration, ability to have intercourse and prior treatment for Peyronie's disease, calcifications were strongly associated with progression to surgery (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.25-3.45).In a large cohort of patients with Peyronie's disease the presence of sonographically detected sub-tunical calcifications during the initial office evaluation was independently associated with subsequent surgical intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.12.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275968200081

    View details for PubMedID 20171694

  • Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for Long-Term Urethroplasty Outcome JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., McAninch, J. W., Whitson, J. M., Eisenberg, M. L., Mehdizadeh, J. F., Myers, J. B., Voelzke, B. B. 2010; 183 (2): 613-617

    Abstract

    We studied the patient risk factors that promote urethroplasty failure.Records of patients who underwent urethroplasty at the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center between 1995 and 2004 were reviewed. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to identify multivariate predictors of urethroplasty outcome.Between 1995 and 2004, 443 patients of 495 who underwent urethroplasty had complete comorbidity data and were included in analysis. Median patient age was 41 years (range 18 to 90). Median followup was 5.8 years (range 1 month to 10 years). Stricture recurred in 93 patients (21%). Primary estimated stricture-free survival at 1, 3 and 5 years was 88%, 82% and 79%. After multivariate analysis smoking (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.1, p = 0.05), prior direct vision internal urethrotomy (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0, p = 0.04) and prior urethroplasty (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.1, p = 0.03) were predictive of treatment failure. On multivariate analysis diabetes mellitus showed a trend toward prediction of urethroplasty failure (HR 2.0, 95% CI 0.8-4.9, p = 0.14).Length of urethral stricture (greater than 4 cm), prior urethroplasty and failed endoscopic therapy are predictive of failure after urethroplasty. Smoking and diabetes mellitus also may predict failure potentially secondary to microvascular damage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.10.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273540600079

    View details for PubMedID 20018318

  • Socioeconomic, Anthropomorphic, and Demographic Predictors of Adult Sexual Activity in the United States: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Eisenberg, M. L., Shindel, A. W., Smith, J. F., Breyer, B. N., Lipshultz, L. I. 2010; 7 (1): 50-58

    Abstract

    Individuals who engage in regular sexual intercourse are more likely to report good overall quality of life. Studies of sexuality in adolescents have focused on high-risk behaviors whereas similar studies in older adults have focused on sexual dysfunction. Given a paucity of data on the sexual behaviors of young adults and the possibility of important relationships between sexuality and overall health, we sought to determine factors that influence the frequency of intercourse in adult men and women in the United States.To identify factors related to coital frequency in young and middle-aged adults.We analyzed data from the male and female sample of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to examine frequency of sexual intercourse among Americans aged 25-45 years (men: N = 2,469; women: N = 5,120).Multivariable negative binomial regression modeling was used to test for independent associations between the frequency of sexual intercourse and demographic, socioeconomic, and anthropometric variables.In this study, men and women between the ages of 25 and 45 have sex a mean 5.7 and 6.4 times per month, respectively. Being married significantly increased coital frequency for women but has no effect on male coital frequency. Increased height, less than high school education, and younger age were predictive of increased sexual frequency in men. Pregnancy was associated with significantly lower coital frequency for both men and women. No association was shown between self-reported health status and coital frequency on multivariable analysis.Among young male adults, coital frequency is associated with specific socioeconomic, demographic, and anthropomorphic characteristics. Sexual frequency in women does not appear to be influenced by such factors. Self-reported health is not predictive of sexual activity in this age group.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01522.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273313600006

    View details for PubMedID 19796014

  • Racial Differences in Vasectomy Utilization in the United States: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Henderson, J. T., Amory, J. K., Smith, J. F., Walsh, T. J. 2009; 74 (5): 1020-1024

