Bio


Dr. Gardner specializes in orthopaedic trauma surgery, and treating all aspects of fractures of the upper extremity (except the hand), lower extremity, and pelvis, as well as nonunions and malunions. He recently joined the faculty at Stanford, and is currently Chief of the Orthopaedic Trauma Service and Vice Chair of Clinical Operations. Prior to coming to Stanford, Dr. Gardner was an orthopaedic trauma surgeon at Washington University in St. Louis for the previous 7 years. He completed his residency training at the renowned Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, which included basic science studies of fracture healing in mice as well as multiple clinical studies. During that time, he also completed a one year research fellowship in the HSS biomechanics laboratory. He then completed an orthopaedic trauma fellowship at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, WA.

His contributions and recognition in the field of orthopaedic surgery have culminated in invitation and participation in many national activities. He has been a grant reviewer for a study section on orthopaedic trauma for the Department of Defense, is on the editorial board of Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma and Current Orthopaedic Practice, and is a reviewer for eight other major orthopaedic journals. He has also been actively involved in the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, where he has served on the Annual Meeting Program Committee from 2010 through 2016, and the Research Committee since 2014. He is an abstract reviewer for the Orthopaedic Research Society and the American Orthopaedic Association, and has been a Visiting Professor at many institutions around the country. His strong interest in research has led to several federally funded research grants, 144 publications, 32 book chapters, and two textbooks edited.

Clinical Focus


  • Orthopaedic Surgery

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Chief, Orthopaedic Trauma Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (2016 - Present)
  • Vice Chairman, Clinical Operations, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (2016 - Present)
  • Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery (2016 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • 2015 Excellence in Teaching Award, Washington University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (June 2015)
  • Lee T. Ford Award for Academic Achievement, Washington University, Department of Orthpaedic Surgery (June 2015)
  • Best Doctors in America, St. Louis Magazine (2015)
  • Best Doctors in America, St. Louis Magazine (2014)
  • Best Doctors in American, St. Louis Magazine (2013)
  • A Comparison Of More And Less Aggressive Bone Debridement Protocols........., OTA Highlight Paper (2012)
  • Barnes-Jewish Hospital Award Winner, Orthopedics Multidisciplinary Communications Process (2012)
  • Best Doctors in America, St. Louis Magazine (2011)
  • Best Poster Award, Trauma, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting (2010)
  • Excellence in Teaching Award, Washington University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (2009)
  • Lewis Clark Wagner Award for Excellence in Research, Hospital for Special Surgery (2007)
  • Winner, Highlight Paper, Orthopaedic Trauma Association (2007)
  • Best Poster Award, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2006)
  • Distinguished House Staff Award, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery (2006)
  • AAOS/OREF Clinician Scientist Development Program, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2005)
  • AO Jack McDaniel Memorial Fellowship Award Recipient, American Orthopaedics (2005)
  • Resident Fracture Course Scholarship Award, Orthopaedic Trauma Association (2005)
  • Resident Research Grant Recipient, OREF (2005)
  • Resident Research Award, Eastern Orthopaedic Association (EOA) (2004)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Diplomate, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) (2016 - Present)
  • Member, American Orthopaedic Association (AOA) (2015 - Present)
  • Faculty, AO North America (2008 - Present)
  • Member, Orthopaedic Research Society (2008 - Present)
  • Member, Foundation for Orthopaedic Trauma, (2008 - Present)
  • Member, AO Trauma (2006 - Present)
  • Member, Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) (2005 - Present)
  • Member, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) (2002 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Orthopaedic Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (2010)
  • Fellowship, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery (2008)
  • Residency, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York,, Orthopaedics (2007)
  • Fellowship, AO Jack McDaniel Memorial Hannover, Germany (2006)
  • Fellowship, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, Biomechanical Research (2005)
  • Internship:New York - Presbyterial Hospital / Weill Cornell Medical College (2002) NY
  • MD, Drexel University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA., Medicine (2001)
  • BA, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, Chemistry (1996)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Gardner’s investigative program during his academic career has involved a two-pronged approach, including both clinical and basic research. Prior to joining the Orthopaedic Department at Stanford, he was the Director of the Orthopaedic Trauma Research Program at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO. During his tenure as Director, he organized a highly productive and efficient research program. This resulted in publication of many scientific manuscripts, and numerous ongoing multicenter and single center trials that remain active.

Throughout his career, he has published over 100 peer-reviewed original scientific manuscripts, in addition to over 50 invited manuscripts, brief reports, and review papers. He has edited two published text books, is currently editing two more books, and has co-authored over 30 book chapters. His goals include continuing to be highly active in both clinical and basic research, and to continue attaining grant funding to support this work.

2016-17 Courses


All Publications


  • Current Opinions on Fracture Follow-up: A Survey of OTA Members Regarding Standards of Care and Implications for Clinical Research. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Ricci, W. M., Black, J. C., Tornetta, P., Gardner, M. J., McAndrew, C. M., Sanders, R. W. 2016; 30 (3): e100-5

    Abstract

    To determine current practice standards among Orthopaedic Trauma Association surgeons for postoperative fracture follow-up and to investigate the implications of these standards on clinical research.Survey.Web-based survey.One hundred eighty-four orthopaedic trauma surgeons.A web-based questionnaire was distributed to Orthopaedic Trauma Association members to identify standard postoperative radiographic and clinical follow-up duration. Assuming uneventful, complete fracture healing at 3 months, data were collected for 3 generic fracture types (diaphyseal, extra-articular metaphyseal, and intra-articular) and 3 specific fractures (femoral shaft, intertrochanteric, and tibial plateau). Suggested follow-up for clinical research was also investigated.For extra-articular fractures, standard radiographic and clinical follow-up were considered to be 6 months or less by greater than 70% of respondents. For intra-articular fractures, standard radiographic and clinical follow-up was considered to be 6 months or less by greater than 39% of respondents. The most common responses for radiographic follow-up were 3 months for extra-articular fractures (33%) and 12 months for intra-articular fractures (34%). The most common responses for clinical follow-up were 6 months for extra-articular fractures (37%) and 12 months for intra-articular fractures (35%). The majority (55%) indicated that follow-up to clinical and radiographic healing or the establishment of a nonunion should be the minimum follow-up for clinical fracture studies and 66% recommended follow-up to at least 1 year for functional outcome studies.Most surgeons follow-up patients with lower extremity extra-articular fractures (with uneventful healing) radiographically for 3-6 months and clinically for 6 months and slightly longer for intra-articular fractures. Many surgeons cease radiographic and clinical follow-up by 6 months. Therefore, retrospective fracture healing studies can only reasonably expect follow-up for 6 months. Publication requirements for longer follow-up of fracture-related studies would likely eliminated retrospective studies from consideration. Most surgeons support obtaining at least 1-year follow-up for clinical studies that include functional outcome.Therapeutic Level V. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000478

    View details for PubMedID 26569187

  • Bmp2 conditional knockout in osteoblasts and endothelial cells does not impair bone formation after injury or mechanical loading in adult mice. Bone McBride-Gagyi, S. H., McKenzie, J. A., Buettmann, E. G., Gardner, M. J., Silva, M. J. 2015; 81: 533-543

    Abstract

    Post-natal osteogenesis after mechanical trauma or stimulus occurs through either endochondral healing, intramembranous healing or lamellar bone formation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is up-regulated in each of these osteogenic processes and is expressed by a variety of cells including osteoblasts and vascular cells. It is known that genetic knockout of Bmp2 in all cells or in osteo-chondroprogenitor cells completely abrogates endochondral healing after full fracture. However, the importance of BMP2 from differentiated osteoblasts and endothelial cells is not known. Moreover, the importance of BMP2 in non-endochondral bone formation such as intramembranous healing or lamellar bone formation is not known. Using inducible and tissue-specific Cre-lox mediated targeting of Bmp2 in adult (10-24 week old) mice, we assessed the role of BMP2 expression globally, by osteoblasts, and by vascular endothelial cells in endochondral healing, intramembranous healing and lamellar bone formation. These three osteogenic processes were modeled using full femur fracture, ulnar stress fracture, and ulnar non-damaging cyclic loading, respectively. Our results confirmed the requirement of BMP2 for endochondral fracture healing, as mice in which Bmp2 was knocked out in all cells prior to fracture failed to form a callus. Targeted deletion of Bmp2 in osteoblasts (osterix-expressing) or vascular endothelial cells (vascular endothelial cadherin-expressing) did not impact fracture healing in any way. Regarding non-endochondral bone formation, we found that BMP2 is largely dispensable for intramembranous bone formation after stress fracture and also not required for lamellar bone formation induced by mechanical loading. Taken together our results indicate that osteoblasts and endothelial cells are not a critical source of BMP2 in endochondral fracture healing, and that non-endochondral bone formation in the adult mouse is not as critically dependent on BMP2.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bone.2015.09.003

    View details for PubMedID 26344756

  • How much articular displacement can be detected using fluoroscopy for tibial plateau fractures? Injury Haller, J. M., O'Toole, R., Graves, M., Barei, D., Gardner, M., Kubiak, E., Nascone, J., Nork, S., Presson, A. P., Higgins, T. F. 2015; 46 (11): 2243-2247

    Abstract

    While there is conflicting evidence regarding the importance of anatomic reduction for tibial plateau fractures, there are currently no studies that analyse our ability to grade reduction based on fluoroscopic imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of fluoroscopy in judging tibial plateau articular reduction.Ten embalmed human cadavers were selected. The lateral plateau was sagitally sectioned, and the joint was reduced under direct visualization. Lateral, anterior-posterior (AP), and joint line fluoroscopic views were obtained. The same fluoroscopic views were obtained with 2mm displacement and 5mm displacement. The images were randomised, and eight orthopaedic traumatologists were asked whether the plateau was reduced. Within each pair of conditions (view and displacement from 0mm to 5mm) sensitivity, specificity, and intraclass correlations (ICC) were evaluated.The AP-lateral view with 5mm displacement yielded the highest accuracy for detecting reduction at 90% (95% CI: 83-94%). For the other conditions, accuracy ranged from (37-83%). Sensitivity was highest for the reduced lateral view (79%, 95% CI: 57-91%). Specificity was highest in the AP-lateral view 98% (95% CI: 93-99%) for 5mm step-off. ICC was perfect for the AP-lateral view with 5mm displacement, but otherwise agreement ranged from poor to moderate at ICC=0.09-0.46. Finally, there was no additional benefit to including the joint-line view with the AP and lateral views.Using both AP and lateral views for 5mm displacement had the highest accuracy, specificity, and ICC. Outside of this scenario, agreement was poor to moderate and accuracy was low. Applying this clinically, direct visualization of the articular surface may be necessary to ensure malreduction less than 5mm.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2015.06.043

    View details for PubMedID 26199030

  • Dynamic Locked Plating of Distal Femur Fractures. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Linn, M. S., McAndrew, C. M., Prusaczyk, B., Brimmo, O., Ricci, W. M., Gardner, M. J. 2015; 29 (10): 447-450

    Abstract

    Nonunion after locked bridge plating of comminuted distal femur fractures is not uncommon. "Dynamic" locked plating may create an improved mechanical environment, thereby achieving higher union rates than standard locked plating constructs.Academic Level 1 Trauma Center.Twenty-eight patients with comminuted supracondylar femur fractures treated with either dynamic or standard locked plating.Dynamic plating was achieved using an overdrilling technique of the near cortex to allow for a 0.5-mm "halo" around the screw shaft at the near cortex. Standard locked plating was done based on manufacturer's suggested technique. The patients treated with dynamic plating were matched 1:1 with those treated with standard locked plating based on OTA classification and working length.Three blinded observers made callus measurements on 6-week radiographs using a 4-point ordinal scale. The results were analyzed using a 2-tailed t test and 2-way intraclass correlations.The dynamic plating group had significantly greater callus (2.0; SD, 0.7) compared with the control group (1.3: SD, 0.8, P = 0.048) with substantial agreement amongst observers in both consistency (0.724) and absolute score (0.734). With dynamic plating group, 1 patient failed to unite, versus three in the control group (P = 0.59). The dynamic group had a mean change in coronal plane alignment of 0.5 degrees (SD, 2.6) compared with 0.6 (SD, 3.0) for the control group (P = 0.9) without fixation failure in either group.Overdrilling the near cortex in metaphyseal bridge plating can be adapted to standard implants to create a dynamic construct and increase axial motion. This technique seems to be safe and leads to increased callus formation, which may decrease nonunion rates seen with standard locked plating.Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000315

    View details for PubMedID 25714439

  • In Vivo Syndesmotic Overcompression After Fixation of Ankle Fractures With a Syndesmotic Injury. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Cherney, S. M., Haynes, J. A., Spraggs-Hughes, A. G., McAndrew, C. M., Ricci, W. M., Gardner, M. J. 2015; 29 (9): 414-419

    Abstract

    The goals of this study were to assess syndesmotic reductions using computerized tomography and to determine whether malreductions are associated with certain injury types or reduction forceps.Prospective cohort.Urban level 1 trauma center.Twenty-seven patients with operatively treated syndesmotic injuries were recruited prospectively.Patients underwent postoperative bilateral computerized tomography of the ankle and hindfoot to assess syndesmotic reduction. The uninjured extremity was used as a control.Side-to-side differences of the fibular position within the tibial incisura were measured at several anatomic points and analyzed based on injury type, the presence of posterior malleolar injury, level of fracture, and type of reduction forceps used.On average, operatively treated syndesmotic injuries were overcompressed (fibular medialization) by 1 mm (P < 0.001) and externally rotated by 5° (P = 0.002) when compared with the uninjured extremity. The absence of a posterior malleolar injury and Weber B (OTA 44-B) fractures seemed to have a protective effect against malrotation, but not against overcompression. There was no difference in malreduction based on the type of the clamp used.It is possible, and highly likely based on these data, to overcompress the syndesmosis when using reduction forceps. Care should be taken to avoid overcompression, as this may affect the ankle motion and functional outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo series of syndesmotic overcompression.Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000356

    View details for PubMedID 26295735

  • Technical Considerations in the Treatment of Syndesmotic Injuries Associated With Ankle Fractures. journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Gardner, M. J., Graves, M. L., Higgins, T. F., Nork, S. E. 2015; 23 (8): 510-518

    Abstract

    Malleolar ankle fractures associated with syndesmotic injuries are common. Diagnosis of the syndesmotic injury can be difficult and often requires intraoperative fluoroscopic stress testing. Accurate reduction and stable fixation of the syndesmosis are critical to maximize patient outcomes. Recent literature has demonstrated that the unstable syndesmosis is particularly prone to iatrogenic malreduction. Multiple types of malreduction can occur, including translational, rotational, and overcompression. Knowledge of the technical details regarding intraoperative reduction methods and reduction assessment can minimize the risk of syndesmotic malreduction and improve patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-D-14-00233

    View details for PubMedID 26209146

  • What's New in Orthopaedic Trauma. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Ricci, W. M., Black, J. C., McAndrew, C. M., Gardner, M. J. 2015; 97 (14): 1200-1207

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.O.00259

    View details for PubMedID 26178895

  • ASXL2 Regulates Glucose, Lipid, and Skeletal Homeostasis. Cell reports Izawa, T., Rohatgi, N., Fukunaga, T., Wang, Q., Silva, M. J., Gardner, M. J., McDaniel, M. L., Abumrad, N. A., Semenkovich, C. F., Teitelbaum, S. L., Zou, W. 2015; 11 (10): 1625-1637

    Abstract

    ASXL2 is an ETP family protein that interacts with PPARγ. We find that ASXL2-/- mice are insulin resistant, lipodystrophic, and fail to respond to a high-fat diet. Consistent with genetic variation at the ASXL2 locus and human bone mineral density, ASXL2-/- mice are also severely osteopetrotic because of failed osteoclast differentiation attended by normal bone formation. ASXL2 regulates the osteoclast via two distinct signaling pathways. It induces osteoclast formation in a PPARγ/c-Fos-dependent manner and is required for RANK ligand- and thiazolidinedione-induced bone resorption independent of PGC-1β. ASXL2 also promotes osteoclast mitochondrial biogenesis in a process mediated by PGC-1β but independent of c-Fos. Thus, ASXL2 is a master regulator of skeletal, lipid, and glucose homeostasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.019

    View details for PubMedID 26051940

  • Factors affecting delay to surgery and length of stay for patients with hip fracture. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Ricci, W. M., Brandt, A., McAndrew, C., Gardner, M. J. 2015; 29 (3): e109-14

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors, including day of week of hospital admission, associated with delay to surgery (DTS) and increased length of stay (LOS) in patients with hip fractures.Retrospective.Level I Trauma Center.Six hundred thirty-five consecutive patients admitted to a single hospital between January 1999 and July 2006 aged 65 years or older with a hip fracture (OTA 31) were identified retrospectively from an orthopaedic database. Demographic data, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, hospital admission and discharge dates, the date of surgery, and details of any preoperative cardiac testing were extracted from the hospital record. These data were used to identify the day of week for hospital admission and to calculate days for DTS and hospital LOS. Linear regression was used to identify independent variables associated with DTS and increased LOS.All patients underwent surgical treatment of a hip fracture (OTA 31).Factors affecting DTS and LOS.Independent factors associated with DTS included the day of week for hospital admission, ASA score, and the need for preoperative cardiac testing. Patients admitted Thursday through Saturday had longer DTS (mean, 2.2-2.7 days) than did patients admitted other days (mean, 1.7-1.8). DTS increased for increasing ASA: 1.4 days for ASA 2, 2.0 days for ASA 3, and 3.0 days for ASA 4. Those requiring preoperative cardiac testing had an increased number of days to surgery (mean, 3.2 days) than those without (mean, 1.7 days). Independent factors associated with increasing hospital LOS included ASA, the need for preoperative cardiac testing, male gender, and day of admission. LOS increased for increasing ASA: 6.3 days for ASA 2, 8.1 days for ASA 3, and 10.1 days for ASA 4. Those requiring preoperative cardiac testing had an increased LOS (mean, 9.4 days) than those without (mean, 7.3 days). Male patients had a longer LOS (mean, 9.8 days) than did females (mean, 7.3 days). Patients admitted on Thursday or Friday (mean, 8.5-9.1 days) had longer LOS than those admitted on other days (mean, 7.3-7.9 days).This is the first study to consider and identify the day of admission and need for preoperative cardiac tests as determinants of DTS and LOS for geriatric patients with hip fracture. Relative scarcity of weekend hospital resources, when present, may be responsible for these delays. This study also confirms that patient medical condition as measured by ASA affects both DTS and LOS.Prognostic level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000221

    View details for PubMedID 25186844

  • A prospective study of pain reduction and knee dysfunction comparing femoral skeletal traction and splinting in adult trauma patients. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Bumpass, D. B., Ricci, W. M., McAndrew, C. M., Gardner, M. J. 2015; 29 (2): 112-118

    Abstract

    To determine if distal femoral traction pins result in knee dysfunction in patients with femoral or pelvic fracture, and to determine if skeletal traction relieves pain more effectively than splinting for femoral shaft fractures.Prospective cohort trial.Level I urban trauma center.One hundred twenty adult patients with femoral shaft, acetabular, and unstable pelvic fractures.Patients with femoral shaft fractures were placed into distal femoral skeletal traction or a long-leg splint, based on an attending-specific protocol. Patients with pelvic or acetabular fractures with instability or intraarticular bone fragments were placed into skeletal traction.An initial Lysholm knee survey was administered to assess preinjury knee pain and function; the survey was repeated at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. Also, a 10-point visual analog scale was used to document pain immediately before, during, and immediately after fracture immobilization with traction or splinting.Thirty-five patients (29%) were immobilized with a long-leg splint, and 85 (71%) were immobilized with a distal femoral traction pin. Eighty-four patients (70%) completed a 6-month follow-up. Lysholm scores decreased by a mean 9.3 points from preinjury baseline to 6 months postinjury in the entire cohort (P < 0.01); no significant differences were found between the splint and traction pin groups. During application of immobilization, visual analog scale pain scores were significantly lower in traction patients as compared with splinted patients (mean, 1.9 points less, P < 0.01). Traction pins caused no infections, neurovascular injuries, or iatrogenic fractures.Distal femoral skeletal traction does not result in detectable knee dysfunction at 6 months after insertion, and results in less pain during and after immobilization than long-leg splinting.Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000202

    View details for PubMedID 25050750

  • Treatment of proximal humerus fractures: comparison of shoulder and trauma surgeons. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Jawa, A., Yi, P. H., Boykin, R. E., Gardner, M. J., Gerber, C., Lorich, D. G., Walch, G., Warner, J. J. 2015; 44 (2): 77-81

    Abstract

    Surgeons' disagreement about ideal treatment for proximal humerus fractures (PHFs) may reflect a difference in training. We conducted a study to compare treatment decision-making by experienced shoulder and trauma fellowship--trained surgeons. Two expert shoulder surgeons and 2 expert trauma surgeons reviewed 100 consecutive PHFs surgically treated at another institution. Using available imaging, the examiners assigned scores for agreement with treatment decisions and for ratings of reduction/arthroplasty placement, fixation method, and radiographic outcomes. The scores were evaluated for interobserver reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients. Overall, these experienced surgeons agreed poorly with treatment decisions and fixation methods but agreed moderately on acceptable reductions/arthroplasty placement and final radiographic outcomes. Agreement on the final radiographic outcomes was more uniform and acceptable for both shoulder and trauma surgeons. Trauma surgeons agreed more with each other about treatment decisions than shoulder surgeons agreed with each other. In this study, surgeon disagreement and an aging population highlight the need for better evidence regarding optimal treatment for PHFs in order to improve consensus.