    Abstract

    To explore whether health care, socioeconomic, or personal characteristics account for disparities observed in the utilization of vasectomy. More than 500,000 vasectomies are performed annually in the United States. The safety and efficacy of vasectomy make it a good family planning option, yet the factors related to use of male surgical sterilization are not well understood. In this analysis, we examined differences in vasectomy rates according to factors such as race and socioeconomic status.We analyzed data from the male sample of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to examine the use of vasectomy among the sample of men aged 30-45 (n = 2161). Demographic, socioeconomic, and reproductive characteristics were analyzed to assess associations with vasectomy.About 11.4% of men aged 30-45 years reported having a vasectomy, representing approximately 3.6 million American men. Although 14.1% of white men had a vasectomy, only 3.7% of black and 4.5% of Hispanic men reported undergoing vasectomy. On multivariate analysis, a significant difference in the odds of vasectomy by race/ethnicity remained, with black (odds ratio = 0.20, 0.09-0.45) and Hispanic men (odds ratio = 0.41, 0.18-0.95) having a significantly lower rate of vasectomy independent of demographic, partner, and socioeconomic factors. Having ever been married, fathering 2 or more children, older age, and higher income were the factors associated with vasectomy.After accounting for reproductive history, partner, and demographic characteristics, black and Hispanic men were less likely to rely on vasectomy for contraception. Further research is needed to identify the reasons for these race/ethnic differences and to identify factors that impede minority men's reliance on this means of fertility control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2009.06.042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271992400021

    View details for PubMedID 19773036

  • Impact of Urine Sodium on Urine Risk Factors for Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisner, B. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Stoller, M. L. 2009; 182 (5): 2330-2333

    Abstract

    Increased sodium intake is thought to promote nephrolithiasis by dietary sodium hypercalciuric effects. However, equivocal data exist on whether increased urine sodium actually increases the nephrolithiasis risk. We examined the relationship between urine sodium and urine risk factors for nephrolithiasis.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 880 patients evaluated at a metabolic stone clinic to determine the relationship between urine sodium and urine calcium, volume and calcium oxalate supersaturation. Patients were separated into sodium excretion quintiles. Tests of linear trend were performed by examining the linear contrast in coefficients and using Cuzick's nonparametric linear trend test. Multivariate linear regression with urine sodium as a continuous variable was done to assess the relationship between urine sodium and other urine variables.Tests of linear trend showed that urine calcium and volume increased with increasing urine sodium (each p <0.01) but urine calcium oxalate supersaturation decreased with increasing urine sodium (p <0.01). Multivariate linear regression was adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and urine constituents. Urine sodium was positively associated with urine calcium (beta = 0.28, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41, p <0.001) but negatively associated with urine calcium oxalate supersaturation (beta = -0.013, 95% CI -0.016 to -0.011, p <0.001). There was a trend toward a positive association of urine sodium and volume (beta = 0.001, 95% CI -0.00019 to 0.002, p = 0.10).Increasing urine sodium does not appear to increase the risk of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Global sodium restriction may not necessarily alter the risk of stone formation, ie cause changes in calcium oxalate urine supersaturation, in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.07.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270756900082

    View details for PubMedID 19758639

  • Influence of Body Mass Index on Quantitative 24-Hour Urine Chemistry Studies in Children With Nephrolithiasis JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisner, B. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Stoller, M. L. 2009; 182 (3): 1142-1145

    Abstract

    A high body mass index increases the risk of nephrolithiasis in adults. Despite the growing problem of pediatric obesity, little is known about the relationship between body mass index and risk of nephrolithiasis in children. We examined the association between body mass index and 24-hour urine chemistry studies in children with a history of nephrolithiasis.A total of 43 children were included in the study. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 24-hour urine chemistry studies. We calculated body mass index for each individual and cases were then stratified by percentile. The 24-hour urine chemistry studies were adjusted for daily creatinine excretion, urine volume was adjusted for age, and pH and urine supersaturations were unadjusted.Body mass index percentile was below the 25th percentile in 8 cases, 25th to 49th percentile in 7, 50th to 74th percentile in 5 and 75th percentile or above in 14. On multivariate analysis the only 24-hour urine parameters with a significant relationship to body mass index were urine oxalate (negative relationship) and supersaturation of calcium phosphate (positive). As body mass index increased, urine oxalate excretion decreased and supersaturation of calcium phosphate increased.A high body mass index is associated with decreased urine oxalate and increased supersaturation of calcium phosphate. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity in younger patients, our findings have important clinical implications. Pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists should be aware of these findings when evaluating children with nephrolithiasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.05.052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268899300120

    View details for PubMedID 19625057

  • Who is the 40-Year-Old Virgin and Where Did He/She Come From? Data from the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Eisenberg, M. L., Shindel, A. W., Smith, J. F., Lue, T. F., Walsh, T. J. 2009; 6 (8): 2154-2161

    Abstract

    Little is known about young and middle aged adults who have never engaged in sexual intercourse. Individuals who have not engaged in sexual activity may theoretically have diminished overall quality of life, as recent evidence suggests that sexual activity may be related to overall health status in adults.We sought to identify factors related to sexual abstinence in young and middle-aged adults.We analyzed data from the male and female sample of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to examine sexual abstinence among unmarried participants aged 25-45 (men: N = 2,469; women: N = 5,120). Main Outcome Measures. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to test for independent associations between demographic, medical, and anthropometric variables and abstinence while adjusting for confounding and mediating variables.A total of 122 (13.9%) men aged 25-45 reported never having had sex, representing approximately 1.1 million American men in this age cohort. Among female participants, a total of 104 (8.9%) women aged 25-45 reported never having sex, representing approximately 800,000 American women in this age cohort. Both men and women who reported that they attend religious services one or more times per week were more likely to be sexually abstinent, independent of their specific religious beliefs. Virgin status was also significantly associated with drinking alcohol within the past year. While a college degree in women predicted virginity, education was not associated with virginity in men. Men showed lower rates of sexual abstinence if they reported having spent time in prison or serving in the military.Amongst young adults, sexual abstinence does not appear to be mediated by health status, anthropometric measures, or age. Attending religious services and avoidance of alcohol consumption are associated with virginity in adults. Other factors associated with abstinence differ between genders and merit further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01327.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268466800010

    View details for PubMedID 19493289

  • Endoscopic Management of Retained Renal Foreign Bodies UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Stoller, M. L. 2009; 73 (6): 1189-1194

    Abstract

    To review our experience with endoscopic extraction of renal foreign bodies. We assessed the preoperative factors associated with renal failure, operative planning and technique, and postoperative outcomes. Retained foreign bodies in the kidney from previous endoscopic and/or percutaneous manipulation can be technically challenging.We retrospectively reviewed our database from November 1992 through April 2008 for patients who had undergone extraction of a renal foreign body.A total of 21 patients were identified who met the selection criteria (11 men and 10 women), with a mean age of 41 +/- 22 years. The renal foreign bodies included indwelling ureteral stents (n = 15), nephrostomy tubes (n = 3), the inner core of a guidewire (n = 1), a nephrostomy tube pull string (n = 1), and a laser fiber (n = 1). Of the 21 patients, 15 (71%) required antegrade instrumentation by way of a percutaneous tract to remove the foreign body. Extraction of the nephrostomy pull string, fragmented guidewire, and laser fiber remnant were approached percutaneously. In the case of a retained ureteral stent, all but 2 required a combined antegrade and retrograde approach for extraction. Patients presenting with renal insufficiency (n = 5), defined by a creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, had obstruction resulting from a forgotten ureteral stent that had been left in place for among the longest periods in our cohort (range 1.5-10 years). Two fifths of these patients had improvement in renal function after endoscopic extraction.Patients with retained renal foreign bodies benefit from extraction by way of retrograde and/or antegrade endoscopic techniques. In patients presenting with renal failure, improvement in renal function is often seen after extraction of a retained renal foreign body.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2008.09.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266972100009

    View details for PubMedID 19362355

  • Effect of Obesity on Urethroplasty Outcome UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., McAninch, J. W., Whitson, J. M., Eisenberg, M. L., Master, V. A., Voelzke, B. B., Elliott, S. P. 2009; 73 (6): 1352-1355

    Abstract

    To determine whether obesity increases the risk of urethroplasty failure.A total of 381 patients underwent urethroplasty and had complete body mass index (BMI) data. Stricture recurrence-free survival was defined as subjective and objective improvement in urinary flow, an absence of radiographic evidence of stricture, and no further need for urethral instrumentation. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to identify both univariate and multivariate predictors of urethroplasty outcome.The median patient age was 40 years (range 18-90). The median follow-up was 5.9 years (range 1 month to 10 years). Of the 381 patients, 60 developed recurrent stricture (15.7%). Overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI 30-35 kg/m(2)) patients were more likely to have urethroplasty failure, reaching significance and near significance on univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively (P = .03 and P = .07, respectively). Patients who were severely (BMI 35-40 kg/m(2)) or morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) did not have an increased risk of urethroplasty failure.Although obesity's relationship with urethroplasty failure is not linear, it does appear to affect outcomes after urethroplasty.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2008.12.073

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266972100058

    View details for PubMedID 19371937

  • Use of Viscoelastic Solution to Improve Visualization During Urologic Microsurgery: Evaluation of Patency After Vasovasostomy UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Walsh, T. J., Turek, P. J. 2009; 73 (1): 134-136