    View details for PubMedID 25658076

  • Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures Distal to Total Knee Arthroplasty JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Haller, J. M., Kubiak, E. N., Spiguel, A., Gardner, M. J., Horwitz, D. S. 2014; 28 (12): E296-E300

    Abstract

    Tibial shaft fractures distal to total knee arthroplasty are rare, but they are likely to become more common with the increasing number of arthroplasty procedures being performed. These fracture patterns have been treated in the past either with closed reduction and casting/bracing or with open reduction internal fixation using plates. Weight-bearing precautions in the elderly patient population can affect patient disposition, and weight bearing on extramedullary fixation can lead to early hardware failure. We present a series of nailing techniques that can be used for tibial fractures distal to a well-fixed total knee arthroplasty that avoids the tibial baseplate, provides stable fracture fixation, and allows for early weight bearing.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345337600005

    View details for PubMedID 24675750

  • Standardized Posterior Pelvic Imaging: Use of CT Inlet and CT Outlet for Evaluation and Management of Pelvic Ring Injuries JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA McAndrew, C. M., Merriman, D. J., Gardner, M. J., Ricci, W. M. 2014; 28 (12): 665-673

    Abstract

    The null hypothesis of this study states that routine axial computed tomography (CT) images are obtained at a consistent and reproducible orientation relative to the sacrum. The secondary null hypothesis states that there is no difference in the measurement of the safe zone for placement of iliosacral screws when using routine axial CT images and standardized reconstructions in defined planes perpendicular and parallel to the sacrum.Retrospective review.University Level 1 Trauma Center.Sixty-eight consecutive trauma patients evaluated with routine pelvic CT, without pelvic ring injury.Retrospective radiographic review and measurement.Sixty-eight consecutive adult patients with routine axial pelvic CT scans, without injury to the pelvic ring, and obtained as part of a trauma evaluation were retrospectively identified. The orientation of the axial slices relative to the sacrum was measured for each patient and compared. The maximal cross-sectional distance at the smallest section of the sacral ala (safe zone) was measured using the routine axial CT images, and these measurements were compared with similar measurements taken on standardized images perpendicular (CT inlet) and parallel (CT outlet) to the body of the sacrum. Additional data referencing the orientation of multiple sacral radiographic landmarks were also collected.The orientation of routine axial CT image planes relative to the sacrum spanned a wide range. The angle between the routine axial CT plane and the sacrum varied from 43.5 to 82.0 degrees (SD = 9 degrees). Significant differences were found in measured safe zones of routine axial CT images compared with standardized CT inlet and CT outlet images. Compared with CT inlet images, routine axial CT images underestimated safe zones for transverse sacral screws at both S1 (P < 0.01) and S2 (P < 0.01). When compared with CT outlet images, routine axial CT images overestimated safe zones for oblique sacroiliac screws (P < 0.01) and underestimated the safe zone for S2 transverse sacral style screws (P < 0.01). No significant differences in measured variables were found between genders and sacral morphology.Our null hypotheses were rejected: routine axial CT images were found to be at widely ranging orientations relative to the sacrum, and standardized CT images (CT inlet and CT outlet) demonstrated statistically significant differences in measurements of safe zones compared with routine axial CT images. Furthermore, the CT inlet and CT outlet views provide additional information regarding sacral landmarks that could be useful for preoperative planning.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345337600008

    View details for PubMedID 24740107

  • Association of atypical femoral fractures with bisphosphonate use by patients with varus hip geometry. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Hagen, J. E., Miller, A. N., Ott, S. M., Gardner, M., Morshed, S., Jeray, K., Alton, T. B., Ren, D., Abblitt, W. P., Krieg, J. C. 2014; 96 (22): 1905-1909

    Abstract

    There is increasing evidence associating "atypical" femoral fractures with prolonged exposure to bisphosphonate therapy. The cause of these fractures is unknown and likely multifactorial. This study evaluated the hypothesis that patients with primary osteoporosis who sustain atypical femoral fracture(s) while on chronic bisphosphonate therapy have a more varus proximal femoral geometry than patients who use bisphosphonates for primary osteoporosis but do not sustain a femoral fracture.The femoral neck-shaft angle was measured on the radiographs of 111 patients with atypical femoral shaft fracture(s) and thirty-three asymptomatic patients; both groups were on chronic bisphosphonate therapy. Patients with characteristic lateral cortical thickening, stress lines, and thigh pain were included in the fracture group.The mean neck-shaft angle of the patients who sustained atypical femoral fracture(s) while taking bisphosphonates (case group) differed significantly from that of the patients on bisphosphonate therapy without a fracture (129.5° versus 133.8°; p < 0.001). Fifty-three (48%) of the patients in the case group had a neck-shaft angle that was lower than the lowest angle in the control group (128°). Side-to-side comparison in patients with a unilateral pathologic involvement and an asymptomatic contralateral lower limb did not demonstrate any significant difference between the neck-shaft angles in the two limbs.Patients on chronic bisphosphonate therapy who presented with atypical femoral fracture(s) had more varus proximal femoral geometry than those who took bisphosphonates without sustaining a fracture. Although no causative effect can be determined, a finding of varus geometry may help to better identify patients at risk for fracture after long-term bisphosphonate use.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.N.00075

    View details for PubMedID 25410509

  • Is primary total elbow arthroplasty safe for the treatment of open intra-articular distal humerus fractures? INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Linn, M. S., Gardner, M. J., McAndrew, C. M., Gallagher, B., Ricci, W. M. 2014; 45 (11): 1747-1751

    Abstract

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is a viable treatment for elderly patients with distal humerus fracture who frequently present with low-grade open fractures. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a protocol of serial irrigations and debridements (I&Ds) followed by primary TEA for the treatment of open intra-articular distal humerus fractures.Seven patients (mean 74 years; range 56-86 years) with open (two Grade I and five Grade 2) distal humerus fractures (OTA 13C) who were treated between 2001 and 2007 with a standard staged protocol that included TEA were studied. Baseline Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores were obtained during the initial hospitalization, and the 6- and 12-month follow-up visits. Elbow range of motion (ROM) measurements were obtained at each follow-up visit.Follow-up averaged 43 (range 4-138) months. There were no wound complications and no deep infections. Complications included one case of heterotopic ossification with joint contracture, one olecranon fracture unrelated to the TEA, and two loose humeral stems. The average final ROM was from 21° (range 5-30°) to 113° flexion (range 90-130°). DASH scores averaged 25 at pre-injury baseline and 48 at the most recent follow-up visits.TEA has become a mainstream option for the treatment of distal humerus fractures which are on occasion open. There is hesitation in using arthroplasty in an open fracture setting due to a potential increased infection risk. The absence of any infectious complications and satisfactory functional outcomes observed in the current series indicates that TEA is a viable treatment modality for complex open fractures of the distal humerus.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2014.07.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343898000014

    View details for PubMedID 25192866

  • Hot Topics in Biomechanically Directed Fracture Fixation JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Bonyun, M., Nauth, A., Egol, K. A., Gardner, M. J., Kregor, P. J., McKee, M. D., Wolinsky, P. R., Schemitsch, E. H. 2014; 28: S32-S35

    Abstract

    The evolution of locking plates and modern nail constructs provides the orthopaedic trauma surgeon with a myriad of options with regard to implant selection for common fractures. There is a significant amount of biomechanical literature comparing modern constructs with those conventionally used. A basic understanding of this literature is required to make informed decisions with regard to implant selection in the management of these injuries. This article reviews the most recent biomechanical literature regarding implant selection and application for a variety of commonly treated injuries, including fractures of the clavicle, proximal humerus, distal humerus, intertrochanteric hip region, distal femur, and bicondylar tibial plateau.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000072

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333675000009

    View details for PubMedID 24464098

  • Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures: Assessing and Treating the Medial Fragment JOURNAL OF KNEE SURGERY Cherney, S., Gardner, M. J. 2014; 27 (1): 39-45

    Abstract

    Successful treatment of bicondylar tibial plateau requires focused and specific assessment and treatment of the medial fragment. Many fragment variations exist that help guide treatment. This may include posteromedial or medial plating using a variety of reduction and fixation techniques, or indirect reduction and lateral locked plating. With appropriate assessment, good results can be achieved.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0033-1363518

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346587900007

    View details for PubMedID 24343427

  • Risk Factors for Failure of Locked Plate Fixation of Distal Femur Fractures: An Analysis of 335 Cases JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Ricci, W. M., Streubel, P. N., Morshed, S., Collinge, C. A., Nork, S. E., Gardner, M. J. 2014; 28 (2): 83-89

    Abstract

    Locked plating has become a standard method to treat supracondylar femur fractures. Emerging evidence indicates that this method of treatment is associated with modest failure rates. The goals of this study were to determine risk factors for complications and to provide technical recommendations for locked plating of supracondylar femur fractures.Retrospective review.Three level I or II trauma centers.Three hundred twenty-six patients with 335 distal femur fractures (OTA 33A or C, 33% open) treated with lateral locked plates were studied. The average patient age was 57 years (range 17-97 years), 55% were women, 34% were obese, 19% were diabetic, and 24% were smokers.All patients were managed with open reduction internal fixation using a lateral distal femoral locked plate construct that included locked screws in the distal fragment and nonlocked, locked, or a combination of locked and nonlocked screws in the proximal fragment.Risk factors for reoperation to promote union, deep infection, and implant failure.After the index procedure, 64 fractures (19%) required reoperation to promote union, including 30 that had a planned staged bone grafting because of the metaphyseal defect after debridement of an open fracture. Independent risk factors for reoperation to promote union and deep infection included diabetes and open fracture. Risk factors for proximal implant failure included open fracture, smoking, increased body mass index, and shorter plate length.The identified risk factors for reoperation to promote union and complications included open fracture, diabetes, smoking, increased body mass index, and shorter plate length. Most factors are out of surgeon control but are useful when considering prognosis. Use of relatively long plates is a technical factor that can reduce risk for fixation failure.Prognostic level II. See instructions for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331197000009

    View details for PubMedID 23760176

  • A Comparison of More and Less Aggressive Bone Debridement Protocols for the Treatment of Open Supracondylar Femur Fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Ricci, W. M., Collinge, C., Streubel, P. N., McAndrew, C. M., Gardner, M. J. 2013; 27 (12): 722-725

    Abstract

    This study compared results of aggressive and nonaggressive debridement protocols for the treatment of high-energy, open supracondylar femur fractures after the primary procedure, with respect to the requirement for secondary bone grafting procedures, and deep infection.Retrospective review.Level I and level II trauma centers.Twenty-nine consecutive patients with high-grade, open (Gustilo types II and III) supracondylar femur fractures (OTA/AO 33A and C) treated with debridement and locked plating.Surgeons at 2 different level I trauma centers had different debridement protocols for open supracondylar femur fractures. One center used a more aggressive (MA) protocol in their patients (n = 17) that included removal of all devitalized bone and placement of antibiotic cement spacers to fill large segmental defects. The other center used a less aggressive (LA) protocol in their patients (n = 12) that included debridement of grossly contaminated bone with retention of other bone fragments and no use of antibiotic cement spacers. All other aspects of the treatment protocol at the 2 centers were similar: definitive fixation with locked plates in all cases, IV antibiotics were used until definitive wound closure, and weight bearing was advanced upon clinical and radiographic evidence of fracture healing.Healing after the primary procedure, requirement for secondary bone grafting procedures, and the presence of deep infection.Demographics were similar between included patients at each center with regard to age, gender, rate of open fractures, open fracture classification, mechanism, and smoking (P > 0.05). Patients at the MA center were more often diabetic (P < 0.05). Cement spacers to fill segmental defects were used more often after MA debridement (35% vs. 0%, P < 0.006), and more patients had a plan for staged bone grafting after MA debridement (71% vs. 8%, P < 0.006). Healing after the index fixation procedure occurred more often after LA debridement (92% vs. 35%, P < 0.003). There was no difference in infection rate between the 2 protocols: 25% with the LA protocol and 18% with the MA protocol (P = 0.63). All patients in both groups eventually healed and were without evidence of infection at an average of 1.8 years of follow-up.The degree to which bone should be debrided after a high-energy, high-grade, open supracondylar femur fracture is a matter of surgeon judgment and falls along a continuous spectrum. Based on the results of the current study, the theoretic trade-off between infection risk and osseous healing potential seems to favor an LA approach toward bone debridement in the initial treatment.Therapeutic level III.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e31829e7079

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329938600017

    View details for PubMedID 23760177

  • Unravelling the debate over orthopaedic trauma transfers: The sender's perspective INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Mamczak, C. N., Streubel, P. N., Gardner, M. J., Ricci, W. M. 2013; 44 (12): 1832-1837

    Abstract

    The increasing frequency of orthopaedic trauma patient transfers is an issue at the centre of the current orthopaedic "call crisis" that has the potential to inundate resources at tertiary care centres. Appropriateness of transfer has been investigated only from the perspective of receiving surgeons. This study investigates the suitability and reasons for orthopaedic trauma patient transfer from the viewpoint of transferring surgeons.A questionnaire was e-mailed to a random sampling of 500 active members of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the Orthopaedic Trauma Association. Surgeons were split into three groups: senders of trauma patients (senders); orthopaedic traumatologists who receive transfers (traumatologist receivers); and other trauma transfer receivers that are not traumatologists (non-traumatologist receivers). The perceived complexity and appropriateness for transfer of eight virtual case scenarios were determined, along with the specific reasons mitigating transfer.51 Senders, 90 traumatologist receivers, and 98 non-traumatologist receivers completed 239 surveys. There was agreement between groups for case complexity and appropriateness for transfer in five of eight case scenarios (p<0.05). Fracture complexity was cited as the primary reason for transfer by 28% of senders. However, just as common was a lack of resources at the sending hospital; OR equipment (18%), critical care services (18%), and inability to handle the immediacy of the case (7%) were also cited. Likelihood of uninsured status was the least common reason for transfer (1%).In most cases, both senders and receivers of orthopaedic trauma have similar viewpoints regarding fracture complexity and appropriateness of transfer. Sending surgeons cite case complexity and a lack of hospital resources as the primary reasons for patient transfer. Mandating increased call for orthopaedic surgeons at non-trauma centres without a concomitant increase in hospital resources is unlikely to substantially reduce unnecessary patient transfers to higher level facilities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2013.03.035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326376500025

    View details for PubMedID 23648363

  • In response. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Gardner, M. J., Yang, J. S., McAndrew, C. M., Ricci, W. M. 2013; 27 (11): 605-606

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.bot.0000437078.28608.89

    View details for PubMedID 24149374

  • Can Tibial Nonunion be Predicted at 3 Months After Intramedullary Nailing? JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Yang, J. S., Otero, J., McAndrew, C. M., Ricci, W. M., Gardner, M. J. 2013; 27 (11): 599-603

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine if surgeons could reliably predict if patients with tibia fractures treated with intramedullary nails will proceed to nonunion based on their clinical scenario and radiographs at 3 months.Blinded randomized questionnaire based on a retrospective cohort.University level 1 trauma center.Fifty-six patients who underwent intramedullary fixation for tibia fractures with incomplete healing at 3 months.A questionnaire was applied to 56 consecutive patients treated between 2005 and 2009 with intramedullary fixation for tibia fractures who had incomplete healing at 3 months. Each case was developed into a vignette that included the 3-month radiographs and detailed clinical histories. The questionnaire was distributed to 3 fellowship-trained trauma surgeons who were asked to predict if the fracture would go onto nonunion.Diagnostic accuracy of predicting nonunion in patients with incomplete healing of their tibia fracture at 3 months.The combined overall diagnostic accuracy of all 3 surgeons was 74%. Sensitivity and specificity was 62% and 77%, respectively. Radiographic features and injury mechanism were the most commonly cited clinical information used to predict fracture healing. The average positive predictive value was 73%. In 9 patients with diabetes, the diagnostic accuracy was 88%.Clinical judgment at 3 months allows for correct prediction of eventual nonunion development in a majority of patients. We suggest that analysis of the entire clinical picture be used to predict fracture healing at 3 months. A protocol of waiting for 6 months before reoperation in all patients treated with intramedullary nailing for tibia fractures may subject patients to prolonged disability and discomfort.Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e31828f5821

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328815800005

    View details for PubMedID 23481919

  • What's new in orthopaedic trauma. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Ricci, W. M., Spiguel, A., McAndrew, C., Gardner, M. 2013; 95 (14): 1333-1342

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.M.00490

    View details for PubMedID 23864182

  • Effect of Computerized Tomography on Classification and Treatment Plan for Patellar Fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Lazaro, L. E., Wellman, D. S., Pardee, N. C., Gardner, M. J., Toro, J. B., MacIntyre, N. R., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2013; 27 (6): 336-344

    Abstract

    To evaluate the impact of computerized tomography (CT) scan on both fracture classification and surgical planning of patellar fractures.Prospective study.Academic level I trauma center.Four fellowship-trained orthopaedic trauma surgeons analyzed radiographs of 41 patellar fractures. Each fracture was classified (OTA/AO classification), and a treatment plan was developed using plain radiographs alone. The process was repeated (4-6 weeks later) with addition of CT scan. After 12 months, the 2-step analysis was repeated and interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility were assessed.Suboptimal intra- and interobserver reliability was found for the surgical plan and classification using the OTA/AO system, despite the addition of a CT scan. After addition of CT, reviewers modified the classification in 66% of cases and treatment plan in 49%. CT frequently demonstrated a distinctive and severely comminuted distal pole fracture; this fracture pattern was present in 88% of cases and was unappreciated on plain radiographs in 44% of those cases. This pattern is unaccounted for by the present OTA/AO classification.CT facilitates improved delineation of patellar fracture patterns. Understanding the distal pole fracture pattern is fundamental in choosing a fixation construct. A fracture-specific classification system, based on CT scans, should be developed.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e318270dfe7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319447500012

    View details for PubMedID 22955333

  • Biomechanical Considerations for Surgical Stabilization of Osteoporotic Fractures ORTHOPEDIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Bogunovic, L., Cherney, S. M., Rothermich, M. A., Gardner, M. J. 2013; 44 (2): 183-?

    Abstract

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures has been steadily rising along with the aging of the population. Surgical management of these fractures can be a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Diminished bone mass and frequent comminution make fixation difficult. Advancements in implant design and fixation techniques have served to address these challenges and when properly applied, can improve overall outcome. The purpose of this review is to describe fixation challenges of common osteoporotic fractures and provide options for successful treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ocl.2013.01.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319234000006

    View details for PubMedID 23544823

  • Calcaneal Fracture-Dislocation With Fracture of the Sustentaculum and Lateral Column: A Unique Injury Pattern FOOT & ANKLE INTERNATIONAL Nepple, J. J., Putnam, R. M., Gardner, M. J., Bartlett, C. S., Johnson, J. E. 2013; 34 (2): 290-294

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1071100712464213

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330306300021

    View details for PubMedID 23413072

  • Proximal humerus fractures. Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine Jo, M. J., Gardner, M. J. 2012; 5 (3): 192-198

    Abstract

    Proximal humeral fractures are extremely common injuries, and are one of the true osteoporotic fractures. Most fractures can be effectively treated nonoperatively, as the rich vascularity and broad cancellous surfaces impart a high propensity for healing. Additionally, many fracture patterns result in adequate bone contact and minimal displacement with acceptable alignment. Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced fractures can improve outcomes, depending on the pre-injury functional status of the patient. If operative treatment is selected, unique treatment challenges must be overcome, including obtaining and maintaining reduction of small bone fragments with strong muscle forces, often in osteoporotic bone. Many options are feasible, including plates, nails, sutures, and other novel devices. Locking plates are the most common device used, but technical detail is critical to minimize the risk of implant failure, loss of reduction, and reoperation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12178-012-9130-2

    View details for PubMedID 22644599

  • Femoral head fractures. Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine Ross, J. R., Gardner, M. J. 2012; 5 (3): 199-205

    Abstract

    Femoral head fractures may present in various patterns with or without associated fractures around the hip. As a result, the treating orthopaedic surgeon must understand not only the fracture pattern, but also patient-related fractures and the relevant operative exposures and reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome while minimizing complications. Treatment options range from non-operative treatment to fracture fragment excision or fracture fixation using various surgical exposures and implants. This article reviews the current literature on the treatment options for femoral head fractures and presents modern operative techniques that have improved exposure of the fracture while minimizing associated risks such as avascular necrosis, heterotopic ossification, and neurovascular compromise. A sound understanding of the anatomy and these newer techniques can enable the surgeon to provide improved expectations and clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12178-012-9129-8

    View details for PubMedID 22628176

  • What's new in orthopaedic trauma. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Ricci, W. M., Gardner, M., Jo, M., McAndrew, C. 2012; 94 (16): 1525-1535

    View details for PubMedID 22992822

  • Is Application of an Internal Anterior Pelvic Fixator Anatomically Feasible? CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Merriman, D. J., Ricci, W. M., McAndrew, C. M., Gardner, M. J. 2012; 470 (8): 2111-2115

    Abstract

    Spinal hardware has been adapted for fixation in the setting of anterior pelvic injury. This anterior subcutaneous pelvic fixator consists of pedicle screws placed in the supraacetabular region connected by a contoured connecting rod placed subcutaneously and above the abdominal muscle fascia.We examined the placement of the components for anterior subcutaneous pelvic fixator relative to key vascular, urologic, bony, and surface structures.We measured the CT scans of 13 patients after placement of the pelvic fixator to determine the shortest distances between the fixator components and important anatomic structures: the femoral vascular bundle, the urinary bladder, the cranial margin of the hip, the screw insertion point on the bony pelvis, the relationship between the pedicle screw and the corridor of bone in which it resided, and the position relative to the skin.The average distance from the vascular bundle to the pedicle screw was 4.1 cm and 2.2 cm to the connecting rod. The average distance from the connecting rod to the anterior edge of the bladder was 2.6 cm. The average distance from the screw insertion point to the hip was 2.4 cm; none penetrated the hip. The average screw was in bone for 5.9 cm. The pedicle screws were on average 2.1 cm under the skin. The average distance from the anterior skin to the connecting rod was 2.7 cm.Components of this anterior pelvic fixator are close to important anatomic structures. Careful adherence to the surgical technique should minimize potential risk.Level IV, retrospective study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2287-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306215400009

    View details for PubMedID 22383020

  • Anterior Pelvic Reduction and Fixation Using a Subcutaneous Internal Fixator JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Mehta, S., Mirza, A., Ricci, W. M. 2012; 26 (5): 314-321

    Abstract

    Acute traumatic pelvic instability mandates reduction and mechanical stabilization to maximize the chance of a good functional outcome. Posterior pelvic fixation is frequently inadequate to stabilize the pelvic ring in isolation. Fixation augmentation with anterior pelvic ring implants can take several forms, including plates, medullary screws, or external fixation. Based on a multitude of patient and injury factors, external fixation may be the definitive anterior pelvic implant of choice. However, many drawbacks exist with this treatment, most notably the high infection rates of the transcutaneous pins, impaired patient mobilization, and suboptimal mechanical properties. We present a technique of a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixator as an alternative method of anterior pelvic ring reduction and stabilization that avoids many of the drawbacks of traditional anterior pelvic external fixation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e318220bb22

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303859700011

    View details for PubMedID 22048189

  • Biomechanical Testing of Fracture Fixation Constructs: Variability, Validity, and Clinical Applicability JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Gardner, M. J., Silva, M. J., Krieg, J. C. 2012; 20 (2): 86-93

    Abstract

    Biomechanical testing of fracture fixation implants is crucial in preclinical evaluation and in comparing new devices with standard devices. Many variables must be considered when planning and implementing a biomechanical in vitro experiment. The type of test selected (eg, load-to-failure, stiffness, cyclic fatigue) depends on the research question being asked. For example, cyclic fatigue testing attempts to replicate clinical situations; thus, the load magnitudes and directions and the number of cycles should be decided accordingly. Most important, each bone and region of bone experiences specific in vivo forces based on muscular and other forces. Debate persists regarding whether cadaver or synthetic bone is optimal. The use of either material in biomechanical testing should be carefully considered and justified in the context of the study hypothesis. Appropriate study design is the main factor that affects the clinical applicability of the findings and the accuracy of the conclusions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299971400004

    View details for PubMedID 22302446

  • Pitfalls in the Application of Distal Femur Plates for Fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Collinge, C. A., Gardner, M. J., Crist, B. D. 2011; 25 (11): 695-706

    Abstract

    Despite design features intended to aid the surgeon in restoring proper alignment, malunion and implant-related problems are relatively common after a distal femur fracture treated with plate fixation. This article presents case examples of these problems followed by a discussion of the relevant distal femoral anatomy, design features of modern locked distal femur plating systems, and technical points necessary to avoid malunion and implant-related problems when using these devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e31821d7a56

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296260300014

    View details for PubMedID 21857537

  • Screw Depth Sounding in Proximal Humerus Fractures to Avoid Iatrogenic Intra-articular Penetration JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Bengard, M. J., Gardner, M. J. 2011; 25 (10): 630-633

    Abstract

    Unstable and displaced proximal humerus fractures remain a treatment challenge. The use of locked plates has improved construct stability, but complication rates remain high. Biomechanical studies have emphasized the importance of anchoring screws in the subchondral bone of the humeral head to improve implant stability. However, the spherical shape of the proximal humerus and the limited tactile sensation of its soft cancellous bone make determining accurate screw length difficult, and reported rates of intraoperative screw penetration are high. Iatrogenic screw penetration, even if recognized and corrected before leaving the operating room, may lead to late failure. We present a simple technique of quickly and safely determining screw length using a blunt-tipped Kirschner wire and instruments found in basic orthopaedic sets.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e318206eb65

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294714300010

    View details for PubMedID 21697741

  • What's new in orthopaedic trauma. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Ricci, W. M., McAndrew, C., Merriman, D., Gardner, M. J. 2011; 93 (18): 1746-1756

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.K.00505

    View details for PubMedID 21938379

  • Sagittal Plane Deformity in Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Streubel, P. N., Glasgow, D., Wong, A., Barei, D. P., Ricci, W. M., Gardner, M. J. 2011; 25 (9): 560-565

    Abstract

    To evaluate the prevalence and magnitude of sagittal plane deformity in bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.Retrospective radiographic review.Two Level I trauma centers.Sagittal inclination of the medial and lateral plateau measured in relation to the longitudinal axis of the tibia using computed tomographic reconstruction images.Seventy-four patients (mean age, 49 years; range, 16-82 years; 64% male) with acute bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (Orthopaedic Trauma Association 41C, Schatzker VI) treated from October 2006 to July 2009.The average sagittal plane angulation of the lateral plateau was 9.8° posteriorly (range, 17° anteriorly to 37° posteriorly). The medial plateau was angulated 4.1° posteriorly on average (range, 16° anteriorly to 31° posteriorly). Forty-two lateral plateaus were angulated more than 5° from the "normal" anatomic slope (defined as 5° of posterior tibial slope). Of these, 76% were angulated posteriorly. Forty-three (58%) of the medial plateaus were angulated greater than 5° from normal, of which only 47% were inclined posteriorly (P = 0.019 compared with lateral plateaus). In 68% of patients, the difference between medial and lateral plateaus was greater than 5°; the average intercondylar slope difference was 9° (range, 0°-31°; P < 0.001). Spanning external fixation did not affect the slope of either the medial or lateral tibial plateau. Intraobserver and interobserver correlations were high for both the medial and lateral plateaus (r > 0.81, P < 0.01).Considerable sagittal plane deformity exists in the majority of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. The lateral plateau has a higher propensity for sagittal angulation and tends to have increased posterior slope. Most patients have a substantial difference between the lateral and medial plateau slopes. The identification of this deformity allows for accurate preoperative planning and specific reduction maneuvers to restore anatomic alignment.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e318200971d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294058900019

    View details for PubMedID 21654524

  • Transiliac-Transsacral Screws for Posterior Pelvic Stabilization JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Routt, M. L. 2011; 25 (6): 378-384

    Abstract

    Typical posterior pelvic fixation constructs use one or more large screws inserted from the lateral iliac cortex into the safe upper sacral ala or body. As a result of the deforming forces acting perpendicular to the implant axis, routine iliosacral screw fixation may not provide adequate stabilization, especially in certain unstable injuries. Longer iliosacral screws that traverse the entire upper sacrum and exit the contralateral iliac cortex may improve holding power and also stabilize concomitant contralateral posterior pelvic injuries. These transiliac-transsacral screws are reliably safe to insert using routine intraoperative fluoroscopy, and they provide durable fixation. These screws require careful preoperative planning and more precise technical attention during insertion because they pass through both sacral alar zones. Transiliac-transsacral screws may be particularly useful in the presence of osteoporosis, significant posterior pelvic instability including spinopelvic dissociation, patient obesity, anticipated noncompliant behavior, bilateral posterior pelvic injuries, and nonunion procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181e47fad

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290661100021

    View details for PubMedID 21577075

  • An analysis of the musculoskeletal trauma section of the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE). journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Cross, M. B., Osbahr, D. C., Gardner, M. J., Nguyen, J. T., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G., Dines, J. S. 2011; 93 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.J.00573

    View details for PubMedID 21543670

  • Differential fracture healing resulting from fixation stiffness variability: a mouse model JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC SCIENCE Gardner, M. J., Putnam, S. M., Wong, A., Streubel, P. N., Kotiya, A., Silva, M. J. 2011; 16 (3): 298-303

    Abstract

    The mechanisms underlying the interaction between the local mechanical environment and fracture healing are not known. We developed a mouse femoral fracture model with implants of different stiffness, and hypothesized that differential fracture healing would result.Femoral shaft fractures were created in 70 mice, and were treated with an intramedullary nail made of either tungsten (Young's modulus = 410 GPa) or aluminium (Young's modulus = 70 GPa). Mice were then sacrificed at 2 or 5 weeks. Fracture calluses were analyzed using standard microCT, histological, and biomechanical methods.At 2 weeks, callus volume was significantly greater in the aluminium group than in the tungsten group (61.2 vs. 40.5 mm(3), p = 0.016), yet bone volume within the calluses was no different between the groups (13.2 vs. 12.3 mm(3)). Calluses from the tungsten group were stiffer on mechanical testing (18.7 vs. 9.7 N/mm, p = 0.01). The percent cartilage in the callus was 31.6% in the aluminium group and 22.9% in the tungsten group (p = 0.40). At 5 weeks, there were no differences between any of the healed femora.In this study, fracture implants of different stiffness led to different fracture healing in this mouse fracture model. Fractures treated with a stiffer implant had more advanced healing at 2 weeks, but still healed by callus formation. Although this concept has been well documented previously, this particular model could be a valuable research tool to study the healing consequences of altered fixation stiffness, which may provide insight into the pathogenesis and ideal treatment of fractures and non-unions.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00776-011-0051-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290729000007

    View details for PubMedID 21451972

  • Is There a Standard Trochanteric Entry Site for Nailing of Subtrochanteric Femur Fractures? JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Streubel, P. N., Wong, A. H., Ricci, W. M., Gardner, M. J. 2011; 25 (4): 202-207

    Abstract

    To evaluate the variability of the ideal trochanteric starting point as a possible cause for malreduction of subtrochanteric fractures and to analyze the accuracy of contralateral templating to predict correct entry site.Standardized anteroposterior pelvis radiographs of 50 patients were evaluated by two independent reviewers. Patients with advanced osteoarthritis, severe hip deformity, and radiographs with asymmetric hip rotation were excluded. Ideal nail entry site was established using a template for a trochanteric nail with a 6° proximal bend. The distance from the greater trochanteric tip to the ideal nail entry site was measured. Additionally, offset of the greater trochanter tip from the femoral longitudinal axis was measured. Interobserver reliability and accuracy of contralateral templating were evaluated.The ideal entry point ranged from 16 mm medial to 8 mm lateral to the trochanteric tip (mean, 3 mm medial; standard deviation, 5 mm). In 70% of patients, the ideal entry point was medial to and in 23% lateral to the tip of the greater trochanter. Ideal entry points were located within 2 mm of the trochanteric tip in 29% and within 4 mm in 44% of patients. The location of the ideal entry point relative to the trochanteric tip had a weak correlation with patient height and neck shaft angle (r: -0.23 and r: -0.35, respectively). Interobserver reliability and agreement between left and right side measurements were strong (intraclass correlation coefficient: >0.94 and >0.88, P < 0.001, respectively). The mean measurement differences between sides was 0 mm (95% confidence interval: -1 to 1). Greater trochanter offset averaged 15 mm (range, 5-26 mm; standard deviation: 5) on the right and 15 mm (range, 5-25 mm; standard deviation: 5.1) on the left (P = 0.95).A high degree of variability exists for the ideal trochanteric entry site. The trochanteric tip represents the ideal starting point in only the minority of cases. Preoperative contralateral templating provides an accurate means for establishing a patient-specific entry point to minimize fracture malreduction.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181e93ce2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288240800007

    View details for PubMedID 21399468

  • Mortality After Distal Femur Fractures in Elderly Patients CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Streubel, P. N., Ricci, W. M., Wong, A., Gardner, M. J. 2011; 469 (4): 1188-1196

    Abstract

    Hip fractures in the elderly are associated with high 1-year mortality rates, but whether patients with other lower extremity fractures are exposed to a similar mortality risk is not clear.We evaluated the mortality of elderly patients after distal femur fractures; determined predictors for mortality; analyzed the effect of surgical delay; and compared survivorship of elderly patients with distal femur fractures with subjects in a matched hip fracture group.We included 92 consecutive patients older than 60 years with low-energy supracondylar femur fractures treated between 1999 and 2009. Patient, fracture, and treatment characteristics were extracted from operative records, charts, and radiographs. Data regarding mortality were obtained from the Social Security Death Index.Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index and a previous TKA were independent predictors for decreased survival. Congestive heart failure, dementia, renal disease, and history of malignant tumor led to shorter survival times. Patients who underwent surgery more than 4 days versus 48 hours after admission had greater 6-month and 1-year mortality risks. No differences in mortality were found comparing patients with native distal femur fractures with patients in a hip fracture control group.Periprosthetic fractures and fractures in patients with dementia, heart failure, advanced renal disease, and metastasis lead to reduced survival. The age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index may serve as a useful tool to predict survival after distal femur fractures. Surgical delay greater than 4 days increases the 6-month and 1-year mortality risks. Mortality after native fractures of the distal femur in the geriatric population is high and similar to mortality after hip fractures.Level II, prognostic study. See the guidelines online for a complete description of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1530-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288023200038

    View details for PubMedID 20830542

  • Surgeon Practices Regarding Operative Treatment of Posterior Malleolus Fractures FOOT & ANKLE INTERNATIONAL Gardner, M. J., Streubel, P. N., McCormick, J. J., Klein, S. E., Johnson, J. E., Ricci, W. M. 2011; 32 (4): 385-393

    Abstract

    Operative indications for surgical treatment of posterior malleolar fractures associated with fractures of the distal fibula and tibia are not currently well defined. The purpose of the present study was to determine the current practice among orthopaedic surgeons regarding the management of posterior malleolus fractures.Web-based questionnaires were emailed to members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). Requested information included demographics and treatment preferences for five clinical scenarios with different fracture characteristics. Four hundred one respondents completed the survey (20% response rate). Ninety eight (24%) subjects had received specialty training in orthopaedic trauma, 199 (50%) in foot and ankle (F&A) surgery and six (2%) in both orthopaedic trauma and F&A surgery. Ninety five (24%) had either no or other specialty training.The most frequently reported indication for fixation was not based on a fragment size threshold, but rather was ``depends on stability and other factors'' (56%). Trauma surgeons, those with less than 10 years experience, and those who treated more than five ankles fractures per month were significantly more likely to use factors other than size for indications (p = 0.026, <0.01, and <0.01, respectively). Despite this general response, fragment size still affected treatment decisions. A fragment comprising 50% of the articular surface was indicated for fixation by 97% of respondents, while a size of 10% would be treated by only 9% of respondents. For a posterior fragment with 20% articular involvement and a small free osteochondral fragment, fixation was deemed necessary by 44% of respondents. There were no differences in fellowship training, years of experience in practice, or ankle fracture volume per month in these three situations. A larger proportion of trauma trained surgeons considered fixation necessary compared to F&A trained surgeons in this case (p = 0.028). When posterior malleolus fixation was indicated for a large fragment, direct open reduction using the flexor hallucis longus -peroneal tendon interval was the most commonly selected approach in all cases. Trauma-trained surgeons were significantly more likely to choose antiglide plate fixation compared to screw-only fixation (p < 0.05).In this survey study of trauma and F&A surgeons, significant variation existed regarding most aspects of posterior malleolar ankle fracture treatment. Most notably, factors other than fragment size most impacted surgical indications. Newer techniques such as direct exposure and plating of the posterior malleolus are chosen more frequently than traditional techniques of indirect reduction and percutaneous screw fixation.

    View details for DOI 10.3113/FAI.2011.0385

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288979500012

    View details for PubMedID 21733441

  • Reduction Strategies Through the Anterolateral Exposure for Fixation of Type B and C Pilon Fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Mehta, S., Gardner, M. J., Barei, D. P., Benirschke, S. K., Nork, S. E. 2011; 25 (2): 116-122

    Abstract

    The surgical management of pilon fractures has evolved over the last several years with treatment shifting from acute definitive fixation to delayed fixation. One of the driving forces behind this change was the high incidence of soft tissue complications in those patients with high-energy pilon fractures (Orthopaedic Trauma Association 43B and 43C) managed with acute stabilization. Meticulous soft tissue handling along with delayed definitive fixation based on the soft tissue envelope has decreased the short-term complications associated with treatment of these injuries. Anterolateral exposure to the distal tibial articular surface allows for adequate visualization of most fracture patterns, novel reduction strategies, and successful implant placements. This exposure is useful in certain Type C pilon fractures, anterior and anterolateral Type B pilon fractures, and some extra-articular distal tibial fractures. The anterolateral exposure is not suitable in fractures with medial comminution, medial crush, impaction at the medial shoulder of the joint, segmental medial malleolar injuries, or varus deformity at the time of injury. The exposure has the advantage of excellent visualization of the articular surface up to the medial shoulder of the plafond while avoiding dissection of the anteromedial tibial surface.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181cf00f3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286375000015

    View details for PubMedID 21245716

  • Management of femur shaft fractures in obese patients. Orthopedic clinics of North America Streubel, P. N., Gardner, M. J., Ricci, W. M. 2011; 42 (1): 21-?

    Abstract

    Given the ongoing epidemic of obesity, femoral fracture management in the population affected by this condition is likely to become more frequent. Fracture treatment in obese patients poses a special challenge given greater difficulty in establishing an accurate diagnosis and confirming associated injuries. Adequate intraoperative positioning and obtaining accurate reduction and stable fixation may require special considerations. Obese patients have a high predisposition for complications such as compartment syndrome, nerve injuries, and pressure ulcers, and are at increased risk for medical complications given the high prevalence of comorbidities. A thorough understanding of the risks associated with obesity and the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges involved with femoral shaft fractures in this setting is paramount to achieve adequate results.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ocl.2010.07.004

    View details for PubMedID 21095432

  • The posterior malleolus: should it be fixed and why? Currne Orthopaedic Practice Streubel, P., Gardner, M., McCormick, J. 2011; 22 (1): 17-24
  • Interprosthetic Femoral Fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Mamczak, C. N., Gardner, M. J., Bolhofner, B., Borrelli, J., Streubel, P. N., Ricci, W. M. 2010; 24 (12): 740-744

    Abstract

    Interprosthetic femoral fractures, ones occurring between ipsilateral total hip and total knee arthroplasties, are an increasingly common and challenging problem for orthopaedic surgeons. The purpose of this study was to report specific fracture locations and treatment outcomes associated with a protocol of femoral plate fixation that spanned the interprosthetic zone applied with modern soft tissue preserving reduction techniques without adjuvant bone grafts.Retrospective cohort study.One Level I and one Level II trauma center.A consecutive cohort of 25 patients with 26 interprosthetic femur fractures surgically treated by one of four orthopaedic traumatologists were retrospectively reviewed. There were nine fractures of the femoral shaft (Orthopaedic Trauma Association [OTA] 32) about hip arthroplasty prostheses and 17 supracondylar fractures (OTA 33) about total knee prostheses. Five patients with six fractures were excluded as a result of lack of follow up (n = 4) or deviation from the treatment protocol (n = 2). The remaining 20 fractures were all low-energy closed injuries in elderly patients (average age 80 years; range, 56-98 years; 14 females and six males).A common surgical treatment protocol included plate fixation that spanned the entire interprosthetic zone (overlapping the stem proximally and knee component distally) and the use of biologic tissue-preserving plating techniques without use of supplemental bone grafts of any kind.Fracture healing, time to full weightbearing, malunion, nonunion, and the presence of any hardware failure.Supracondylar interprosthetic fracture patterns (OTA 33A) were two times more common than proximal diaphyseal fractures (OTA 32) (Vancouver B), 65% versus 35%. All 20 fractures healed after the index procedure. The average time to weightbearing as tolerated was 13 weeks (range, 6-22 weeks). There were three malunions (one 10° valgus, one 9° extension, and one 10° flexion), two cases of painful implants (one required removal), and one loose long-stem revision hip prosthesis (required total femur replacement). All other implants remained well-fixed. All complications occurred in patients with supracondylar fracture patterns. There were no additional associated peri-implant fractures.Interprosthetic femoral fractures tend to occur more frequently in the supracondylar region about total knee arthroplasty components than in the diaphysis about hip stems. Modern biologic plating techniques that span the entire interprosthetic zone to eliminate additional stress risers show reliable union rates without the use of adjuvant bone graft while maintaining limb alignment and implant survivorship.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181d73508

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284151800006

    View details for PubMedID 21063218

  • Outcomes of length-stable fixation of femoral neck fractures (Retracted article. See vol. 132, pg. 739, 2012) ARCHIVES OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMA SURGERY Boraiah, S., Paul, O., Gardner, M. J., Parker, R. J., Barker, J. U., Helfet, D., Lorich, D. 2010; 130 (12): 1523-1531

    Abstract

    The most common implants for treating unstable femoral neck fractures are sliding constructs, which allow postoperative collapse. Successful healing, typically, is a malunion with a shortened femoral neck. Functional sequelae resulting from altered femoral neck biomechanics have been increasingly reported. Re-operation rate due to nonunion, avascular necrosis, hardware cut-out and prominence is high with this treatment modality. We evaluated the outcomes of patients with femoral neck fractures treated with stable calcar pivot reduction, intraoperative compression across the fracture, and stabilization with length-stable implants.Fifty-four patients with femoral neck fractures underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Average follow up duration was 23.6 months (range: 15-36 months). There were 23 Garden I, 2 Garden II, 14 Garden III and 15 Garden IV fractures. Reduction was achieved through a modified Smith-Petersen approach. Fractures were compressed initially, and subsequently stabilized with a length-stable device. Post-operative radiographs were assessed for change in fracture alignment. Variation in the femoral neck offset and abductor lever arm measurements was performed using the contralateral hip as control. Functional outcome was assessed using SF-36, Harris Hip Score (HHS) and a gait analysis device. The average patient age was 78 years. Fifty-one (94%) healed without complications. Surgical fixation failed in two patients and one patient developed avascular necrosis. The average femoral neck shortening was 1.7 mm.The average difference in femoral neck offset and the abductor lever arm measurement at the latest follow up was 3.5 and 1.5 mm respectively. The average score on physical, mental components of SF-36 and HHS was 42 and 47 and 87 respectively. By 6 months, patients on average recovered 94% of the single limb stance time, 98% of cadence, 90% of cycle duration, 96% in stride length compared to the uninjured side.Reduction with a stable calcar pivot, intraoperative compression and length-stable fixation can achieve high union rates with minimal femoral neck shortening and improved functional outcomes.IV, retrospective with historical controls.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-010-1103-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284593800017

    View details for PubMedID 20414782

  • Quantification of the Upper and Second Sacral Segment Safe Zones in Normal and Dysmorphic Sacra JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Morshed, S., Nork, S. E., Ricci, W. M., Routt, M. L. 2010; 24 (10): 622-629

    Abstract

    To quantify the obliquity and dimensions of the upper and second sacral segment iliosacral screw safe zones and to determine the differences between normal and dysmorphic sacral morphology.Retrospective cohort.University Level I trauma center.Fifty patients with pelvic computed tomography scans.All sacra were characterized as normal or dysmorphic based on plain pelvic radiographs and previously described criteria. Multiple computed tomography scan reconstructions were viewed and manipulated simultaneously with 6 degrees of freedom to allow for custom visualization in any plane.In each patient, a unique reconstruction plane was created perpendicular to the safe zone axis. The narrowest safe zone cross-sectional area was measured. Next, on simulated pelvic outlet and inlet views, safe zone obliquity and width were measured. Finally, the space available for a transverse screw was assessed. Measurements were performed for both upper and second sacral segment. Values for normal and dysmorphic safe zones were compared.Sacral dysmorphism was identified in 22 patients. In these sacra, the upper sacral segment safe zone cross-section was 36% smaller than in normal sacra (P < 0.001). No transverse screws could be placed, but accommodating for the caudal to cranial obliquity (30° versus 21° in normals, P < 0.001) and posterior to anterior obliquity (15% versus 4% in normals, P < 0.001) of the safe zone, an iliosacral screw at least 75 mm in length could be placed safely in 91% of patients. A transverse screw could be placed in 75% of normal sacra. In the second segment safe zone, the cross-sectional area was more than twice as large in dysmorphic sacra compared to normals (220 mm versus 109 mm, P < 0.001). The obliquity was not different on either the inlet or outlet views between groups. A transverse screw could be placed at this level in 95% of those with dysmorphic sacra and in only 50% of normal sacra.Sacral dysmorphism occurred in 44% of patients in this consecutive series. Many anatomic differences were consistently found between the two morphologies with clinical relevance to iliosacral screw placement. Specifically, the dysmorphic upper sacral segment safe zone is significantly smaller and more obliquely oriented but is still large enough to accommodate an iliosacral screw in nearly all patients. The second sacral segment safe zone is approximately transversely oriented in both sacral types but is more than twice as large in dysmorphic sacra. This segment may be a primary fixation opportunity in patients with sacral dysmorphism.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181cf0404