    Abstract

    Viscoat is a nonpyrogenic, sterile, viscoelastic solution used to protect the endothelium and enhance visualization during cataract and corneal surgery. Commonly used in ophthalmic surgery, we evaluated whether it could improve the optics during urologic microsurgery without adversely affecting outcomes.We retrospectively compared consecutive vasovasostomies performed by a single surgeon with (n = 23) and without (n = 50) the bilateral use of Viscoat. The examined parameters included patient age, vasectomy duration, intraoperative sperm characteristics, patency (ejaculation of motile sperm), time to patency, and postoperative semen characteristics. The comparisons of the sample mean values and proportions were assessed with analysis of variance, Wilcoxon, and chi(2) tests.Subjectively, Viscoat improved visualization of the vasal lumen and suture placement and aided in resident and fellow instruction. The vasovasostomy cases performed with and without the use of Viscoat were similar with regard to the patient and intraoperative characteristics. The overall patency rates were similar between the two groups (91% vs 92%, P = .92) with a median follow-up of 7 months. In addition, the best total motile sperm count and the durability of the patency achieved were similar between the two groups.Viscoat is a dispersive agent that does not adversely affect surgical patency after vasovasostomy. Subjectively, it helped with visualizing the lumen of the vas deferens during urologic microsurgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2008.03.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262379700036

    View details for PubMedID 18977020

  • Differences in quantitative urine composition in stone-forming versus unaffected mate kidneys. Open access journal of urology Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Breyer, B. N., Walsh, T. J., Konety, B. R., Stoller, M. L. 2009; 1: 9-13

    Abstract

    Many patients present with bilateral stones. There is a unique group of patients, however, that presents with stones exclusively on one side. We hypothesize that in such situations, 24-hour urine collections may not reveal specific defects on the affected stone-bearing kidney. We therefore evaluated selective 12-hour urine collections after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) to help determine if there is differential renal excretion.We collected urine specimens from patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent unilateral PNL. Urine samples were collected and analyzed from nephrostomy tubes, representing the affected kidneys, and from Foley bladder catheters, representing the contralateral mate kidney.Thirty-one patients were studied (14 with unilateral nephrolithiasis and 17 with bilateral). Treated kidneys from patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis displayed lowered urine excretion of uric acid, sodium, chloride, calcium, and total osmoles when compared to patients with bilateral nephrolithiasis. Stone size and length of procedure were not predictive of urine composition after PNL.Treated kidneys from patients with a history of unilateral stone disease revealed marked differences in urine excretion compared to those with bilateral nephrolithiasis after unilateral PNL. These findings could be secondary to the surgical insult, urinary stone disease, or could be a responsible factor for stone pathogenesis.

    View details for PubMedID 24198607

  • Partial Salvage Cryoablation of the Prostate for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy Failure UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Shinohara, K. 2008; 72 (6): 1315-1318

    Abstract

    To determine the efficacy of partial cryoablation of the prostate in the salvage setting.All patients who were treated between April 2004 and September 2007 for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma after failure of primary radiotherapy by means of partial cryoablation were identified.Nineteen patients met inclusion criteria; 15 had >6 months' follow-up. Mean age was 71 years. Men received salvage therapy a mean of 6 years after primary radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 6-33 months). The biochemical recurrence-free survival rate (according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition) was 89%, 67%, and 50% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. One of 10 patients harbored residual carcinoma on routine follow-up biopsy at 1 year, whereas 50% harbored residual benign prostate tissue. Complications included incontinence (1), urethral stricture (1), and urethral ulcer (1).In properly selected patients with a unilateral focus of disease recurrence after radiotherapy, acceptable oncologic results can be achieved with partial cryoablation of the prostate, with low morbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2008.03.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262121500032

    View details for PubMedID 18597824

  • Ejaculatory duct manometry in normal men and in patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Walsh, T. J., Garcia, M. M., Shinohara, K., Turek, P. J. 2008; 180 (1): 255-260