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282126500005

    View details for PubMedID 20871250

  • The antishock iliosacral screw. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Gardner, M. J., Chip Routt, M. L. 2010; 24 (10): e86-9

    Abstract

    Acute traumatic pelvic ring injuries are associated with life-threatening hemorrhage related to pelvic instability. Rapid and effective methods to mechanically stabilize the pelvic injury are often a prerequisite for patient survival. Most of these methods have significant disadvantages because of either difficult application or limited efficacy. Pelvic antishock clamp placement is difficult and dangerous, and circumferential pelvic antishock sheeting is not universally effective in reducing and stabilizing the pelvic ring. We describe a technique of acute posterior pelvic ring reduction and stabilization using a percutaneously inserted iliosacral screw as a resuscitation adjunct.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181c81d65

    View details for PubMedID 20871242

  • Pelvic inlet and outlet radiographs redefined. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Ricci, W. M., Mamczak, C., Tynan, M., Streubel, P., Gardner, M. 2010; 92 (10): 1947-1953

    Abstract

    Musculoskeletal plain radiographic imaging protocols are typically predicated on orthogonal views of the bone or joint being evaluated. Pelvic injury has been evaluated with 45 degrees inlet and 45 degrees outlet radiographs. While these views are perpendicular to each other, they may not be in the best plane to evaluate pelvic injury because of variable lumbopelvic anatomy. We hypothesized that inlet and outlet radiographic views optimized to examine the clinically relevant osseous landmarks vary substantially from routine 45 degrees inlet and outlet views.Sixty-eight consecutive patients without pelvic ring disruption who had undergone routine axial pelvic computed tomography scans were retrospectively identified. The optimal inlet and outlet angles required to profile the clinically relevant pelvic anatomy were quantified for each patient with use of sagittal computed tomography reconstructions.The optimal inlet angle to profile the anterior body of S1 required an average caudal tilt of 21 degrees . The average outlet angle (cephalad tilt) perpendicular to the body of S1 was 63 degrees and perpendicular to S2 was 57 degrees . The optimal angles were the same for male and female patients and for patients with normal and dysmorphic pelves and were independent of patient age.Screening inlet and screening outlet radiographs made at 25 degrees and 60 degrees , respectively, are recommended to provide accurate profiles of the clinically relevant posterior osseous pelvic anatomy.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.I.01580

    View details for PubMedID 20720137

  • Intramedullary Fixation of Fibular Fractures Associated With Pilon Fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Evans, J. M., Gardner, M. J., Brennan, M. L., Phillips, C. J., Henley, M. B., Dunbar, R. P. 2010; 24 (8): 491-494

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of intramedullary fibular fixation to maintain reduction until healing and to determine the overall complication rate in high-energy pilon fractures associated with fibular fractures.Retrospective study.Level I university trauma center.From 2000 to 2007, 972 pilon fractures were treated at our institution, 38 of which were treated with an intramedullary device for the associated fibular fracture. Two patients had acute amputations and two died; 1-year follow-up was obtained in 27 of the remaining patients. Average length of follow-up was 21 months.A retrospective chart and radiograph review was conducted of all patients for data extraction.Fibular fixation type and length, fibular healing, and complications.Average patient age was 36 years (range, 18-59 years). Four of the fibular fractures were segmental. All fractures had at least 50% of the cortex intact to prevent shortening. The average height of the fibular fractures from the distal tip was 6.9 cm (range, 1.3-22.2 cm). In 20 patients, a 3.5-mm fully threaded cortical screw was used for stabilization, and in the remaining seven, a 2.5-mm wire was used. The intramedullary implant extended 8.5 cm above the most proximal fracture line on average (range, 1.6-29.8 cm). Fibular alignment was within 3 degrees of anatomic in all cases after initial fixation. At final follow-up, fibular alignment had not changed more than 1 degrees in any case. No complications related to the fibular incision occurred, and all fibula fractures healed within 3 months.In axially and rotationally stable fibular fracture patterns associated with pilon fractures, intramedullary fibular stabilization was effective in maintaining fibular alignment. This technique led to reliable fracture healing in appropriately selected fractures and may be particularly advantageous in patients with compromised lateral and posterolateral soft tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181eb5c4f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280249100014

    View details for PubMedID 20657258

  • Predictable Healing of Femoral Neck Fractures Treated With Intraoperative Compression and Length-Stable Implants JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Boraiah, S., Paul, O., Hammoud, S., Gardner, M. J., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2010; 69 (1): 142-147

    Abstract

    A healed, yet shortened, femoral neck has historically been deemed a success in fracture treatment. This, however, comes at the price of diminished physical function and quality of life. We analyzed the outcomes of our treatment algorithm, which attempts to minimize postoperative shortening of femoral neck fractures and determined which preoperative factors were associated with femoral neck shortening and failure of surgical fixation.This is level IV retrospective study.Fifty-four patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation for acute femoral neck fracture with nonsliding constructs. The collapse of the femoral neck in the horizontal (X), vertical (Y), and along the resultant along the (Z) vector (X+Y=Z) was measured on anteroposterior radiographs corrected for leg rotation. The migration of the superior-most screw tip in all axes was measured. Age, gender, Garden grade, and Pauwel's angle were analyzed for their association with shortening or failure of surgical fixation.The average age of the patients was 78.1 years. There were 23 Garden I, 2 Garden II, 14 Garden III, and 15 Garden IV fractures. Fifty-one (94%) healed successfully without complications. The minimum follow-up was 9 months (average, 17.6 months; range, 9-30 months). Surgical fixation failed in two patients, and one patient developed avascular necrosis. The average displacement of the femoral head and the screw tip was 1.23, 0.86, 1.98 mm and 0.7 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.7 mm in the X, Y, and Z (resultant) vectors, respectively.With careful consideration to reduction, we fixed femoral neck fractures with nonsliding constructs, resulting in a high union rate with very minimal shortening of the femoral neck.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181bba236

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280010600022

    View details for PubMedID 20010308

  • Less rigid stable fracture fixation in osteoporotic bone using locked plates with near cortical slots INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Gardner, M. J., Nork, S. E., Huber, P., Krieg, J. C. 2010; 41 (6): 652-656

    Abstract

    Locked plating leads to improved fixation in osteoporotic bone. In addition, experimental data suggest that overall construct stiffness is increased. Ideal stiffness may be significantly less than that achieved with these locked constructs, and overly stiff constructs may lead to impaired fracture healing and stress concentration at the ends of the plate. In osteoporotic bone, this stiffness mismatch can be even more pronounced. We hypothesized that substituting slots for holes in the near cortex under a locked plate would lead to predictably lower stiffness without diminishing implant stability.Osteoporotic bone substitute segments were used. Locking screws and plates were applied to each specimen using either standard holes or near cortical slots. The slots were designed to allow axial displacement of the screw in the near cortex only, while continuing to provide some torsional stability. Mechanical testing was performed using a progressive dynamic displacement load protocol to determine failure and stiffness. Next, cyclic axial loading was performed with a physiologic load for 10,000 cycles to determine change in stiffness with cycling. Outcomes were compared between groups using Mann-Whitney U tests.In the dynamic displacement tests, the slotted specimens reached both maximum load and failure load at a significantly greater displacement than the non-slot group (p=0.008), indicating later failure. The magnitude of the maximum load achieved was no different between groups. In the cyclic loading tests, the axial stiffness in the slotted group was significantly lower (1199 N/mm) than the non-slotted group (3538 N/mm; p<0.05 at all cycles). Stiffness did not change significantly in either group over the course of cycling.The ability to predictably adjust the axial stiffness of locked plating constructs is critical, particularly in osteoporotic bone. The use of near cortical slots decreases axial stiffness of locking plates, while maintaining fixation stability. This may allow the surgeon to more closely tailor the construct stiffness to the clinical situation to minimize stiffness mismatches and complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2010.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277700000020

    View details for PubMedID 20236642

  • Are extreme distal periprosthetic supracondylar fractures of the femur too distal to fix using a lateral locked plate? journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume Streubel, P. N., Gardner, M. J., Morshed, S., Collinge, C. A., Gallagher, B., Ricci, W. M. 2010; 92 (4): 527-534

    Abstract

    It is unclear whether there is a limit to the amount of distal bone required to support fixation of supracondylar periprosthetic femoral fractures. This retrospective multicentre study evaluated lateral locked plating of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures and compared the results according to extension of the fracture distal with the proximal border of the femoral prosthetic component. Between 1999 and 2008, 89 patients underwent lateral locked plating of a supracondylar periprosthetic femoral fracture, of whom 61 patients with a mean age of 72 years (42 to 96) comprising 53 women, were available after a minimum follow-up of six months or until fracture healing. Patients were grouped into those with fractures located proximally (28) and those with fractures that extended distal to the proximal border of the femoral component (33). Delayed healing and nonunion occurred respectively in five (18%) and three (11%) of more proximal fractures, and in two (6%) and five (15%) of the fractures with distal extension (p = 0.23 for delayed healing; p = 0.72 for nonunion, Fisher's exact test). Four construct failures (14%) occurred in more proximal fractures, and three (9%) in fractures with distal extension (p = 0.51). Of the two deep infections that occurred in each group, one resolved after surgical debridement and antibiotics, and one progressed to a nonunion. Extreme distal periprosthetic supracondylar fractures of the femur are not a contra-indication to lateral locked plating. These fractures can be managed with internal fixation, with predictable results, similar to those seen in more proximal fractures.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/0301-620X.92B3.22996

    View details for PubMedID 20357329

  • The Impact of Open Reduction Internal Fixation on Acute Pain Management in Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Barei, D. P., Shafer, B. L., Beingessner, D. M., Gardner, M. J., Nork, S. E., Routt, M. L. 2010; 68 (4): 949-953

    Abstract

    The management of unstable pelvic ring injuries is complex. Displacement is a clear indication for surgical intervention. However, reduction of acute pain after stabilization may have substantial clinical benefits and affect management decisions. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of operative fixation of unstable pelvic ring injuries in diminishing acute pain.During a 33-month period, 70 patients with isolated pelvic ring injuries were managed at a Level-1 trauma center and retrospectively reviewed. On the basis of clinical and radiographic instability, 38 patients were managed surgically and formed the study group. Pain was assessed using visual analog scales and narcotic consumption during the index hospitalization.In the operative group, visual analog scale scores decreased 48% after fixation from 4.71 +/- 1.8 preoperatively to 2.85 +/- 0.8 postoperatively (p < 0.001). Concomitantly, narcotic requirements decreased 25% from 2.26 mg morphine per hour preoperatively to 1.71 mg morphine per hour postoperatively (p = 0.024). The mean total length of hospital stay was 5.6 days (SD, 1.2 days), and the postoperative length of hospital stay was 4.7 days (SD, 1.2 days).Operative reduction and fixation of unstable pelvic ring injuries significantly decreases acute pain. This has substantial physiologic benefits, particularly by improving mobilization, and should be an additional factor when determining surgical indication and timing.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181af69be

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276663100038

    View details for PubMedID 19996807

  • A Comparison of Quantitative Ultrasound of the Calcaneus With Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Hospitalized Orthopaedic Trauma Patients JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Collinge, C. A., LeBus, G., Gardner, M. J., Gehrig, L. 2010; 24 (3): 176-180

    Abstract

    Osteoporosis remains underdiagnosed in orthopaedic trauma patients. Recently, protocols have emerged to identify and treat osteoporosis in this population. Our purpose was to compare the usefulness of quantitative ultrasound of calcaneus (QUS) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for identifying orthopaedic trauma patients at risk for osteoporotic fractures.A retrospective review of an osteoporosis screening protocol comparing QUS and DXA.Regional trauma center.Three hundred sixty consecutive hospitalized orthopaedic trauma patients treated by a single surgeon.QUS T-score and DXA bone mineral density T-scores (hip or radius) were obtained relative to U.S. normative data.QUS and DXA data were statistically compared to analyze their relationship. Potential thresholds for osteoporosis risk were subsequently defined.Testing was successfully performed with heel QUS in 350 patients and with DXA in 129 patients. One hundred twenty-six patients underwent testing with both modalities. According to World Health Organization criteria, 17% of patients tested with DXA had osteoporosis. A good predictive relationship between hip bone mineral density, as estimated by calcaneal QUS, and direct DXA measurement was seen (Pearson's r correlation coefficient of 0.53; area under the curve of 0.84 with 95% confidence interval=0.75-0.90; P=0.0001). QUS T-score cutoffs of greater than -0.9 resulted in 90% sensitivity (defining low osteoporosis risk) and a threshold of -1.6 or less resulted in a specificity of 80% (defining high osteoporosis risk).Substantial logistical difficulties are inherent in attempting to obtain DXA scans in orthopaedic trauma patients at our regional trauma center. For those patients who did undergo DXA, a strong predictive relationship was seen between hip bone mineral density and QUS parameters. QUS thresholds in defining low- and high-risk subjects for osteoporosis in this population using this device are proposed. QUS is a simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive tool for evaluating osteoporosis risk in orthopaedic trauma patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181b8b036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275193300007

    View details for PubMedID 20182254

  • The Cortical Step Sign as a Tool for Assessing and Correcting Rotational Deformity in Femoral Shaft Fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Langer, J. S., Gardner, M. J., Ricci, W. M. 2010; 24 (2): 82-88

    Abstract

    Rotational malalignment during femoral nailing is common. The difference in cortical width of the proximal and distal fracture fragments, the cortical step sign, is a commonly used yet poorly studied method of evaluating rotational alignment. This study aims to critically analyze the cortical step sign in cadaveric specimens using radiographic and direct measurements.One-centimeter segments from 20 cadaveric femora were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal diaphyses. The medial and lateral cortical widths were measured in neutral and at 10 degrees , 20 degrees , and 30 degrees of internal rotation and external rotation directly from the gross specimens and indirectly using radiographs and cross-sectional imaging.Anatomic, radiographic, and cross-sectional imaging measurements all demonstrated that cortical width changes with femoral rotation. Rotation (both internal rotation and external rotation) of the proximal and middle segments led to a decrease in medial cortical width and lateral cortical width in 70% to 100% of samples (up to 2.2 mm, or 20% of cortical width) indicating that the cortices are thickest directly medially and laterally in neutral rotation. In the distal femur, however, internal rotation and external rotation led to an increase in medial cortical width and lateral cortical width in 80% to 95% of cases (up to 1.75 mm), except in the case of the medial cortical width in internal rotation, which decreased in 80% of the specimens (up to 1.3 mm).The cortical step sign, or incongruity of cortical widths on either side of a femur fracture, is indicative of rotational malreduction. Whether such malreduction is the result of internal rotation or external rotation, however, cannot be easily determined from this radiographic sign.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274072700003

    View details for PubMedID 20101131

  • Displacement After Simulated Pelvic Ring Injuries: A Cadaveric Model of Recoil JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Gardner, M. J., Krieg, J. C., Simpson, T. S., Bottlang, M. 2010; 68 (1): 159-165

    Abstract

    Determining pelvic ring stability after a fracture is vital to treatment decisions. Commonly used information includes the displacement seen on initial radiographs. Static imaging studies may misrepresent the maximal amount of traumatic displacement at injury. We hypothesized that postinjury radiographs do not reveal maximal displacement of pelvic ring fractures. We also sought to determine whether different injury patterns and varying severity of displacement lead to different amounts of passive recoil.In 15 cadaveric pelvic specimens, unilateral anteroposterior compression (n = 7) or lateral compression (n = 8) injury patterns were experimentally created. A motion-tracking system was used to record rotational deformity of each hemipelvis before, during, and after fracture creation. The absolute and relative magnitudes of pelvic displacement and recoil after force relaxation were determined.In the simulated AO/OTA Type 61-B1.1 patterns (open book, rotationally unstable), maximal symphyseal diastasis recoiled by 48% +/- 18% (p < 0.05). In the AO/OTA Type 61-C1.2 patterns (open book, completely unstable), diastasis passively recoiled by 44% +/- 7% (p < 0.05). Lateral compression injuries (AO/OTA Type 61-B2.2) had maximal hemipelvis rotation of 41 degrees +/- 7 degrees and subsequently recoiled by 80% to 8 degrees +/- 6 degrees (p < 0.001).In this cadaveric model of simulated pelvic injury, a significant magnitude of passive recoil occurred after removal of the deforming force. The amount of recoil varied based on different injury patterns. However, the degree of recoil among specimens with similar injury patterns was generally consistent. In a clinical scenario, this suggests that only a portion of the maximal displacement that occurs at the time of injury is seen on initial plain radiographs. Injury severity should not be minimized based on pelvic displacement seen on initial static radiographs and computed tomographic scans.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0b013e31819adae2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273585800031

    View details for PubMedID 20065771

  • Failure of Fracture Plate Fixation JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Gardner, M. J., Evans, J. M., Dunbar, R. P. 2009; 17 (10): 647-657

    Abstract

    Failure of fracture fixation after plating often leads to challenging surgical revision situations. Careful analysis of all patient and fracture variables is helpful in both determining the causes of the fixation failure and maximizing the success of subsequent interventions. Biologic and mechanical factors must be considered. Biologic considerations include traumatic soft-tissue injury and atrophic fracture site. Common mechanical reasons for failure include malreduction, inadequate plate length or strength, and excessive or insufficient construct stiffness. Reliance on laterally based implants in the presence of medial comminution may be a cause of fixation failure and subsequent deformity, particularly with conventional nonlocking implants. Management of dead space with cement or beads has been effective in conjunction with staged approaches. An antibiotic cement rod in the diaphysis may provide fracture stabilization. Locking full-length constructs should be considered for osteoporotic fractures.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270475300007

    View details for PubMedID 19794222

  • Percutaneous Pelvic Fixation Using Working Portals in a Circumferential Pelvic Antishock Sheet JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Osgood, G., Molnar, R., Routt, M. L. 2009; 23 (9): 668-674

    Abstract

    Unstable pelvic ring injuries are associated with an increased mortality rate, most commonly from severe hemorrhage. Circumferential pelvic antishock sheeting has proven effective for rapidly stabilizing the pelvic ring and has become an integral part of resuscitation protocols. Acute antishock sheet placement frequently results in patient hemodynamic stabilization and an accurate pelvic reduction. In these situations, we describe a technique of maintaining the pelvic sheet position for continued use as a reduction aid and using working portals to insert definitive percutaneous pelvic implants.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271353100010

    View details for PubMedID 19897990

  • Anterior knee pain following the lateral parapatellar approach for tibial nailing ARCHIVES OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMA SURGERY Weil, Y. A., Gardner, M. J., Boraiah, S., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2009; 129 (6): 773-777

    Abstract

    Anterior knee pain after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures is a common clinical problem, with various etiologies. We have used a lateral parapatellar approach with atraumatic elevation of the infrapatellar fat pad to expose the starting point. Our hypothesis was that this approach leads to a low incidence of knee pain.We conducted a retrospective study of 78 patients suffering from tibia fractures treated by a single surgeon. Fifty patients were available for the study. All fractures were fixed with a reamed intramedullary nail using the modified lateral approach. Complaints of knee pain and range of motion as well as keeling ability were examined in the clinic visit and recorded in the patients' charts. Lysholm knee scores were collected following the last follow-up visit. Average follow-up was 13 months (range 6-26 months).Nine patients (19%) had subjective anterior knee pain when directly questioned. Eighty-two percentage of patients had no difficulty kneeling and this was significantly correlated with lack of knee pain. Good or excellent knee scores were reported by 92% of patients. Average knee flexion was 130 degrees . There was a negative correlation between the presence of open fracture and outcome. No correlation was found between knee pain and nail insertion depth or coronal alignment.The modified lateral parapatellar approach with careful dissection of the fat pad may significantly reduce anterior knee pain after intramedullary nailing of the tibial shaft.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-008-0678-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265388600008

    View details for PubMedID 18560846

  • The Upper Sacral Nerve Root Tunnel: An Anatomic and Clinical Study JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Farrell, E. D., Gardner, M. J., Krieg, J. C., Routt, M. L. 2009; 23 (5): 333-339

    Abstract

    To radiographically demonstrate the upper sacral nerve root tunnel (USNRT) in both cadaveric specimens and a clinical cohort and to quantify its clinical relevance.Level 1 trauma center and anatomy laboratory.Eleven cadaveric pelves and 23 consecutive patients who underwent fluoroscopically assisted iliosacral screw insertions.Cadaveric pelves were fluoroscopically imaged using standard pelvic inlet, outlet, and true lateral sacral views. The course of the USNRT pathway was identified. Then, these tunnels were filled completely with a semisolid radio-opaque agent. The specimens were reimaged after the contrast injection. Clinically, 23 consecutive patients with unstable posterior pelvic ring disruptions were treated using fluoroscopically assisted percutaneous iliosacral screws based on these predictable radiographic landmarks. A total of 44 iliosacral screws were inserted.For the cadaveric portion, the images with contrast were used to identify the USNRTs. For the clinical study, tunnel visualization was determined on all views intraoperatively. Screw placement was documented by postoperative pelvic plain radiographs and computed tomography scan.In the cadaveric specimens, the contrast agent consistently demonstrated the USNRTs on all 3 pelvic radiographic views. In the clinical series, the USNRTs were well visualized on the pelvic outlet image in all 23 patients (100%). Using the inlet image, the USNRTs were visualized in only 5 of 23 patients (21%). On the true lateral sacral views, the USNRTs were seen in 21 of 23 patients (91%). Using these USNRT radiographic landmarks, no iliosacral screw was extraosseous.The USNRTs have a consistent radiographic appearance that is best seen on the pelvic outlet and true lateral sacral views, but their course is best understood when seen on all 3 views. Awareness and understanding of the USNRT, its course, and its radiographic landmarks allow the surgeon to avoid tunnel intrusion by an iliosacral screw.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265545900005

    View details for PubMedID 19390360

  • Percutaneous Placement of Iliosacral Screws Without Electrodiagnostic Monitoring JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Gardner, M. J., Farrell, E. D., Nork, S. E., Segina, D. N., Routt, M. L. 2009; 66 (5): 1411-1415

    Abstract

    Iliosacral screws are commonly used for fixation of pelvic ring injuries. Previous reports using different screw insertion techniques have reported high neurologic complication rates, leading to recommendations for intraoperative neurodiagnostic monitoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurologic complications after percutaneous iliosacral screw placement without neurodiagnostic monitoring.During a 21-month period, 326 patients with pelvic ring disruptions were treated at a level 1 trauma center. One hundred seventy-four patients underwent percutaneous stabilization of their pelvic ring injuries without neurodiagnostic monitoring. Patients who were not intubated preoperatively, were neurologically normal, and who underwent a closed reduction were included. Sixty-eight patients who had 106 screws placed met the inclusion criteria and formed the study group. A careful and detailed neurologic examination was performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Plain pelvic radiographs and computed tomography scans were evaluated postoperatively in all patients to assess screw position.No planned screw placement was abandoned because of inadequate fluoroscopic visualization. There were no neurologic injuries as a result of either the closed reduction or the screw placement. Computed tomography scans confirmed the screw position and demonstrated placement as intraosseous in 75 (70.8%) and juxtaforaminal in 31 (29.2%). No screws perforated a nerve root tunnel, spinal canal, or sacral cortex.Using a standardized technique, appropriate and reliable fluoroscopic landmarks are available in the vast majority of percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation procedures. Iliosacral screw placement without neurodiagnostic monitoring has a low rate of neurologic complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0b013e31818080e9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266021700026

    View details for PubMedID 18797417

  • Internal Rotation and Taping of the Lower Extremities for Closed Pelvic Reduction JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Parada, S., Routt, M. L. 2009; 23 (5): 361-364

    Abstract

    External rotation of the disrupted hemipelvis is a common deformity after pelvic ring trauma, especially in anteroposterior compression injury patterns. This displacement is associated with significant pelvic hemorrhage. Emergent closed reduction techniques are necessary to diminish the potential pelvic volume, provide temporary stability, and allow tamponade with clot formation. Circumferential pelvic antishock sheeting is effective but may be cumbersome, especially in patients with truncal obesity. In such scenarios, circumferential pelvic area sheeting does not always achieve a complete reduction. We present a technique of internal rotation and taping of the lower extremities as an alternative or supplemental pelvic closed reduction method.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265545900009

    View details for PubMedID 19390364

  • Stiffness Modulation of Locking Plate Constructs Using Near Cortical Slotted Holes: A Preliminary Study JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Nork, S. E., Huber, P., Krieg, J. C. 2009; 23 (4): 281-287

    Abstract

    Axial stiffness is a critical mechanical parameter in fracture plating. Standard locked plates allow minimal opportunities for stiffness alteration, and current methods are arbitrary and may lead to stiffness mismatch between the implant and bone. Milling the near cortex into a slot allows for an increase in translation of the screw shaft at the near cortex. The purpose of this proof of concept study was to determine the effects of slots on stiffness and their ability to maintain fixation of locking plates under cyclic loading.Using segments of fourth-generation synthetic diaphyseal bone, a simulated fracture with a gap was created and locked plates were applied with 4 bicortical locked screws in each fragment. On one fragment, the 4 near cortex holes were sequentially milled to 5 x 6-mm slots. Axial and torsional stiffnesses were determined for constructs with 0 through 4 slots. Specimens with 4 slots then underwent axial cyclic loading to determine the change in stiffness and loss of fixation. Extraction torque was measured for all screws to assess for screw loosening with cycling.In constructs with 4 slots, axial stiffness decreased by 73% (P < 0.05) relative to the 0-slot constructs. Torsional stiffness of the 3- and 4-slot specimens decreased by 20% (SD, 13%; P < 0.05) and 17% (SD, 13%; P < 0.05), respectively, compared with the 0-slot specimens. With cyclic loading, no failures occurred in any specimen. No change in stiffness had occurred by the end of cycling (106% of initial stiffness; SD, 4%; P = 0.96). No screw loosening occurred during cyclic loading.Purposeful stiffness modulation in fracture fixation is critical to facilitate uneventful fracture healing. Converting near cortical holes to slots allowed selective axial stiffness adjustment without sacrificing fixation stability under cyclic loading. With further refinement, this simple modification of standard implant application may allow the surgeon to decrease the modulus mismatch between plating constructs and bone to decrease the risk of fixation failure.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264609900008

    View details for PubMedID 19318872

  • Intraoperative 3D Imaging in Calcaneal Fracture Care-Clinical Implications and Decision Making JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Geerling, J., Kendoff, D., Citak, M., Zech, S., Gardner, M. J., Huefner, T., Krettek, C., Richter, M. 2009; 66 (3): 768-773

    Abstract

    In operative calcaneal fracture care malposition of screws and joint line incongruity frequently remain unrecognized using fluoroscopy intraoperatively, and are frequently only recognized on postoperative computed tomography scans. The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility and utility of a new C-arm-based three-dimensional imaging technology for calcaneal trauma care.The C-arm-based three- dimensional imaging device (ISO-C-3D) was used in 32 patients during a 2-year period. Patients were indicated for open reduction and internal fixation using standard techniques and fluoroscopy. After reduction and implant placement was determined to be correct, the ISO-C-3D procedure was performed. The time for setup and use, and the consequences were recorded. An assessment was obtained from the surgeon regarding the feasibility and the adequacy and quality of the data provided, using a Visual Analog Scale.The average total time required for ISO-C-3D use was 610 seconds. The information obtained from the scan led the surgeon to alter the reduction or screw placement during the procedure in 41% of the patients. Surgeons rating according to a Visual Analog Scale: feasibility 9.5, accuracy and quality 9.2, clinical benefit 8.2.Intraoperative three- dimensional visualization with the ISO-C-3D provides important information in the operative treatment of calcaneal fractures which cannot always be obtained from plain films or standard fluoroscopy alone. The use of the device adds minimal time to the overall procedure, and was found to be extremely useful in evaluating reduction and implant position intraoperatively in calcaneal fractures.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0b013e31816275c7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264259000029

    View details for PubMedID 19276751

  • Rotational stability of femoral osteosynthesis in femoral fractures - navigated measurements. Technology and health care Citak, M., Kendoff, D., Gardner, M. J., Oszwald, M., O'Loughlin, P. F., Olivier, L. C., Krettek, C., Hüfner, T., Citak, M. 2009; 17 (1): 25-32

    Abstract

    Rotational malalignment after intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures is common, and symptoms occur when malrotation reaches 15 degrees . Intraoperative measurement of rotation remains difficult, and multiple techniques have been described to address this. Regardless of the method used, rotational toggling may occur between the interlocking screws and the screw holes. We hypothesized that a clinically significant amount of rotation may occur with standard statically locked intramedullary nails. Mid-shaft diaphyseal fractures were created in 24 cadaveric femurs. Specimens were divided into 4 groups, and were stabilized with a statically locked intramedullary nail, a dynamically locked intramedullary nail, a compression plate, and a locking plate. Six additional femurs were kept intact as a control group. Specimens were mounted in a custom holding jig, which stabilized the constructs proximally and allowed free rotation distally. A computer navigation system was applied, and the femoral anteversion was measured. 4 N-m of internal and external torque was applied, and the change in version was measured. The statically locked nails rotated 14.2 degrees , and the dynamically locked group rotated 15.7 degrees . Both intramedullary nail groups showed significantly greater rotation than the plated groups. The compression plate specimens rotated 6.5 degrees on average, and the locked plate group rotated 3.8 degrees . Intramedullary femoral nailing with static or dynamic interlocking allows 15 degrees of rotation of the femur around the nail under physiologic load. This may exacerbate intraoperative errors in determining and setting rotation. Angular stable plates or nails may minimize this problem.

    View details for DOI 10.3233/THC-2009-0529

    View details for PubMedID 19478402

  • Intraoperative 3D Imaging: Value and Consequences in 248 Cases JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Kendoff, D., Citak, M., Gardner, M. J., Stuebig, T., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2009; 66 (1): 232-238

    Abstract

    Intraoperative visualization of articular surfaces is technically demanding, and standard two-dimensional fluoroscopic imaging frequently does not provide adequate detail of nonplanar joints. New imaging modalities allow for intraoperative 3D visualization, which are useful in articular fractures. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of 3D imaging in articular fracture reconstruction.In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated 248 consecutive patients with intra-articular fractures. After fracture fixation using standard fluoroscopy, 3D imaging was performed intraoperatively using the Iso-C3D system for all patients. Surgeons filled out questionnaires regarding the utility and perceived accuracy of the 3D system. Postoperative CT scans were performed on approximately half of the patients. Main outcome measurements were based on the surgeons decision to immediately revise the articular reduction or implant position. The setup time for the system was recorded. For patients with postoperative CT scans, articular surface gaps of 2 mm or intra-articular hardware placement was again evaluated.In 19% of all cases, intraoperative image analysis resulted in immediate adjustment of the reduction or hardware exchange. These revisions were based on Iso-C3D views of the articular surface that were not visible using fluoroscopy. Of the 129 postoperative CT scans, five cases revealed a technical error of the joint reconstruction, and a secondary revision procedure was performed.In conclusion, the Iso-C3D was a valuable intraoperative tool, providing additional information about the articular surface compared with conventional fluoroscopy in a variety of anatomic regions.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0b013e31815ede5d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262543500034

    View details for PubMedID 19131832

  • Sciatic Nerve Entrapment in Associated Both-Column Acetabular Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Dunbar, R. P., Gardner, M. J., Cunningham, B., Routt, M. L. 2009; 23 (1): 80-83

    Abstract

    Sciatic nerve injury associated with acetabular fractures has been reported in most series. Typically, sciatic neuropraxia occurs from traumatic impaction or compression due to posterior hip fracture-dislocation. We report 2 patients with sciatic nerve entrapment within the posterior column components of their associated both-column acetabular fractures. Following neuroplasty through a Kocher-Langenbeck surgical approach, both patients' neurologic function improved. This unlikely cause of neurologic compromise should be considered in all patients with symptoms of sciatic nerve injury or irritation and particularly in the presence of a mechanical block during posterior column reduction through an ilioinguinal approach.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262314700013

    View details for PubMedID 19104309

  • Unipedicular Balloon Kyphoplasty for the Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Early Results JOURNAL OF SPINAL DISORDERS & TECHNIQUES Papadopoulos, E. C., Edobor-Osula, F., Gardner, M. J., Shindle, M. K., Lane, J. M. 2008; 21 (8): 589-596

    Abstract

    The traditional bipedicular kyphoplasty was proved to be safe and effective for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Nevertheless, unilateral kyphoplasty would be an attractive alternative to the traditional bipedicular kyphoplasty owing to theoretical speed, safety, and less expense; thus far, the biomechanical testing showed that experimental unilateral kyphoplasty had properties comparable with bipedicular kyphoplasty. To date, no clinical data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of unilateral balloon kyphoplasty. In this prospective observational study, the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the unipedicular (unilateral) balloon kyphoplasty in osteoporotic VCFs are evaluated.Three hundred and seventeen kyphoplasty procedures were performed in 142 patients with osteoporotic VCFs using the unilateral technique. This technique involves the unilateral cannulation of the center of the vertebral body and the placement of a single balloon tamp. To evaluate improvement in pain and physical function, preoperative and postoperative scores of visual analog scale (VAS), SF-36, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were compared at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. Complications related to the procedure and cement extravasation rates were recorded. Height restoration and overall coronal and sagittal spinal alignment were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively.Significant improvement on the VAS, SF-36 scores, and ODI was noted at 3 months postoperatively; these results were preserved at the 12-month follow-up for the 30 patients who completed the SF-36 questionnaire (VAS/ODI scores were available only for 19 of the 30 patients also showing sustained improvement). No complication was recorded; 34 cases (10.73%) of cement extravasation were all asymptomatic. Mean middle height restoration was found 48.9%; when vertebral levels treated were stratified into 2 groups, with or without height restoration (90.1% and 9.9% of all levels, respectively), corrected mean middle height restoration was found 54%. No lateral wedging or changes in the coronal alignment was observed in the unipedicular group.Unipedicular (unilateral) extrapedicular kyphoplasty is both a safe and efficacious alternative to the traditional bipedicular kyphoplasty for the treatment of painful osteoporotic VCFs. As a technique, it is faster, less expensive, and involves less radiation exposure for the surgical suite personnel.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261515900011

    View details for PubMedID 19057254

  • The surgical anatomy of the blood supply to the femoral head: description of the anastomosis between the medial femoral circumflex and inferior gluteal arteries at the hip. journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume Grose, A. W., Gardner, M. J., Sussmann, P. S., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2008; 90 (10): 1298-1303

    Abstract

    The inferior gluteal artery is described in standard anatomy textbooks as contributing to the blood supply of the hip through an anastomosis with the medial femoral circumflex artery. The site(s) of the anastomosis has not been described previously. We undertook an injection study to define the anastomotic connections between these two arteries and to determine whether the inferior gluteal artery could supply the lateral epiphyseal arteries alone. From eight fresh-frozen cadaver pelvic specimens we were able to inject the vessels in 14 hips with latex moulding compound through either the medial femoral circumflex artery or the inferior gluteal artery. Injected vessels around the hip were then carefully exposed and documented photographically. In seven of the eight specimens a clear anastomosis was shown between the two arteries adjacent to the tendon of obturator externus. The terminal vessel arising from this anastomosis was noted to pass directly beneath the posterior capsule of the hip before ascending the superior aspect of the femoral neck and terminating in the lateral epiphyseal vessels. At no point was the terminal vessel found between the capsule and the conjoined tendon. The medial femoral circumflex artery receives a direct supply from the inferior gluteal artery immediately before passing beneath the capsule of the hip. Detailed knowledge of this anatomy may help to explain the development of avascular necrosis after hip trauma, as well as to allow additional safe surgical exposure of the femoral neck and head.

    View details for DOI 10.1302/0301-620X.90B10.20983

    View details for PubMedID 18827238

  • Osteoporosis in orthopaedic trauma patients: A diagnosis and treatment protocol JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Collinge, C., LeBus, G., Gardner, M. J., Gehrig, L. 2008; 22 (8): 541-547

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fracture in a cohort of orthopaedic trauma patients and to subsequently determine the efficacy of a protocol for evaluation, education, and treatment in these patients.Prospective study of "osteoporosis protocol" for evaluation, education, initiation of treatment, and 1-year follow-up in orthopaedic trauma patients.Level 2 regional trauma center.Two hundred sixty consecutive adult patients treated by an orthopaedic trauma surgeon for an acute orthopaedic injury were prospectively enrolled in an osteoporosis protocol between January and August 2005.Patients were evaluated using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel administered at the bedside and with comprehensive medical, osteoporotic, ovarian, nutritional, family, and current injury histories. For patients identified as high risk for osteoporosis (QUS of the calcaneus-derived T-score

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259104600007

    View details for PubMedID 18758285

  • Anatomy of the greater trochanteric 'Bald spot': A potential portal for abductor sparing femoral nailing? CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Gardner, M. J., Robertson, W. J., Boraiah, S., Barker, J. U., Lorich, D. G. 2008; 466 (9): 2196-2200

    Abstract

    Soft tissue injury occurs when using a piriformis portal for femoral nailing. Standard trochanteric portals also can injure the gluteus medius and external rotator tendons, which may be a source of hip pain after nailing. On the lateral facet of the greater trochanter, a "bald spot" may exist that is devoid of tendon insertion. This may be a potential portal for intramedullary nail insertion. We defined the dimensions and location of this region. Cadaveric specimens were dissected to expose the tendon insertions on the greater trochanter. A computer navigation system was used with a stylus and bone morphing to determine the tendon insertions and bald spot anatomy. The greater trochanteric bald spot is covered by the subgluteus medius bursa and has no tendon insertions. Its center lies 11 mm distal to the tip of the greater trochanter and 5 mm anterior to the midline. The shape is ellipsoid with a diameter of 21 mm. This region is large enough to accommodate the size of most nailing system reamers without tendon footprint infringement. Use of this modified entry site may reduce soft tissue injury with nailing procedures and minimize subsequent hip pain.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-008-0217-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258152700020

    View details for PubMedID 18347886

  • Treatment protocol for open AO/OTA type C3 pilon fractures with segmental bone loss JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Mehta, S., Barei, D. P., Nork, S. E. 2008; 22 (7): 451-457

    Abstract

    To evaluate the results in patients with open AO/OTA type C3 pilon fractures with segmental bone loss who were treated with a standard treatment protocol.Retrospective case series.Level I trauma center.Of 117 acute open type C pilon fractures treated during the study period, 10 patients with AO/OTA type C3 fractures and segmental metaphyseal bone loss were amenable to treatment with a standard protocol.All patients were treated with immediate debridement and external fixation (stage 1). After a delay of 1-3 weeks, patients with a healthy-appearing soft tissue envelope and no sign of infection underwent open reduction, plate fixation, and antibiotic bead placement (stage 2). Several months later, planned bone grafting was performed (stage 3).The complication rate, additional procedures, and time to bony union were determined.The treatment protocol was able to be completed in all 10 patients. No cases of acute infection or wound necrosis after plate fixation and antibiotic bead placement occurred. Two cases of late infection occurred after delayed bone grafting, one of which was successfully treated and the other resulted in amputation. Nine of the 10 patients healed at an average of 24 weeks.Limb salvage in the most severe open pilon fractures is difficult. In patients with benign soft tissues at several weeks after temporary external fixation, open reduction, antibiotic bead placement, and a delayed bone grafting procedure are associated with a low complication rate and predictable fracture healing.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258241100003

    View details for PubMedID 18670284

  • Secondary soft tissue compromise in tongue-type calcaneus fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Nork, S. E., Barei, D. P., Kramer, P. A., Sangeorzan, B. J., Benirschke, S. K. 2008; 22 (7): 439-445

    Abstract

    Open wounds occur with calcaneus fracture from direct application of force and from tearing along the medial side of the fracture as the tuberosity displaces laterally. Secondary soft tissue injury can also occur from pressure of the displaced fracture fragments. Tongue-type fractures of the calcaneus lead to variable amounts of displacement of the posterior tuberosity. This displacement may threaten the posterior soft tissue envelope. Because many calcaneus fractures are splinted initially and immobilized for several weeks until swelling resolves, failure to acutely recognize the potential for posterior skin breakdown may lead to severe soft tissue morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of posterior skin involvement in tongue-type calcaneus fractures and to determine the patient and fracture characteristics that lead to high-risk situations.University level I trauma center.All tongue-type calcaneus fractures treated at 1 institution between 2002 and 2007 were identified from a trauma registry. Of 954 patients with calcaneal fractures, 139 tongue-type calcaneus fractures in 127 patients formed the study group.Patient demographics, comorbidities, injury mechanism, fracture displacement, and time to presentation were evaluated. Those injuries that were associated with posterior, secondary soft tissue breakdown were identified and compared to those without breakdown.Univariate analysis and stepwise multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify significant predictors of posterior soft tissue compromise.Twenty-nine fractures (21%) had some degree of posterior skin compromise at presentation, including 12 with threatened skin, 10 with partial thickness breakdown, and 7 with full thickness breakdown. Six soft tissue coverage procedures and one amputation resulted. Patients with posterior skin compromise were less likely to have a fall mechanism (P = 0.001), had significantly greater fracture displacement (P = 0.007), were more likely to smoke (P = 0.039), and were more frequently referred on a delayed basis (P = 0.007). Those with threatened posterior skin who were treated emergently with percutaneous reduction did not progress to soft tissue compromise.A high incidence (21%) of posterior skin compromise occurs in tongue-type calcaneus fractures. These should be treated with immediate reduction, plantarflexion splinting, and close monitoring. Although mechanism, displacement, and time to presentation were significantly correlated with posterior skin involvement, the surgeon should be aware of this potential complicating factor in all tongue-type fractures.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258241100001

    View details for PubMedID 18670282

  • Surgical exposure and fixation of displaced Type IV, V, and VI glenoid fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Nork, S. E., Barei, D. P., Gardner, M. J., Schildhauer, T. A., Mayo, K. A., Benirschke, S. K. 2008; 22 (7): 487-493

    Abstract

    Displaced intra-articular fractures of the glenoid are rare and frequently result from high-energy injuries. Types IV, V, and VI fractures have in common a fracture line which extends medially into the scapular body. These fracture patterns present unique challenges for surgical approaches and reduction and fixation strategies. A modified posterior approach allows for the simultaneous exposure of the medial scapular border and the glenoid articular surface. An initial reduction of the medial fracture indirectly restores the scapular relationship, allowing for subsequent completion of the articular reduction via a limited approach to the posterior shoulder using the same incision.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258241100009

    View details for PubMedID 18670290

  • Surgical treatment and outcomes of extraarticular proximal tibial nonunions ARCHIVES OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMA SURGERY Gardner, M. J., Toro-Arbelaez, J. B., Boraiah, S., Lorich, D. G., Helfet, D. L. 2008; 128 (8): 833-839

    Abstract

    Although malunion of proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures are not infrequent, nonunion of the proximal tibia is rare. These nonunions can present particular challenges in management, such as malalignment, a short proximal segment, and soft tissue compromise. Few treatment guidelines and long-term outcomes are available. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term functional outcomes of patients treated with open reduction and internal fixation.Sixteen patients with a proximal tibial nonunion were treated between 1992 and 2005. Five fractures were originally open injuries, but all were aseptic at the time of definitive fixation. All nonunions were treated with a consistent approach of debridement, deformity correction, lateral plating, tensioning and compression, lag screws and bone grafting. Patients were reviewed radiographically and with a Knee Society questionnaire at a mean follow-up of 39 months (range 10-113 months).All nonunions healed at an average of 4 months, and alignment was within 5 degrees of anatomic in all cases. Knee Society function and knee scores improved significantly, to 87.4 and 89.4, respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Functional outcomes were excellent overall. Fourteen of the patients (88%) subjectively returned to their previous activities and were satisfied with their result.Using an algorithmic approach of débridement, deformity correction, lateral tension band plating with compression, and rigid stabilization, fracture healing and functional outcome can be reliably restored in these difficult fractures.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-007-0383-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257912500011

    View details for PubMedID 17581757

  • High association of posterior malleolus fractures with spiral distal tibial fractures CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Boraiah, S., Gardner, M. J., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2008; 466 (7): 1692-1698