    Abstract

    Ejaculatory duct obstruction is a treatable cause of male infertility but the diagnosis can be difficult to make. Transrectal ultrasound is valuable but not specific for ejaculatory duct obstruction. Adjunctive procedures, such as chromotubation and seminal vesicle aspiration, are more sensitive but not definitive, especially for partial obstruction. We describe what is to our knowledge a new hydraulic test and report its ability to identify physical and functional ejaculatory duct obstruction.Two groups of men were studied, including patients with infertility or ejaculatory pain in whom ejaculatory duct obstruction was suspected and fertile men undergoing vasectomy reversal (controls). In each cohort ejaculatory duct injection and manometry were performed. Patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction underwent transurethral ejaculatory duct resection based on routine criteria. Pressure was reassessed after resection. Manometry pressures were compared between controls and patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction, and correlated with the response to transurethral ejaculatory duct resection.In the 7 controls (14 sides) mean ejaculatory duct opening pressure was 33.2 cm H(2)O. In the 9 patients (17 sides) with suspected ejaculatory duct obstruction mean ejaculatory duct opening pressure before transurethral ejaculatory duct resection was 116 cm H(2)O. In the 6 patients who underwent resection, which was unilateral and bilateral in 3 each, mean ejaculatory duct opening pressure decreased from 118 to 53 cm H(2)O. Of the 5 patients who underwent semen analyses before and after resection 80% showed an increase in ejaculate volume and/or at least 100% improvement in TMC (volume x concentration x motile fraction).Ejaculatory duct manometry with baseline values defined in fertile men demonstrates that men with clinically suspected ejaculatory duct obstruction have higher ejaculatory duct opening pressure than fertile men and ejaculatory duct pressure decreases after transurethral ejaculatory duct resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2008.03.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256643900064

    View details for PubMedID 18499178

  • First-stage urethroplasty: Utility in the modern era UROLOGY Elliott, S. P., Eisenberg, M. L., McAninch, J. W. 2008; 71 (5): 889-892

    Abstract

    To describe the current role of first-stage urethroplasty and its success as a management option in patients with complex anterior urethral stricture disease.We reviewed our urethral stricture database to identify patients managed with a staged urethral reconstruction or permanent first-stage urethroplasty. We noted patient age, etiology of stricture disease, location and length of stricture, location of neomeatus, indication for a staged approach, follow-up, and failure rate.A total of 38 men with a median age of 53 years met the inclusion criteria. The etiology of stricture disease varied, most commonly prior hypospadias repair (n = 9 [24%]) and lichen sclerosis (n = 6 [16%]). Location of stricture disease varied throughout the anterior urethra. Median stricture length was 5 cm. First-stage urethroplasty was accomplished with a penile shaft neomeatus in 13 patients (34%) and a perineal neomeatus in 25 (66%). Median follow-up was 22 months. Postoperative urethral dilation was required in 7 patients (18%). No patient has required an indwelling urethral catheter, suprapubic cystostomy, or urinary diversion. Of 38 patients, 9 (24%) have undergone a second-stage urethroplasty.The first-stage urethroplasty produces unobstructed voiding with few complications in high-risk patients. Few patients elect to have a second-stage urethroplasty performed. This is an old but not obsolete concept. We have presented modifications in technique to optimize success.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2007.11.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255992000042

    View details for PubMedID 18279942

  • Management of restenosis after urethral stent placement JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Elliott, S. P., McAnincht, J. W. 2008; 179 (3): 991-995

    Abstract

    We describe our experience with the management of restricture after urethral stent placement, including endoscopic and open surgical treatment.We surveyed our prospectively collected database for patients with restenosis after urethral stent insertion. We reviewed patient age, comorbidities, indications for stent placement, restricture length, management of restricture, postoperative complications and the further restenosis rate.Overall we have treated 22 patients with failed urethral stents with a median followup of 30 months (range 1 to 96). All stents were initially placed for urethral stricture management. Stricture etiology included prostate cancer therapy in 9 cases, idiopathic causes in 6, urethral instrumentation in 2, trauma in 2, simple prostatectomy in 2 and gender reassignment/phalloplasty in 1. Ten patients had anterior urethral stricture, 11 had posterior stricture and 1 patient had each type. Of the 22 patients with stenosis after stent placement 13 underwent urethroplasty. Of the 18 patients with indwelling stents at treatment the stent was removed in 8 intraoperatively and in 10 the stent was left in situ. Ten of the 11 anterior strictures were treated with urethroplasty. Only 4 of the 12 posterior strictures were treated with urethroplasty, while 8 were managed endoscopically. Our overall success rate for treatment after stent failure was 67% (8 of 12 cases) for posterior urethral strictures and 82% (9 of 11) for anterior strictures.Urethral stent failure requires complex intervention. A failed posterior urethral stent can often be managed endoscopically. Conversely we have managed failed anterior urethral stents by urethroplasty.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2007.10.047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253176000058