    Abstract

    Associations between fracture patterns are important and can ensure proper diagnosis and guide treatment. Occult posterior malleolus fractures associated with distal spiral tibia fractures often are underrecognized and the morbidity of a missed posterior malleolus injury can be substantial. We determined the association between the two injuries and evaluated the ability of a new protocol to improve management of these associated fractures. Of 62 consecutive patients with fractures of the distal third of the tibia, we retrospectively evaluated the first 39 patients and prospectively used a diagnostic protocol including computed tomography of the ankle in the subsequent 23 patients. The minimum followup was 3 months (mean, 25 months; range, 3-68 months). Twenty-four patients (39%) had fractures of the posterior malleolus. Before initiation of the protocol, intraarticular fractures were recognized in 33% (with one delayed diagnosis and one missed diagnosis), and after institution of the protocol, the detection rate was 48% with no known missed injuries and complete followup; however, with the limited power the detection rates were similar without and with the protocol. A spiral distal tibial shaft fracture with a proximal fibula fracture should alert the surgeon to investigate an occult ankle injury, particularly of the posterior malleolus. A protocol including computed tomography of the ankle may detect more injuries in a larger study.Level II, prognostic study.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-008-0224-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256658900026

    View details for PubMedID 18347885

  • Long-term consequences of pelvic trauma patients with thromboembolic disease treated with inferior vena caval filters JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Toro, J. B., Gardner, M. J., Hierholzer, C., Sama, D., Kosi, C., Ertl, W., Helfet, D. L. 2008; 65 (1): 25-29

    Abstract

    The use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters for prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) in high-risk trauma patients is well accepted. High rates of recurrent venous thrombosis, however, and postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) have been reported in nonsurgical patients with medical comorbidities. Patients with pelvic trauma and thromboembolic disease have a unique thrombogenic pathophysiology, and the long-term consequences of filter placement in these patients are unknown. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of patients who sustained pelvic trauma, and who developed venous thrombosis and were treated with a vena caval filter.A cohort of 102 consecutive patients was treated for a pelvic or acetabular fracture who developed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) preoperatively and had a caval filter placed. Thromboembolic events and complications were evaluated by both retrospective chart review and a prospective questionnaire. Eighty-eight patients (86%) returned the questionnaire at an average follow-up of 4 years.No patients were readmitted to the hospital for recurrent venous thrombosis or PE. Six patients (7%) described new swelling in the lower extremities, and one (1%) demonstrated evidence of PTS. No deaths occurred related to PE.The use of IVC filters appears to be safe and effective in preventing PE in patients with pelvic trauma and established venous thrombosis. The risk of recurrent DVT is low and PTS is negligible in these patients. Filter placement use is not associated with the same long-term complications as in patients with thrombosis because of chronic medical comorbidities.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0b013e318075e97a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257767300004

    View details for PubMedID 18580529

  • Reference markers in computer aided orthopaedic surgery: rotational stability testings and clinical implications ARCHIVES OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMA SURGERY Kendoff, D., Gardner, M. J., Krettek, C., Huefner, T., Citak, M. 2008; 128 (6): 633-638

    Abstract

    Navigation procedures rely on the stability of the reference arrays (RA) fixed to the bony anatomy. The risk of inadvertent collision and unnoticed movements of the RA may occur, and limb movements might also provocate collisions. Consequently, relevant measurements failures during the navigated procedure might occur and reduce the overall precision of the system. The magnitude of torque to destabilize an RA from its bony-fixation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of standard RA's to resist applied torque. A digital torque application device was developed to allow for precise torque application to the RA system at four cadavers. Clockwise, gradually increasing rotational force was applied to the RA in 1, 2, or 3 Nm, held for 1 s and released, repeated in 10 cycles. One pin fixation systems with 4.0 Schanz pins were used. A second RA was fixed 20 cm proximal to the tested RA. A navigation system was used to measure the relative positions of both RA's during torque application. The rotational differences at torque application were calculated and statistically evaluated. Results revealed averaged 1.0 degrees rotation [range (r), 1.0-1.1 degrees ] with first cycle of 1 Nm torque, the last cycle averaged 1.0 degrees (r, 1.0-1.1 degrees ) with no significant differences in rotation between any of the cycles (p > 0.5). Torque of 2 Nm resulted in 1.8 degrees rotation (r, 1.5-1.8 degrees ) with no significant increases between first and second cycle (p = 0.56), second and third trials (p = 0.35) while fourth cycle averaged 2.0 degrees , with significant increase (p = 0.011). All subsequent cycles resulted in significant increases. Torque of 3 Nm produced 2.9 degrees of rotation for initial cycle (r,2.5-3.3 degrees ), with significant increases with each cycle (p < 005). Torques of > or =2 Nm may cause loosening of the RA, thus may lose its original position relative to the bone. Surgeons using computer aided surgery systems should be aware of possible unrecognized movements of the RA, however, gentle collisions do not appear to cause significant motion or destabilization.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-007-0496-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255189700016

    View details for PubMedID 17978825

  • Value of 3D fluoroscopic imaging of acetabular fractures comparison to 2D fluoroscopy and CT imaging ARCHIVES OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMA SURGERY Kendoff, D., Gardner, M. J., Citak, M., Kfuri, M., Thumes, B., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2008; 128 (6): 599-605

    Abstract

    Intraoperative two-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy of acetabular fractures is difficult due to the complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy. Intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy may have particular utility in the evaluation of acetabular fractures. We compared the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic imaging in evaluating acetabular fracture displacement and implant placement with fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) scans.In 24 cadaveric acetabuli, a transverse acetabular fracture was created. First a 2 mm step-off of the articular surface was created and reconstruction plates placed on the anterior and posterior columns. In 12 specimens, two screws were placed intraarticularly, protruded by 2 mm. In the remaining 12 specimens, the same constructs were used but the screws remained extraarticular. Second tests were designed to simulate an impaction injury. After hardware removal, a hollow trephine (diameter of 14.9 mm) was used to core a bone cylinder on the dome of the acetabulum, and impacted until it was recessed into the articular surface by 2 mm. Plates were placed, and screws were placed intraarticularly in 12 specimens, as in the first set of tests. All cadavers were imaged with standard 2D-, 3D fluoroscopy and CT. Three observers randomly evaluated all imaging studies for all specimens.For detection of intraarticular screws, both the Iso-C3D and the CT scans were significantly more sensitive (96 and 96%, respectively) and specific (96 and 100%, respectively) in detecting the intraarticular position compared to 2D fluoroscopy (75%; P < 0.05). Sensitivity of articular step-off detection was no different between the Iso-C3D (83%), CT (79%), and 2D fluoroscopy (87%). Articular impaction was correctly identified in 79% of specimens with the Iso-C 3 D technique, while the CT was accurate in 92%. 2D fluoroscopy was accurate in 62% for the impactions (P < 0.05 vs. CT).3D-fluoroscopic imaging appears to be extremely accurate in evaluating acetabular fracture constructs. Its sensitivity and specificity for evaluating intraoperative hardware was greater than with 2D fluoroscopy and equivalent to CT scan. Volumetric impactions were also reliably demonstrated on both of the 3D modalities, which were both superior to 2D fluoroscopy. Overall, Iso-C3D multiplanar imaging yields information regarding implant placement and articular reduction that is more detailed and accurate than standard fluoroscopy and is comparable to CT.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-007-0411-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255189700011

    View details for PubMedID 17680254

  • Pause insertions during cyclic in vivo loading affect bone healing CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Gardner, M. J., Ricciardi, B. F., Wright, T. M., Bostrom, M. P., van der Meulen, M. C. 2008; 466 (5): 1232-1238

    Abstract

    Fracture repair is influenced by the mechanical environment, particularly when cyclic loads are applied across the fracture site. However, the specific mechanical loading parameters that accelerate fracture healing are unknown. Intact bone adaptation studies show enhanced bone formation with pauses inserted between loading cycles. We hypothesized pause-inserted noninvasive external loading to mouse tibial fractures would lead to accelerated healing. Eighty mice underwent tibial osteotomies with intramedullary stabilization and were divided into four loading protocol groups: (1) repetitive loading (100 cycles, 1 Hz); (2) pause/time-equivalent (10 cycles, 0.1 Hz); (3) pause/cycle-equivalent (100 cycles, 0.1 Hz); and (4) no load control. Loading was applied daily for 2 weeks. Healing was assessed using histology, biomechanical bending tests, and microcomputed tomography. The pause-inserted, cycle-equivalent group had a greater percentage of osteoid present in the callus cross-sectional area compared with no-load controls, indicating more advanced early healing. The pause-inserted, cycle-equivalent group had a failure moment and stiffness that were 37% and 31% higher than the controls, respectively. All three loaded groups had smaller overall mineralized callus volumes than the control group, also indicating more advanced healing. At an early stage of fracture healing, pause-inserted loading led to more histologically advanced healing.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-008-0155-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254772200032

    View details for PubMedID 18273676

  • Posteromedial supine approach for reduction and fixation of medial and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Weil, Y. A., Gardner, M. J., Boraiah, S., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2008; 22 (5): 357-362

    Abstract

    Traditionally, both high- and low-energy tibial plateau fractures are classified on the basis of the anteroposterior (AP) plain radiograph. Several fracture types exist that are not included in currently used classification schemes, including posteromedial shear and coronal plane fractures. These fracture types can appear as isolated fracture lines or as a part of a bicondylar plateau fracture. The purpose of this study is to describe a posteromedial supine surgical approach and antiglide plating of the posteromedial fragment, either as a single approach for a unicondylar posteromedial fracture or in combination with a second lateral approach for bicondylar fractures. We have used this technique in 27 patients that had posteromedial shear fractures on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, in the setting of a Level I trauma center. Ten were isolated medial plateau fractures, and 17 had bicondylar fractures. Radiographic analysis was done for all patients, and clinical outcomes were available in 19 out of 27 patients through phone interviews and chart reviews. Mean follow-up was 3.5 years (range 1-12 years). Seventy-five percent of patients had anatomic or good reductions. The average Oxford knee score was 19.9 +/- 5.4 (12-29). Average range of motion was 0 to 120 (0-90 to 0-130). The articular malreduction (>5-mm gap or step-off) rate was 4%, and there were no wound complications. Posteromedial shear fractures of the tibial plateau are not uncommon. This pattern is assessable using the preoperative CT scan. A supine posteromedial approach with antiglide plating provides a good clinical solution for these complex injuries.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255701000013

    View details for PubMedID 18448992

  • Navigated femoral anteversion measurements: A new intraoperative technique INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Citak, M., Gardner, M. J., Citak, M., Krettek, C., Huefner, T., Kendoff, D. 2008; 39 (4): 467-471

    Abstract

    To evaluate and compare the accuracy of using the femoral neck axis and the greater trochanter with navigation to determine femoral anteversion.Eight human femora with midshaft fractures were used. Real anteversion (AV) values were first measured on a movable fixation system, with digital images imported to software. Second, a navigation system determined the femoral AV with fluoroscopic images of hip, fracture site and femoral condyles. AV I: the centre of the femoral head to the femoral neck axis, the lateral distal femoral condyles and the distal fragment were marked. AV II: the centre of femoral head to the centre of the greater trochanter was marked by the same method.Actual femoral AV ranged from 1.0 degrees to 9.0 degrees . Head-neck landmarks revealed a mean difference of 1.4 degrees . The greater trochanter-femoral head landmarks revealed a mean difference of 0.3 degrees , significantly less than the head-neck measurements.Compared with the reliable methods of determining femoral rotation postoperatively, intraoperative measurement is difficult. We found that the centre of the tip of the greater trochanter is easier to identify than the centre of the femoral neck and gives more precise results. This requires analysis of the contralateral limb, which may be feasible with newer non-invasive registration methods.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2007.09.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255223500013

    View details for PubMedID 18272155

  • Femoral nail osteosynthesis. Mechanical factors influencing the femoral antetorsion UNFALLCHIRURG Citak, M., Kendoff, D., Citak, M., Gardner, M. J., Oszwald, M., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2008; 111 (4): 240-246

    Abstract

    Antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nailing is a common and well established procedure for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. One drawback of this technique is the high incidence of clinically relevant malalignment. Despite intra-operative and radiological improvements this problem has not yet been solved efficiently. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the mechanical influence on the antetorsion angle of intramedullary nails during and after interlocking in femoral shaft fractures.A mechanical instrument was developed allowing a defined torque to be administered to the distal femur fragment. As an optical measurement system for the assessment of the antetorsion angle, a navigation system was applied. Initially the influence of the interlocking mechanism of the nail on the antetorsion deviation was investigated. The distal interlocking hole was fixed free handed or by using a navigation system. The multidirectional movement of the distal femur fragment was documented. Furthermore, the influence of the rotational stability on the antetorsion angle after mechanical stress of 4 NM was investigated by measuring the remaining rotational capacity of the distal femur fragment.The average remaining rotational capacity of the distal femur fragment was 5.8 degrees after locking the nail by hand. The navigated locking resulted in a deviation of only 2 degrees , a significant difference compared to the free-hand procedure. The rotational stability under stress showed an average of 15.4 degrees deviation of the distal fragment. Even after complete interlocking of the intramedullary nail a 14.2 degrees rotational deviation was observed.It could be shown that mechanical stability as well as the interlocking itself of femoral nails have a relevant impact on the antetorsional angle of the femur. Potential sources of error of the femoral antetorsion angle can be caused by the interlocking process as well as by forced rotation of the femur after interlocking. Clinical studies are needed to improve our findings, while the observed effects might have an essential influence on the incidence of femoral malalignment after osteosynthesis by intramedullary nailing of the femur.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00113-008-1435-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254750300004

    View details for PubMedID 18369578

  • Virtual 3D planning of acetabular fracture reduction JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Citak, M., Gardner, M. J., Kendoff, D., Tarte, S., Krettek, C., Nolte, L., Huefner, T. 2008; 26 (4): 547-552

    Abstract

    Displaced acetabular fractures are best treated with open reduction to achieve anatomic reduction and maximize the chance of a good functional outcome. Because of the anatomic complexity and often limited visualization, fracture reduction can be difficult. Virtual planning software can allow the surgeon to understand the fracture morphology and to rehearse reduction maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a novel virtual fracture reduction module on time and accuracy of reduction. Four acetabular fracture patterns were created in synthetic pelves, which were implanted with fiducial markers and were registered with CT scan. Ten surgeons used virtual fracture reduction software or conventional 2D planning methods and immediately reduced the fractures blindly in a viscous gel medium. 3D imaging was again performed and the accuracy of reduction was assessed. The average malreduction was significantly improved following planning with the virtual software compared to the standard technique. The time taken for reduction was also significantly less for two of the four fracture patterns. Virtual software may be useful for visualizing and planning treatment of fractures of the acetabulum, potentially leading to more accurate and efficient reductions, and may also be an effective educational tool.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.20517

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254060500016

    View details for PubMedID 17972324

  • Navigated lower limb axis measurements: Influence of mechanical weight-bearing simulation JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Kendoff, D., Board, T. N., Citak, M., Gardner, M. J., Hankemeier, S., Ostermeier, S., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2008; 26 (4): 553-561

    Abstract

    Successful outcomes following high tibial osteotomy (HTO) require precise realignment of the mechanical axis of the lower extremity. The inability to accurately assess the weight-bearing axis intraoperatively may account for inappropriate degrees of correction with the osteotomy. We tested the hypothesis that axial loading of the limb affects alignment during an HTO procedure. A custom mechanical load apparatus was developed to simulate weight-bearing conditions intraoperatively. Fixation to the trunk was achieved by supraacetabular pins and an external fixation device, which allowed the pelvis to be rigidly fixed relative to the apparatus while axial load was applied to the foot. Ten fresh cadavers were used for testing. The baseline mechanical axis was determined by a navigation system. HTO was then performed, and varying degrees of valgus correction were obtained and stabilized. For each correction, one quarter, one half, or full body weight was applied axially to the foot, and the axis deviation was measured. Subsequently, the MCL was sequentially released to determine the effect of ligament incompetence. Prior to osteotomy, load application did not produce significant axis deviations. Following osteotomy, the mechanical axis deviation shifted significantly in all trials, increasing as load magnitude and degree of correction increased. With complete sectioning of the MCL, a further significant shift in the axis occurred. Deviations of mechanical axis occur on weight bearing in lower limbs following HTO. These shifts must be considered and possibly quantified to achieve the desired axis correction and maximize the chance at a successful long term outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.20510

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254060500017

    View details for PubMedID 17972322

  • Complete bony union achieved after arthrodesis of native glenoid and acromion to an allograft proximal humerus: a case report. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery Barker, J. U., Gardner, M. J., Boraiah, S., Kelly, B. T., Lane, J. M., Lorich, D. G. 2008; 17 (2): e19-22

    View details for PubMedID 18036838

  • Indirect medial reduction and strut support of proximal humerus fractures using an endosteal implant JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Boraiah, S., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2008; 22 (3): 195-200

    Abstract

    Fractures of the proximal humerus, particularly in osteoporotic bone, are still frequently referred to as unsolved fractures. The recent explosion of locking plate technology has included these fractures, but it appears that laterally placed locking plates may not be as predictable as hoped. Medial column mechanical support of these fractures may play a significant role in the ultimate stability of fixation during rehabilitation until healing occurs. We have devised a technique of using a segment of fibula allograft, placed endosteally and incorporated into the locking construct, to aid in the reduction and restoration of the mechanical integrity of the medial column of the proximal humerus.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253912400008

    View details for PubMedID 18317054

  • Open reduction and internal fixation of distal femoral nonunions: Long-term functional outcomes following a treatment protocol JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Gardner, M. J., Toro-Arbelaez, J. B., Harrison, M., Hierholzer, C., Lorich, D. G., Helfet, D. L. 2008; 64 (2): 434-438

    Abstract

    Because of the relatively large surface area of metaphyseal cancellous bone, the majority of distal femur fractures heal reliably. Nonunions of the distal femur do rarely occur, however, and the associated bone loss and soft tissue scarring can make successful treatment difficult. Few reports in the literature exist regarding the clinical and functional outcome after treatment of distal femoral nonunions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients who underwent treatment of a distal femoral nonunion using a standardized treatment plan that included open reduction, internal fixation, supplemental bone graft, lag screw placement, and arthrolysis.Thirty-one patients with a distal femoral nonunion were treated by a single surgeon from 1992 to 2002, and their clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed. The average age was 57.6 years, and four patients (13%) had sustained open fractures. The average time from injury to diagnosis of the nonunion was 15.9 months and the average time of follow-up was 41.5 months after the definitive nonunion surgery. In all cases a fixed-angle implant was used. Lag screw and bone graft augmentation was used in all patients; 71% received iliac crest bone graft and 29% received demineralized bone matrix. Outcomes were analyzed using radiographs and the Knee Society Rating Score (KSRS).At final follow-up the union rate was 97%, and the average time to heal was 15.9 weeks. A complete return to preinjury functional status was achieved in 84%. The KSRS Knee Assessment subsection score improved from 43.0 to 78.3 after surgical treatment of the nonunion (p < 0.001). The KSRS Knee Function subsection score also improved from 11.1 to 61.2 at final follow-up (p < 0.001).Distal femoral nonunions may be treated successfully with correction of deformity, stable fixed-angle internal fixation, lag screw placement, and supplemental bone grafting. Knee joint manipulation and arthrolysis are important components of the treatment plan if knee motion is limited because of fibrosis. This yields predictable functional outcome after the surgical intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.ta.0000245974.46709.2e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253287100038

    View details for PubMedID 18301211

  • The anterolateral acromial approach for fractures of the proximal humerus JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Boraiah, S., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2008; 22 (2): 132-137

    Abstract

    Displaced and unstable fractures of the proximal humerus are notoriously difficult to manage. Successful surgical treatment requires finding the appropriate balance between adequate exposure for reduction and rigid fixation and minimizing soft tissue dissection. The anterolateral acromial approach was developed to allow less invasive treatment of proximal humerus fractures. The plane of the avascular anterior deltoid raphe is utilized, and the axillary nerve is identified and protected. Anterior dissection near the critical blood supply is avoided, substantial muscle retraction is minimized, and the lateral plating zone is directly accessed. Over a 4-year period, 52 patients with acute displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with the anterolateral acromial approach and either a locking plate or an intramedullary nail. Twenty-three patients were evaluated clinically at a minimum follow-up of 1 year (average, 28 months) by clinical examination for range of motion and nerve function and a QuickDASH score. There were no axillary nerve deficits postoperatively related to the approach, and the average QuickDASH score was 25.2 (0, best; 100, worst). This approach allowed direct access to the lateral fracture planes for fracture reduction and plate placement or safe nail and interlocking screw placement.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253341100011

    View details for PubMedID 18349783

  • Anatomy and dimensions of the gluteus medius tendon insertion ARTHROSCOPY-THE JOURNAL OF ARTHROSCOPIC AND RELATED SURGERY Robertson, W. J., Gardner, M. J., Barker, J. U., Boraiah, S., Lorich, D. G., Kelly, B. T. 2008; 24 (2): 130-136

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine the area, dimensions, and orientation of the gluteus medius footprint to provide an improved understanding of its insertional anatomy.Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric hips were dissected, leaving only the most distal gluteus medius tendon attached to the greater trochanter. The tendon insertion footprint and proximal femur were digitized and mapped by use of 3-dimensional computer navigation software. The area, location, and dimensions of the tendon insertion were determined.The gluteus medius tendon has 2 distinct insertion sites on the greater trochanter, the lateral facet and the superoposterior facet. The mean areas of insertion onto the lateral and superoposterior facets were 438.0 mm2 (SD, 57.7 mm2) and 196.5 mm2 (SD, 48.4 mm2), respectively. The lateral facet footprint had a mean longitudinal dimension of 34.8 mm (SD, 4.3 mm), was angled at a mean of 36.8 degrees (SD, 6.7 degrees ) relative to the long axis of the femur, and had a mean minimum width of 11.2 mm (SD, 1.8 mm). The superoposterior facet's shape approximated that of a circle, with a mean diameter of 17 mm (SD, 2.0 mm).The gluteus medius tendon has 2 distinct and consistent insertion sites onto the greater trochanter. This information will provide surgeons with a better understanding of the footprint anatomy when evaluating gluteus medius tendon tears.Gluteus medius tendon tears can be a source of significant pain and morbidity. This study describes the anatomic morphology of this tendon insertion, which should aid in its repair when necessary.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.arthro.2007.11.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253049600003

    View details for PubMedID 18237695

  • Medial migration of intramedullary hip fixation devices: a biomechanical analysis ARCHIVES OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMA SURGERY Weil, Y. A., Gardner, M. J., Mikhail, G., Pierson, G., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2008; 128 (2): 227-234

    Abstract

    Intramedullary nails for fixation of extracapsular hip fractures have gained popularity recently. Although clinically successful, they are not devoid of complications. An infrequently reported complication is the medial migration of the femoral neck element (FNE) of the implant into the pelvis. The purpose of this study was to create a biomechanical model simulating this effect based on a clinical case radiographic analysis.Eight clinical cases of medial migration were available for radiographic analysis. Medial migration was quantified and the fractures were classified. A biomechanical model was built comprising two fixtures containing the nail and FNE respectively. A pivot between the two fixtures, representing a deficient femoral calcar, simulated an unstable fracture type. Two pivot points were used for each nail. The constructs were tested using sinusoidal loading (40-800 N at 2 Hz) and medial migration was assessed. Five different nail designs (TFN, PFN, PFN-a, Gamma-3 and IMHS) were tested (overall 75 tests).All the five implants demonstrated medial migration to a similar distance. The TFN required the highest number of cycles (3127 +/- 2569) and the IMHS the lowest (58.8 +/- 3.6) although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.07). Changing the pivot point for the medial calcar did not alter the results significantly. All eight clinical cases demonstrated an unstable intertrochanteric fracture pattern (AO/OTA 32A2).Discrete biomechanical conditions are required to reproduce medial migration of the FNE in cephalomedullary devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-007-0497-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252539300019

    View details for PubMedID 17985147

  • Femoral fracture malrotation caused by freehand versus naviated distal interlocking INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Gardner, M. J., Citak, M., Kendoff, D., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2008; 39 (2): 176-180

    Abstract

    Rotational deformity following intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures is a clinically significant and underdiagnosed problem. Intraoperative determination of rotation is difficult and may be caused by several factors. The insertion of interlocking screws at a slightly oblique angle may cause a substantial degree of rotational deformity, and this factor has not been evaluated as a cause of malrotation.In eight paired cadaveric femurs, a midshaft transverse fracture was created and an antegrade nail was placed. The specimens were placed in a custom jig which allowed free rotation of the distal segment. Distal interlocking was performed using either a freehand technique or with navigation, and femoral anteversion was measured before and after interlocking to determine the change caused by the interlocking screw.Freehand placement led to rotational shift up to 7 degrees (mean, 5.8 degrees ; range, 4-7 degrees ), and navigated insertion led to a change of 2.0 degrees (range, 1-3 degrees ; p<0.05). In addition, drill-nail contact and a visible shift of the fracture site occurred in all freehand trials, whereas in the navigation group, contact occurred in only one trial without fracture movement.Freehand distal interlocking may be a substantial cause of rotational deformity, and the assistance of computer navigation systems may improve this malrotation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2007.06.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253606200005

    View details for PubMedID 17888433

  • Role of parathyroid hormone in the mechanosensitivity of fracture healing JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Gardner, M. J., van der Meulen, M. C., Carson, J., Zelken, J., Ricciardi, B. F., Wright, T. A., Lane, J. M., Lane, J. M., Bostrom, M. P. 2007; 25 (11): 1474-1480

    Abstract

    The mechanical environment at a fracture site can influence the course of healing. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to accelerate fracture healing. Intact bone models show that mechanical loading and PTH have a synergistic beneficial effect on osteogenesis. We hypothesized that PTH and mechanical loading would have a similar synergistic effect on fracture healing. Eighty mice underwent surgical osteotomy and intramedullary nailing of the tibia. The mice were divided into four groups: one underwent daily loading, one received daily subcutaneous PTH injections (30 microg/kg/day), one received both loading and PTH, and a control group received sham loading and vehicle injection. Daily loading was applied to the ends of the tibia with an external loading device for 2 weeks. Fracture healing was assessed by microcomputed tomography, histology, and biomechanical testing. The group with both loading and PTH had increased osteoblast and osteoclast activity and was the only group with a significantly larger callus mineral density and bone volume fraction. The PTH only group had significantly more osteoid in the callus compared to the control group, indicating enhanced early osteoblast activity. This group also had a significantly higher bone mineral content and total bone volume compared to controls. The group that received loading as the only intervention had significantly greater osteoclast activity versus controls. The contribution of loading and PTH administration to the fracture healing cascade indicates a synergistic effect. This finding may be of potential clinical utility when weight bearing is utilized to stimulate lower extremity fracture healing.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.20427

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250737700009

    View details for PubMedID 17568439

  • Three-dimensional fluoroscopy for evaluation of articular reduction and screw placement in calcaneal fractures FOOT & ANKLE INTERNATIONAL Kendoff, D., Citak, M., Gardner, M., Kfuri, M., Thumes, B., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2007; 28 (11): 1165-1171

    Abstract

    Anatomic reconstruction of the posterior calcaneal facet after intra-articular fracture is one of the critical factors in achieving a good functional result. Intraoperative evaluation of fracture reduction and implant placement relies on direct view by standard fluoroscopy. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3D) fluoroscopy is more accurate than conventional fluoroscopy, and equivalent to CT for determining fracture reduction and screw position in calcaneal fractures.A Sanders type IIB fracture pattern was created in eight embalmed lower extremity cadaver specimens. First, the posterior facet was reduced with a step-off of 0 mm to 2 mm in 0.5-mm increments. All specimens had two dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy, 3D fluoroscopy with an Iso-C3D, and a CT scan. Next, screws were placed so they protruded into the subtalar and calcaneocuboid joint and through the medial wall. All specimens were imaged again. Three observers evaluated all imaging studies, and the sensitivities and specificities of each modality were determined.Both the Iso-C3D and the CT were more specific for anatomic reduction (75% and 100%, respectively) than fluoroscopy (62%). For the malreduced trials, the Iso-C3D and CT were both 100% sensitive, and the sensitivity of fluoroscopy was 63% (p < 0.001 for both). For the intra-articular screws, the Iso-C3D and CT were accurate in all cases (sensitivities = 100%), and fluoroscopy was accurate in five of the eight trials for both joints (sensitivities = 63%). Finally, with screws protruding through the medial wall, the sensitivity of fluoroscopy was 25%, for the Iso-C3D 88% (p = 0.02), and for CT was 100% (p = 0.003).Three-dimensional fluoroscopic imaging is more accurate than 2D fluoroscopy for detection of intra-articular incongruities and implant position and is similar to CT.This new technology may be particularly useful in assessing calcaneal fractures and may lead to improved fracture reduction, less implant misplacement, and improved patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.3113/FAI.2007.1165

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250660200007

    View details for PubMedID 18021585

  • Navigated femoral nailing using Noninvasive registration of the contralateral intact femur to restore anteversion. Technique and clinical use JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Kendoff, D., Citak, M., Gardner, M. J., Goesling, T., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2007; 21 (10): 725-730

    Abstract

    The difficulty in assessing femoral rotation during intramedullary nailing is well-established. Navigation systems allow the surgeon to detect and set the version of the injured leg at the desired angle. We report the first cases of navigated femoral nailing using noninvasive registration of the contralateral uninjured leg to determine the patient's anatomy. This allows the desired femoral rotation, which is that of the healthy femur, to be statically locked to precisely match the contralateral limb.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251551900009

    View details for PubMedID 17986890

  • Radiographic outcomes of intertrochanteric hip fractures treated with the trochanteric fixation nail INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Gardner, M. J., Briggs, S. M., Kopjar, B., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2007; 38 (10): 1189-1196

    Abstract

    Intertrochanteric hip fractures have become more common as the elderly population continues to increase, and surgical stabilisation of these fractures remains a persistent challenge. The purpose of this study was to analyse the ability of a new helical blade device to stabilise intertrochanteric hip fractures, and to further determine which factors are important in implant stability.Two hundred and fifty-five patients with an intertrochanteric hip fracture were treated with a trochanteric fixation nail (TFN), 97 of whom fit strict radiographic and follow-up criteria and were included in the study group. After adjusting for magnification and rotation, blade migration within the femoral head and telescoping of the blade along its axis were measured using a custom-designed grid system. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine which variables predicted blade migration and telescoping.Fifty-nine fractures were classified as stable, and the remaining 38 were unstable. Mean telescoping was 4.3 mm in the unstable group, compared to 2.6 mm in the stable group (p<0.05). Blade migration within the femoral head averaged 2.2 mm overall, with no difference between stable and unstable fractures. For both telescoping and blade migration, no significant change occurred after the 6-week time point in the stable or unstable group. Nail length, age, and gender did not have a significant effect on either blade migration or telescoping implant position change. Of the initial cohort of 255 patients, five cutouts and one nonunion occurred, three of which required subsequent procedures.Subtle migration ( approximately 2mm) of the tip of the blade within the femoral head occurred in all fractures, but this did not preclude maintenance of reduction and fracture healing, and was not predicted by fracture type, reduction quality, age, or gender. More telescoping occurred in unstable compared to stable fractures, but this averaged 4mm and did not affect stable fixation or fracture healing. All position changes occurred within the first 6 weeks postoperatively, with no subsequent detectable migration or telescoping. Clinical correlations will be needed in the future to determine the significance of small amounts of migration or differences in telescoping, but this device appears to provide effective fixation in both stable and unstable intertrochanteric hip fractures.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2007.03.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250791900012

    View details for PubMedID 17582414

  • PMMA is superior to hydroxyapatite for colony reduction in induced osteomyelitis CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Zelken, J., Wanich, T., Gardner, M., Griffith, M., Bostrom, M. 2007: 190-194

    Abstract

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is a serious complication in patients receiving orthopaedic implants. Treatment with antibiotic-loaded cements can deliver high local concentrations and reduce toxic side effects associated with systemic antibiotic administration, but polymethylmethacrylate cement is nondegradable and may necessitate additional surgery for removal. Previous studies provide support for hydroxyapatite as a biodegradable carrier, but consensus has not been achieved. We hypothesized vancomycin-loaded hydroxyapatite was superior to vancomycin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate in reducing the number of bacterial colony-forming units in the setting of osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis was induced in rats using an established model. Animals then were randomly assigned to a control group (no antibiotics), a group treated with vancomycin-loaded polymethylmethacry-late, and two groups treated with hydroxyapatite loaded with either low-dose or high-dose vancomycin. After 6 weeks we compared the number of colony-forming units per gram of harvested bone between groups. Vancomycin-loaded hydroxyapatite was inferior to vancomycin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate in reducing the number of bacterial colony-forming units and vancomycin-loaded polymethylmethacry-late was superior to the control group. We observed no difference between low- and high-dose vancomycin-loaded hydroxyapatite groups. The poor handling properties of hydroxyapatite paste may explain these findings. Based on these results, a hydroxyapatite carrier cannot be recommended for the treatment of osteomyelitis.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BLO.0b013e3180ca9521

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249449800029

    View details for PubMedID 17514008

  • Second-generation concepts for locked plating of proximal humerus fractures. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Gardner, M. J., Lorich, D. G., Werner, C. M., Helfet, D. L. 2007; 36 (9): 460-465

    Abstract

    Displaced fractures of the proximal humerus remain particularly difficult to treat. Because of the poor quality of cancellous bone, it seemed that locking plates would be ideally suited for fixation in this region. However, as clinical reports begin to become available, it appears that these plates are not a panacea for these fractures and may be associated with a high complication rate. Coupled with the generally poor long-term outcomes of hemiarthroplasty, new fixation methods must be sought. Several technical factors, techniques, and alternative approaches have recently been described as possibly improving fixation stability in these fractures. Specifically, the anterolateral acromial approach, which avoids vascularity exposure, allows direct access to the lateral plating zone, and minimizes soft-tissue dissection, may be useful. Mechanical support of the medial column when anatomic cortical contact is not possible is also critical to maximizing stability. This may be achieved either with purposeful inferomedial humeral head screws or endosteal fibula allograft augmentation.

    View details for PubMedID 17948148

  • Navigation for placement of scaphoid screws. A new indication for intraoperative 3D navigation - a cadaver study UNFALLCHIRURG Kendoff, D., Citak, M., Gaulke, R., Gardner, M. J., Geerling, J., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2007; 110 (9): 745-750

    Abstract

    Up to now, the use of navigation systems for the placement of scaphoid screws has been impossible, mainly because there have been no ways of fixing the reference markers. Faulty placement rates in internal fixation of the scaphoid show there is a current need for a 3D image-based navigation system and intraoperative monitoring of how successful the procedure will be. For this reason, we have developed a new radiotransparent hand fixation device (Scaph-Splint), which allows reliable and accurate drilling of the scaphoid using 3D navigation. Tests of this device and the simultaneous precise placement of screws securing an internal fixation device are described in this paper.Relative movements between the wrist and fixation device were measured with a 3-D ultrasound motion analyser system. Five cadaveric upper extremity specimens were then used for further navigated test applications. Each specimen was placed in the fixation device, and both the forearm and hand were secured to the two surfaces, with the wrist in approximately 80 degrees of extension. A reference marker was then securely fixed to the fixation device. A commercial navigation system and 3-D fluoroscopic imaging were used for each trial. Under navigation, the scaphoid was drilled in retrograde fashion, and a screw was placed into the drilled hole. Following screw placement, a 3D scan was performed to evaluate its position. The screw placement was analysed blindly to optimal placement and drill or screw perforation, and the image quality was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS).There were few artefacts, and the image quality of the 3-D scan was judged as as good (VAS 79). Deviations of >or=0.2 mm between planned trajectory and drilling tunnal were not found in any of the specimens; there were deviations of >or=1 mm in one case, and all other cases showed deviations of

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00113-007-1280-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249621900003

    View details for PubMedID 17546435

  • Ankle fractures: it is not just a "simple" ankle fracture. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Werner, C. M., Lorich, D. G., Gardner, M. J., Helfet, D. L. 2007; 36 (9): 466-469

    View details for PubMedID 17948149

  • Open reduction and internal fixation of tibial pilon fractures using a lateral approach JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Grose, A., Gardner, M. J., Hettrich, C., Fishman, F., Lorich, D. G., Asprinio, D. E., Helfet, D. L. 2007; 21 (8): 530-537

    Abstract

    To assess the wound complications and reductions achieved in a cohort of patients with pilon fractures who were treated using a novel lateral approach.Retrospective review.Two level 1 trauma centers affiliated with academic institutions.All 44 fractures (in 43 patients) treated by the senior authors with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using the lateral approach as the primary approach were included.Data regarding medical comorbidities, mechanism of injury, soft-tissue injury sustained during the injury, treatment, wound healing, and secondary surgeries were recorded. Fractures were classified using the AO/OTA system with most being type C3. Eighteen fractures were open injuries (10 type 3). Fracture reductions were scored using the criteria of Teeny and Wiss.Quality of articular reduction and soft-tissue healing.An anatomic or good fracture reduction was achieved in 41 fractures (93%), and a fair reduction was obtained in 3 fractures. Two patients were successfully treated for deep infection (4.5%), and 2 patients developed a wound dehiscence (4.5%). There were no amputations. Twelve patients underwent secondary surgeries (27%). Five of these were for symptomatic screw removal (related to the fibular hardware in all cases), and the sixth was for planned removal of a syndesmotic-type screw (13.6%). Four were for nonunion, representing 9% of all cases. The remaining secondary surgeries (2 cases) were performed for infection. Overall, 13.6% of patients underwent a secondary surgical procedure to address nonunion or infection.When applied in a staged fashion, the lateral surgical approach for pilon fractures provides excellent protection of the soft-tissue envelopes by creating thick flaps while allowing excellent visualization for reconstruction of the anterior and lateral distal tibia.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249549400003

    View details for PubMedID 17805019

  • Influence of lower limb rotation in navigated alignment analysis: implications for high tibial osteotomies KNEE SURGERY SPORTS TRAUMATOLOGY ARTHROSCOPY Kendoff, D., Citak, M., Pearle, A., Gardner, M. J., Hankemeier, S., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2007; 15 (8): 1003-1008

    Abstract

    Inaccurate coronal plane realignment is a common problem after high tibial osteotomy. It has been shown that lower limb rotation has an effect on the two-dimensional measurement of lower limb alignment. Although alignment errors are known to occur due to limb rotation, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. Navigation systems allow for the measurements of coronal plane alignment and dynamically rotational and sagittal plane. Our study evaluated the effect of rotational leg movements on coronal plane alignment as determined by image-free navigation. We hypothesized that a linear relationship exists between rotation and angular measurements. Eight cadavers were used, while three test conditions of the complete lower limbs were established: (1) solid knee arthrodesis, (2) provisional knee arthrodesis and (3) unconstrained knee conditions. Navigated measurements of coronal and sagittal lower limb axis were done initially without knee flexion for defined internal/external rotations of 5 degrees, 10 degrees and maximal values for all test series. Repeated test for the unconstrained knee included stepwise knee flexion of 5 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees. Statistical analysis comparing the test conditions 1, 2 and 3 and comparison between flexion movements of the unconstrained knee were done. Results revealed no significant differences between the different rotations of test condition 1 (mean 0.34 degrees, SD 0.23, range, 0 degrees-0.8 degrees). Condition 2 similarly did not result in significant deviations (mean 0.51 degrees, SD 0.24, range 0.1 degrees-0.9 degrees). Measurement deviations ranging from 0.4 degrees to 4.3 degrees were found for condition 3, the unconstrained knee. However, no statistically different testings from the arthrodesed knee were found (P=0.099-0.410). Knee flexion from 5 degrees, 10 degrees or 20 degrees, showed significant deviations (P<0.05) for all rotations at all degrees of flexion. Rotation and flexion of 5 degrees led to significant alignment errors of 3.4 degrees and 2.8 degrees, respectively, for internal and external rotations. Measurement failures due to the rotational movements of 1 degree-4 degrees might add to additional sources of errors causing relevant under- or over-corrections of the mechanical leg axis. Discrepancies of the axis due to rotational movements as well as flexion of the knee joint can be avoided and corrected immediately with the help of navigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00167-007-0308-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248915100008

    View details for PubMedID 17364202

  • Sacroiliac joint compression using an anterior pelvic compressor: A mechanical study in synthetic bone JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Kendoff, D., Ostermeier, S., Citak, M., Huefner, T., Krettek, C., Nork, S. E. 2007; 21 (7): 435-441

    Abstract

    Pelvic external fixation pins placed in the supraacetabular region, directed posteriorly, and mounted with a femoral distractor as a compressor may impart compression forces across the sacroiliac joint. This would be useful for indirect reduction and stabilization of the posterior pelvis. The purpose of this study was to determine the forces achieved by this construct compared with other forms of fixation.Mechanical study.University laboratory.Synthetic pelvis models.A complete symphyseal and unilateral sacroiliac joint disruption was created in 6 synthetic pelves. Five different fixation constructs were applied, and a pressure-sensitive film (TekScan) was fixed in the sacroiliac joint. Each construct was compressed in a standardized fashion.After maximal compression of each trial, the magnitude and regional distribution of the force was recorded.Standard 2-bar external fixation did not allow for any compression across the sacroiliac joint in any specimen. The pelvic compressor delivered 86.3 N (SD, 12.1 N) of force across the sacroiliac joint when the pins were inserted half way, and 85.8 N (SD, 11.0 N) with full pin insertion. Iliosacral screws led to 145 N of compression on average (SD, 69.9 N), but this was not statistically different from the pelvic compressor groups. A C-clamp generated compression of 206 N (SD, 31.9 N), which was significantly greater than both the pelvic compressor groups (P < 0.005).A simple modification of pelvic external fixation, placing a femoral distractor as a compressor on supraacetabular pins, allows for indirect medial translation of the innominate bone and compression across the sacroiliac joint. The force achieved is less than with a C-clamp, but it is safer, involves techniques familiar to most surgeons, and may be useful in the acute management of unstable pelvic fractures.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248738100002

    View details for PubMedID 17762472

  • Decreased navigated drilling time using an external guide stabilising device INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Gardner, M. J., Citak, M., Kendoff, D., Huefner, T., Krettek, C. 2007; 38 (7): 755-758

    Abstract

    Computer navigation in orthopaedic procedures can improve accuracy and decrease radiation time compared to traditional fluoroscopy. Many different applications are now available, and drilling is commonly used amongst them. Aside from additional set up time required, the drilling procedure itself may take a significant amount of time. We hypothesised that using an external stabilising guide which can be set anywhere in space can decrease then time necessary for navigated drilling.Foam blocks, 80 mm in length and a density similar to cancellous bone, were obtained. Small discs were placed on one end as drilling targets. Using an Iso-C 3D navigation system, 20 navigated drilling trials were performed under each of two conditions: freehand, and with the use of a drill stabilising guide attached to an operating table. The time and accuracy of the two methods were compared.The time required for the entire navigation procedure was significantly less using the stabilising arm compared to drilling freehand with navigation (4.5 min versus 5.8 min, p=0.009). There was no significant difference in accuracy between the two methods.Using a guide which attaches to the table and allows the surgeon to fix the drill sleeve when the desired vector is chosen allows for faster navigated drilling. This was easy to set up and attach to the table, and did not diminish accuracy of drilling an intended target.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2007.02.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247990800004

    View details for PubMedID 17540375

  • The hyperplantarflexion ankle fracture variant. journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons Gardner, M. J., Boraiah, S., Hentel, K. D., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2007; 46 (4): 256-260

    Abstract

    Various patterns of ankle fractures that are not accounted for by common classification systems have been the subject of case reports. The first difficulty with these variant patterns is recognizing all associated pathology, followed by the successful application of stable fixation. The purpose of this study was to describe the common morphologic features and ligamentous injuries of a unique variant fracture pattern, as well as the surgical treatment technique and the short-term functional and radiographic outcomes. Of 121 consecutive unstable ankle fractures over a 2-year period, 7 patients were found to have a similar constellation of injuries around the ankle. A vertical shear fracture of the posteromedial tibial rim was the main feature. Six of the 7 also had a fracture of the posterior malleolus. On magnetic resonance imaging, the deltoid and posterior tibiofibular ligaments were intact in all cases. Fractures were treated with open anatomic reduction of the posteromedial and posterior fragments with antiglide plate fixation. All fractures healed at 2 months without loss of reduction, fixation failure, or surgical complications. The average American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons lower extremity score was 79 at an average of 8 months' follow-up. The common radiographic and morphologic features associated with this posteromedial fracture indicate that it likely occurs through a common mechanism that involves hyperplantarflexion. The characteristics of this fracture pattern have not been fully described previously, but this ankle fracture variant may occur in up to 6% of cases. Unstable ankle fractures should be evaluated carefully for evidence of posteromedial involvement so appropriate treatment may proceed.