    View details for PubMedID 18206915

  • Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance, and endocrine disruption. Current urology reports Hsieh, M. H., Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L., Baskin, L. S. 2008; 9 (2): 137-142

    Abstract

    Endocrine disruptors, such as environmental compounds with endocrine-altering properties, may cause hypospadias and cryptorchidism in several species, including humans. Anogenital distance is sexually dimorphic in many mammals, with males having longer anogenital distance on average than females. Animal models of proposed endocrine disruptors have associated prenatal exposure with hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and reduced anogenital distance. Human studies have correlated shorter anogenital distance to in utero exposure to putative endocrine disruptors. We review preliminary data suggesting that anogenital distance is reduced in boys with hypospadia and cryptorchidism. Hence, human hypospadias and cryptorchidism may be associated with reduced anogenital distance as a result of endocrine disruption.

    View details for PubMedID 18419998

  • Long-term outcomes and late complications of laparoscopic nephrectomy with renal autotransplantation JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Zumrutbas, A. E., Meng, M. V., Freise, C. E., Stoller, M. L. 2008; 179 (1): 240-243

    Abstract

    We report long-term outcomes and late complications after laparoscopic nephrectomy with autotransplantation.We retrospectively reviewed clinical data on all patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy with autotransplantation between July 2000 and March 2007. Late complications, ie greater than 6 months, that required surgical intervention were analyzed. Clinical outcomes in patients with primary ureteral stricture disease and oncological outcomes in patients with renal tumors were examined.Indications for autotransplantation included complex ureteral stricture disease in 15 patients and renal malignancy in 4. Median age at surgery was 48 years (range 25 to 68). Median followup was 29 months. Of the 17 patients with greater than 6 months of followup late complications requiring surgical intervention occurred in 4. Transplant nephrectomy was required in 2 patients in the stricture group. Indications for nephrectomy were nonfunction complicated by pseudoaneurysm in 1 case and chronic loin pain in 1. Another patient had recurrent nephrolithiasis requiring percutaneous nephrolithotomy and in 1 a pseudoaneurysm was managed successfully by endovascular techniques. Two patients in the tumor group had disease progression, which was managed medically.Given the complexity and severity of disease that necessitates renal autotransplantation, it is not surprising that additional treatments are required. Patients with primary stricture disease may be at increased risk for vascular aneurysm due to infection and/or inflammation. Tumor progression is possible after ex vivo tumor excision and autotransplantation, especially in patients requiring heroic measures to avoid or delay dialysis. Thus, careful patient selection and vigilant followup are mandatory.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2007.08.135

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251650200062

    View details for PubMedID 18001789

  • Preservation of lower urinary tract function in posterior urethral stenosis: Selection of appropriate patients for urethral Stents JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Elliott, S. P., McAninch, J. W. 2007; 178 (6): 2456-2460

    Abstract

    We describe our experience with urethral stents to manage iatrogenic posterior urethral stenosis.We surveyed our retrospective database for patients in whom we placed a urethral stent for posterior urethral stricture disease. We reviewed patient age, comorbidities, indications for stent placement, stricture length, postoperative complications and the repeat stenosis rate.Overall we placed urethral stents in 13 patients, of whom 12 presented with posterior urethral stenosis and 1 presented with anterior and posterior stricture. The etiology of urethral stricture was prostate cancer therapy in 11 of 13 cases and simple prostatectomy in 2. Urethral stenting was chosen instead of urethral reconstruction largely due to prior radiation for prostate cancer and avoidance of the morbidity of surgery. Overall 6 of 13 patients required additional procedures for stricture recurrence, including 5 in previously irradiated patients. Two patients had stents removed due to migration or pain. Genitourinary infections developed in 5 of 13 patients. Eight of 13 patients with a posterior urethral stricture were incontinent, as expected after stent placement. Incontinence was managed by an artificial urinary sphincter in willing patients with 9 of 13 continent.Urethral stents provide reasonable treatment for patients with posterior urethral stenosis when attempting to preserve lower urinary tract function caused by stricture disease after prostate cancer therapy. Prior radiation seems to increase the failure rate. Continence can be maintained after posterior urethral stenting in select patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2007.08.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250847900062

    View details for PubMedID 17937962

  • Complications in ureterosigmoidostomy endoscopic management of obstructive UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Stoller, M. L. 2007; 70 (6): 1048-1052
  • Endoscopic management of obstructive complications in ureterosigmoidostomy. Urology Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Stoller, M. L. 2007; 70 (6): 1048-1052

    Abstract

    Although rarely used today for supravesical urinary diversion, ureterosigmoidostomy remains useful in patients with bladder exstrophy. However, management of ureteral stricture and ureteral urolithiasis is challenging because of the lack of anatomic landmarks.We reviewed our prospectively collected database from 1994 to 2006 for all patients requiring surgical treatment for obstructive complications associated with ureterosigmoidostomy.Our analysis revealed 3 patients (mean age 46 years; 2 men and 1 woman). All 3 patients had undergone ureterosigmoidostomy as a component of bladder exstrophy management. All patients presented with renal failure due to obstruction and required antegrade endoscopic management. Two patients had anastomotic strictures and one had obstructive urolithiasis. One patient in whom the stricture was judged to be chronic was treated with an endoureterotomy and Acucise balloon. The second patient, who had an acute obstruction after colonoscopic biopsy of his anastomosis, was treated with antegrade balloon dilation. Both patients had stents placed across the anastomosis for 6 weeks postoperatively. Despite reflux of stool into the collecting system, neither patient manifested with local or systemic signs of infection. The patient with urolithiasis required antegrade basket stone extraction.Obstructive complications after ureterosigmoidostomy should be managed using antegrade endoscopic techniques.

    View details for PubMedID 18158011

  • Posthumous sperm retrieval: analysis of time interval to harvest sperm HUMAN REPRODUCTION Shefi, S., Raviv, G., Eisenberg, M. L., Weissenberg, R., Jalalian, L., Levron, J., Band, G., Turek, P. J., Madgar, I. 2006; 21 (11): 2890-2893

    Abstract

    Current recommendations regarding posthumous sperm retrieval (PSR) are based on a small number of cases. Our purpose was to determine the time interval from death to a successful procedure.Seventeen consecutive PSR procedures in 14 deceased and 3 neurologically brain-dead patients at two male infertility centres [Sheba Medical Center (SMC), Tel-Hashomer, Israel and University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA] were analysed. Main outcome measures were retrieval of vital sperm, pregnancies and births.PSR methods included resection of testis and epididymis (n = 8), en-block excision of testis, epididymis and proximal vas deferens with vasal irrigation (n = 6), electroejaculation (EEJ) (n = 2) and epididymectomy (n = 1). PSR was performed 7.5-36 h after death. Sperm was retrieved in all cases and was motile in 14 cases. In two cases, testicular and epididymal tissues were cryopreserved without sperm evaluation, and in one case, no motility was detected. IVF and ICSI were performed in two cases in which sperm had been retrieved 30 h after death, and both resulted in pregnancies and live births.Viable sperm is obtainable with PSR well after the currently recommended 24-h time interval. PSR should be considered up to 36 h after death, following appropriate evaluation. No correlation was found between cause of death and chance for successful sperm retrieval.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/del232

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241272700024

    View details for PubMedID 16959804

  • Insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) proteins form a complex on the rat hepatocyte membrane CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY Eisenberg, M. L., Maker, A. V., Slezak, L. A., Nathan, J. D., Sritharan, K. C., Jena, B. P., Geibel, J. P., Andersen, D. K. 2005; 15 (1-4): 51-58

    Abstract

    The hepatic glucose transporter, GLUT2, facilitates bidirectional glucose transport across the hepatocyte plasma membrane under insulin regulation. We studied the interactions of IR and GLUT2 proteins to determine whether they are physically coupled in a receptor-transporter complex. By comparing endosome and plasma membrane IR and GLUT2 ratios before and after feeding, it was determined that IR and GLUT2 are internalized in a fixed ratio. When solubilized hepatocytes were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against either IR or GLUT2, both proteins co-precipitated. The association of IR and GLUT2 was further assessed by confocal microscopy. Sections of fed liver were incubated with fluorescein-tagged anti-GLUT2 or Texas Red-tagged anti-IR. Colocalization was observed both at the plasma membrane and in the cytosol. Fluorescence-resonance energy transfer studies further confirmed this association. We conclude that IR and GLUT2 form a receptor-transporter complex in hepatocytes, which forms a mechanism of insulin-mediated hepatic glucose regulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000083638

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226588000005

    View details for PubMedID 15665515