    View details for PubMedID 17586438

  • Computer navigation allows for accurate reduction of femoral fractures CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Weil, Y. A., Gardner, M. J., Helfet, D. L., Pearle, A. D. 2007: 185-191

    Abstract

    Femoral nailing for reduction and stabilization of femoral fractures is a common orthopaedic procedure. However, angular and rotational malalignment is not an infrequent result, and extensive use of fluoroscopy is commonly involved. We tested the accuracy of a computerized navigation system to enhance multiplanar fracture reduction and to decrease the requirement for fluoroscopy. We used a cadaveric femur fixed in a simulator and optically tracked. After obtaining five fluoroscopic images for each reduction attempt, accuracy measurements were taken. We first measured alignment of the intact bone using the navigation system, followed by open and blind reduction of simple and segmental fractures. For the blind, closed reduction trials, the accuracy of restoration of femoral length was 1.2 +/- 0.4 mm (mean +/- standard deviation) for a simple fracture and 1.9 +/- 1.8 mm for a segmental fracture. Rotational accuracy was 1.7 degrees +/- 1.9 degrees and 2.5 degrees +/- 1.8 degrees, respectively. Open reduction using this model yielded no difference between the reduced fracture and the intact bone in coronal and rotational alignment. Computerized navigation has the potential for increasing precision in fracture reduction while minimizing fluoroscopic requirements.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/BLO.0b013e31804d2355

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248076800029

    View details for PubMedID 17620812

  • Improved accuracy of navigated drilling using a drill alignment device JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Kendoff, D., Citak, M., Gardner, M. J., Stuebig, T., Krettek, C., Huefner, T. 2007; 25 (7): 951-957

    Abstract

    Drilling procedures are common in orthopedic surgery and are one specific task that may be aided by computer-assisted navigation. However, the inherent flexibility of drill bit bending may make this the limiting factor in achieving acceptable accuracy when using these systems. We designed an alignment device that was fit to a standard orthopedic drill that allowed an extension of the stabilizing point of a drill bit. In foam blocks with a similar density as cancellous bone, 208 total navigated drilling trials were performed, using four different sized drill bits (2.5, 3.2, 3.5, and 4.5 mm) with and without the alignment device. Drilling tracts of 80 mm were made towards an intended target on the other side of the block. Reduction in deviation from the intended target was significantly improved with the use of the guide, ranging from 33% to 45% for the four drill sizes. For the trails using the alignment device, the 2.5-mm drill bit was significantly less accurate than the three larger drills. Our results demonstrate that the use of external devices to augment drill bit stabilization can improve drilling accuracy. This may have particular importance when using navigation systems to drill into small anatomic confines.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.20383

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247262300013

    View details for PubMedID 17415775

  • The efficacy of autologous platelet gel in pain control and blood loss in total knee arthroplasty - An analysis of the haemoglobin, narcotic requirement and range of motion INTERNATIONAL ORTHOPAEDICS Gardner, M. J., Demetrakopoulos, D., Klepchick, P. R., Mooar, P. A. 2007; 31 (3): 309-313

    Abstract

    Biological materials used to assist in haemostasis following total knee arthroplasty have been the subject of much recent research. Autologous platelet gel is a substance that is derived from platelet-rich plasma extracted from the patient's blood and centrifuged perioperatively, and is applied to exposed tissues, synovium and the lining of the wound at closure. Concentrating and applying these factors directly to the wound at the end of a total knee arthroplasty procedure may lead to more complete haemostasis, a reduction in perioperative blood loss, accelerated tissue repair and decreased postoperative pain. In this study, 98 unilateral total knee arthroplasties were evaluated retrospectively, 61 of which involved the intaroperative use of platelet gel, and 37 of which served as control subjects. Outcomes analysed were postoperative haemoglobin changes, intravenous and oral narcotic requirements, range of motion on discharge and total days in hospital. Patients receiving platelet gel during surgery had less postoperative blood loss as measured by differences in the preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin on day 3 (2.7 vs. 3.2 g/dl; P=0.026). The narcotic requirement was less in the platelet gel group for both intravenous (17.0 vs. 36.3 mg/day; P=0.024) and oral (1.84 vs. 2.75 tabs/day; P=0.063) medication. This group also achieved a higher range of motion prior to discharge (78.2 vs. 71.9; P=0.052) and were discharged an average of 1 day earlier than their control counterparts. Though further prospective trials are necessary, this study indicates that the application of autologous platelet gel may lead to improved haemostasis, better pain control and a shortened hospital stay.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00264-006-0174-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246755200007

    View details for PubMedID 16816947

  • Traumatic segmental bone loss in a pediatric patient treated with bifocal bone transport JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Griffith, M. H., Gardner, M. J., Blyakher, A., Widmann, R. F. 2007; 21 (5): 347-351

    Abstract

    Bone transport is a method of distraction osteogenesis that allows the creation of regenerate bone using a dynamic external fixator. We report on the use of bifocal bone transport to treat a skeletally immature patient with 15 cm of post-traumatic segmental bone loss from the distal tibia.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246467900010

    View details for PubMedID 17486001

  • Case report: Echinococcus disease of the bone presenting as a femoral shaft nonunion. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Mattern, C. J., Gardner, M. J., Grose, A., Helfet, D. L. 2007; 458: 220-225

    Abstract

    Osseous hydatidosis (Echinococcus infection) is a rare parasitic bone infection that poses challenges in diagnosis and treatment. We present a novel case of osseous hydatidosis of the femoral shaft that was diagnosed at the time of surgery for a recalcitrant femoral shaft nonunion. We know of no reports of osseous hydatidosis presenting as a femoral shaft nonunion. A discussion of the challenges in diagnosis and treatment of osseous hydatidosis are discussed, and the literature on osseous hydatidosis is reviewed.

    View details for PubMedID 17159572

  • An evaluation of accuracy and repeatability of a novel gait analysis device ARCHIVES OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMA SURGERY Gardner, M. J., Barker, J. U., Briggs, S. M., Backus, S. I., Helfet, D. L., Lane, J. M., Lorich, D. G. 2007; 127 (3): 223-227

    Abstract

    Restoration of gait is a particularly important patient-based functional outcome following lower extremity trauma. A new portable device which measures gait parameters, the IDEEA, may be particularly useful in evaluating post-traumatic gait parameters in the office setting, but the accuracy and repeatability of this device relative to standard gait laboratory footswitches are unknown.Twelve healthy subjects were tested simultaneously using the IDEEA device and standard gait laboratory footswitches, at slow, medium, and fast speeds. Parameters evaluated were single-limb support time (SLS), double-limb support time (DLS), swing phase duration (SPD), cycle duration, and cadence.The repeatability between right and left measurements tended to be better for the IDEEA, and was at least as good as the foot switches. The absolute differences of the timed gait parameters between the two devices were all in the range of 0.03 s, which is within the data sampling resolution of the gait laboratory foot switches (0.04 s). Furthermore, assuming a 1-s gait cycle, these differences account for only 3% of the gait cycle, which is also well within the clinical parameters for evaluating and differentiating between treatments.This device is accurate and repeatable, and may facilitate the evaluation of gait function in post-traumatic patients in settings outside of the traditional gait laboratory.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-006-0279-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245104900012

    View details for PubMedID 17195932

  • Stabilization of unstable pelvic fractures with supraacetabular compression external fixation JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Nork, S. E. 2007; 21 (4): 269-273

    Abstract

    External fixation for pelvic stabilization is an important component of the overall treatment of patients with high-energy pelvic fractures. Traditional constructs include single and multiple pin placements in several locations in each iliac crest. Biomechanical and anatomic studies have focused on pin placement lower on the pelvis, specifically in the supraacetabular region. Pins in this location are more stable biomechanically, allow for pelvic reduction in the transverse plane of deformity, facilitate concurrent or subsequent laparotomy procedures, and may allow improved reduction of the posterior elements with a femoral distractor as a compressor. We describe the technique for placement of supraacetabular external fixation pins, pelvic reduction, and compression using a femoral distractor.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245733300008

    View details for PubMedID 17414555

  • Open reduction and internal fixation of intraarticular tibial plateau nonunions INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Toro-Arbelaez, J. B., Gardner, M. J., Shindle, M. K., Cabas, J. M., Lorich, D. G., Helfet, D. L. 2007; 38 (3): 378-383

    Abstract

    The vast majority of tibial plateau fractures heal uneventfully, and no case series on intraarticular tibial plateau nonunions exists. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcome of these nonunions following surgical treatment in a single surgeon series. Five patients with tibial plateau nonunions were treated at our institution using a specific treatment protocol consisting of open reduction and debridement, deformity correction, internal fixation including lag screws, bone graft augmentation, and selective knee joint arthrolysis. Patient outcomes were assessed using radiographs and the Knee Society questionnaire scores. Following surgical treatment of the nonunion, all healed at an average of 12.8 weeks, and average follow-up was 44 months. Preoperative coronal plane deformity was corrected in all patients. The final knee motion arc averaged 120 degrees postoperatively. Both the pain and function subscales of the Knee Society Rating scale improved significantly. Four of the five returned to their normal pre-injury activities, but two patients required total knee arthroplasty which was performed successfully after healing of the nonunion. With meticulous surgical technique and a standard protocol, healing may be reliably achieved. Arthrosis occurs frequently, and may occur primarily at the time of injury or from chronic alteration of intraarticular contact forces secondary to development of a nonunion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2006.11.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244979800017

    View details for PubMedID 17300787

  • The importance of medial support in locked plating of proximal humerus fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Weil, Y., Barker, J. U., Kelly, B. T., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2007; 21 (3): 185-191

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine what factors influence the maintenance of fracture reduction after locked plating of proximal humerus fractures, and particularly the role of medial column support.University medical center.Thirty-five patients who underwent locked plating for a proximal humerus fracture were followed up until healing. For the initial and final radiographs, 2 lines were drawn perpendicular to the shaft of the plate, one at the top of the plate and one at the top of the humeral head, and the distance between them was measured as an indicator of loss of reduction. Medial support was considered to be present if the medial cortex was anatomically reduced, if the proximal fragment was impacted laterally in the distal shaft fragment, or if an oblique locking screw was positioned inferomedially in the proximal humeral head fragment.Multivariate linear regressions were performed to determine the effects that age, sex, fracture type, cement augmentation, and medial support had on loss of reduction.The presence of medial support had a significant effect on the magnitude of subsequent reduction loss (P < 0.001). Age, sex, fracture type, or cement augmentation had no effect on maintenance of reduction. Eighteen patients were determined to have adequate mechanical medial support (+MS group), and the remaining 17 patients did not have medial support (-MS group). In the +MS group, the average loss of humeral head height was 1.2 mm, and 1 case of articular screw penetration occurred that required removal. In the -MS group (without an appropriately placed inferomedial oblique screw and either nonanatomic humeral head malreduction with lateral displacement of the shaft or medial comminution), loss of humeral height averaged 5.8 mm (P < 0.001). There were 5 cases in this group in which screw penetration of the articular surface occurred (P = 0.02), 2 of which required reoperation for removal. All fractures in both groups healed without delay, and none required revision to arthroplasty.Achieving mechanical support of the inferomedial region of the proximal humerus seems to be important for maintaining fracture reduction. Locked plates in general do not appear to be a panacea for these fractures and are unable to support the humeral head alone from a lateral tension-band position. However, there are several factors that are in the surgeon's control that may improve the mechanical environment. Achieving an anatomic or slightly impacted stable reduction, as well as meticulously placing a superiorly directed oblique locked screw in the inferomedial region of the proximal fragment, may achieve more stable medial column support and allow for better maintenance of reduction.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245199600006

    View details for PubMedID 17473755

  • The effectiveness of warfarin dosing from a nomogram compared with house staff dosing JOURNAL OF ARTHROPLASTY Asnis, P. D., Gardner, M. J., Ranawat, A., Leitzes, A. H., Peterson, M. G., Bass, A. R. 2007; 22 (2): 213-218

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to address the safety and efficacy of a warfarin dosing nomogram. Patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty were randomized to warfarin dosed by nomogram (n = 106) or by house staff (n = 110) during their hospital stay. The average daily dose of warfarin was 4.14 mg for the nomogram group and 4.18 mg for the house staff group. On postoperative day 4, the average international normalized ratio was 1.55 in the nomogram group compared with 1.59 in the house staff group. On postoperative day 4, 19.1% of the patients in the nomogram group had a therapeutic international normalized ratio, compared with 14.7% in the house staff group. There were no differences in bleeding or thrombotic complications in the 2 groups. This nomogram appears to be both safe and effective.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.arth.2006.03.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244706000011

    View details for PubMedID 17275636

  • Unsuspected lymphoma diagnosed with use of biopsy during kyphoplasty. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Shindle, M. K., Tyler, W., Edobor-Osula, F., Gardner, M. J., Shindle, L., Toro, J., Lane, J. M. 2006; 88 (12): 2721-2724

    Abstract

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. In selecting appropriate patients for these procedures, it is important to distinguish the pain caused by a fracture from other causes of back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying, previously unrecognized malignant tumors in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. Our hypothesis was that an unsuspected malignant tumor will exist and that a bone-marrow aspiration from the iliac crest would enhance our ability to detect a malignant tumor.A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and a concurrent bone-marrow aspiration from the iliac crest were performed in order to identify latent hematopoietic dyscrasias. Over a four-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 523 vertebral levels as well as iliac crest bone-marrow aspirations were performed in 238 patients. Both specimens were evaluated histologically, and the prevalence of an underlying occult malignant neoplasm was determined.All specimens from the vertebral bodies showed signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. However, in three patients, both the bone biopsy specimen and the bone-marrow aspirate showed evidence of B-cell lymphoma. The bone-marrow aspirate did not provide any additional information compared with the vertebral body biopsy specimen, and multiple myeloma was not identified in any patient.Lymphoma is an uncommon cause of a vertebral compression fracture, but on the basis of our experience in this series, we recommend that vertebral body biopsy specimens be obtained in all patients managed with kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty to rule out an unsuspected malignant tumor. However, we do not recommend the routine use of an additional bone-marrow aspiration from the iliac crest during vertebral augmentation procedures because doing so did not appear to enhance our ability to detect a malignant tumor.

    View details for PubMedID 17142423

  • Vertebral height restoration in osteoporotic compression fractures: kyphoplasty balloon tamp is superior to postural correction alone OSTEOPOROSIS INTERNATIONAL Shindle, M. K., Gardner, M. J., Koob, J., Bukata, S., Cabin, J. A., Lane, J. M. 2006; 17 (12): 1815-1819

    Abstract

    Kyphoplasty has been shown to restore vertebral height and sagittal alignment. Proponents of vertebroplasty have recently demonstrated that many vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are mobile and positional correction can lead to clinically significant height restoration. The current investigation tested the hypothesis that positional maneuvers do not achieve the same degree of vertebral height correction as kyphoplasty balloon tamps for the reduction of low-energy VCFs.Twenty-five consecutive patients with a total of 43 osteoporotic VCFs were entered into a prospective analysis. Each patient was sequentially evaluated for postural and balloon vertebral fracture reduction. Preoperative standing and lateral radiographs of the fractured vertebrae were compared with prone cross-table lateral radiographs with the patient in a hyper-extension position and on pelvic and sternal rolls. Following positional manipulation, patients underwent a unilateral balloon kyphoplasty. Postoperative standing radiographs were evaluated for the percentage of height restoration related to positioning and balloon kyphoplasty.In the middle portion of the vertebrae, the percentage available for restoration restored with extension positioning was 10.4% (median 11.1%) and after balloon kyphoplasty was 57.0% (median 62.2%). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Thus, kyphoplasty provided an additional 46.6% of the height available for restoration from the positioning alone. With operative positioning, 51.2% of VCFs had >10% restoration of the central portion of the vertebral body, whereas 90.7% of fractures improved at least 10% following balloon kyphoplasty (p<0.002).Although this study supports the concept that many VCFs can be moved with positioning, balloon kyphoplasty enhanced the height reduction >4.5-fold over the positioning maneuver alone and accounted for over 80% of the ultimate reduction. If height restoration is the goal, kyphoplasty is clearly superior in most cases to the positioning maneuver alone.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00198-006-0195-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241452000014

    View details for PubMedID 16983458

  • Atraumatic compartment syndrome of the dorsal compartment of the upper arm. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Gardner, M. J., Flik, K. R., Dreese, J. C., Athanasian, E. A., Lyden, J. P. 2006; 35 (12): 581-583

    View details for PubMedID 17243410

  • Carpal kinematics HAND CLINICS Gardner, M. J., Crisco, J. J., Wolfe, S. W. 2006; 22 (4): 413-?

    Abstract

    The motion of the eight carpal bones is extremely complex, and their accurate measurement has been hampered by their multiplanar rotations and translations, the irregularity of their shape, and the small magnitudes of movements. However, an accurate three-dimensional understanding of carpal motion is critical for academic and clinical purposes, and may play an important role in assessing surgical procedures or rehabilitation protocols.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hcl.2006.08.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242628500003

    View details for PubMedID 17097463

  • Malreduction of the tibiofibular syndesmosis in ankle fractures FOOT & ANKLE INTERNATIONAL Gardner, M. J., Demetrakopoulos, D., Briggs, S. M., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2006; 27 (10): 788-792

    Abstract

    Diagnosis and reduction of syndesmosis injuries in ankle fractures can be challenging. Previous studies have demonstrated that standard radiographic measurements used to evaluate the integrity of the syndesmosis are inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of standard postoperative radiographic measurements in assessing syndesmotic reduction compared to CT and to determine the prevalence of postoperative syndesmotic malreduction in a patient cohort.Twenty-five patients with ankle fractures and syndesmotic instability who had open reduction and syndesmotic fixation were evaluated. All patients had a standard radiographic series postoperatively followed by a CT scan. Radiographic measurements were made by three observers to determine the tibiofibular relationship. Axial CT scan images were judged for quality of reduction of the syndesmosis by measuring the distance between the fibula and the anterior and posterior facets of the incisura. Differences between the anterior and posterior measurements of more than 2 mm were considered incongruous.Six patients (24%) had evidence of postoperative diastasis using the radiographic criteria, four of whom had evidence of malreduction on postoperative CT scan. Conversely, 13 patients (52%) had incongruity of the fibula within the incisura on CT scan (average 3.6 mm, range 2.0 to 8.0 mm), only four of whom had one or more abnormal radiographic measurements. In 10 (77%) of the 13 malreductions seen on CT scan, the posterior measurement was greater, indicating that internal rotation or anterior translation of the fibula may have occurred. Sensitivity of radiographs was 31% and the specificity was 83% compared to CT.Many syndesmoses were malreduced on CT scan but went undetected by plain radiographs. Radiographic measurements did not accurately reflect the status of the distal tibiofibular joint in this series of ankle fractures. Furthermore, postreduction radiographic measurements were inaccurate for assessing the quality of the reduction. Although we did not seek to correlate functional outcomes, the known morbidity of postoperative syndesmotic malreduction should lead to heightened vigilance for assessing accurate syndesmosis reduction intraoperatively.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241140900006

    View details for PubMedID 17054878

  • Vascular implications of minimally invasive plating of proximal humerus fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Voos, J. E., Wanich, T., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2006; 20 (9): 602-607

    Abstract

    Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures through the anterolateral acromial approach, which uses the anterior deltoid raphe and axillary nerve protection, has recently been advocated as a minimally invasive technique. Several recent reports have indicated variable and unpredictable vascular injuries to the humeral-head blood supply after a proximal humerus fracture, and thus a direct approach that minimizes further vascular compromise may be preferable. The purpose of this study was to define the relationship of this surgical interval to the lateral plating zone of the proximal humerus and to the penetrating vascular supply of the humeral head.Cadaveric vascular injection study.Cadaveric dissection laboratory.Six cadaveric specimens.The anterolateral acromial approach was performed on six cadaveric upper-extremity specimens. A locking proximal humerus plate was applied to the lateral proximal humerus, and the axillary artery was cannulated proximal to the circumflex humeral arteries. Dyed latex polymer was injected and allowed to harden, and dissection was performed to visualize the vasculature of the proximal humerus. Plates were then removed and the specimens were further inspected to examine the blood supply.The relationship of the anterolateral acromial approach to the lateral plating zone of the proximal humerus and the vascular supply of the humeral head.In all specimens, the filling of the anterior and posterior vessels that supplied the humeral head were undisturbed after use of the anterolateral acromial approach and locked plating. The blood vessels to the head-penetrating vascular branches were not in the surgical field. A bare spot on the lateral proximal humerus existed in the region of the greater tuberosity, which was 30 mm wide and between two penetrating humeral-head epiphyseal vessels. The nearest penetrating vessels were close to the plate, 4 mm anterior and 7 mm posterior. The anterior humeral circumflex vessel and its ascending branch, which provides critical blood supply to the humeral head, coursed directly in the region of the deltopectoral approach.Minimally invasive techniques have many potential benefits for fracture healing, but new surgical approaches often must be used to take full advantage of these newer methods. Splitting the anterior deltoid raphe from the acromion distally allowed direct access to the lateral plating zone of the proximal humerus. The bare spot in this region may be a safe area for plate application, if the plate is placed appropriately with thorough knowledge of the vascular anatomy. These findings may be of particular importance if the vascular supply to the humeral head has already been partially compromised by preceding trauma. This direct approach to the lateral bare spot on the proximal humerus may minimize iatrogenic vascular injury when treating these fractures.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241965600003

    View details for PubMedID 17088661

  • Hybrid locked plating of osteoporotic fractures of the humerus. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Gardner, M. J., Griffith, M. H., Demetrakopoulos, D., Brophy, R. H., Grose, A., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2006; 88 (9): 1962-1967

    Abstract

    Locked plating techniques recently have gained popularity and offer a different biomechanical approach for fracture fixation compared with traditional compression plating. In certain clinical situations, it may be preferable to employ a "hybrid" construct, in which an unlocked screw is used to assist with reduction and locked screws are subsequently used to protect the initial reduction. In the present study, we used an unstable osteoporotic fracture model of the humerus to determine (1) whether a hybrid construct behaved more like a locked construct or a conventional unlocked construct and (2) whether there was a difference between locked and unlocked constructs.Thirty third-generation Sawbones humeri were divided into three groups of ten humeri each. A locking plate with combination holes was applied to each bone with use of either a locked construct, an unlocked construct, or a hybrid construct. To simulate purchase in osteoporotic bone, all screw-holes were drilled to 0.3 mm less than the diameter of the screw used. Each specimen was then osteotomized in the middle part of the shaft, and a 5-mm segment was removed. Oscillating cyclic torsion testing was performed to +/-10 N-m for 1000 cycles, torsional stiffness was determined at periodic cyclic intervals, and the groups were compared.The locked and hybrid constructs demonstrated similar behavior. The initial stiffness was similar in these two groups. At ten cycles, the locked and hybrid constructs retained 96.3% and 95.4% of their initial stiffness, respectively. During the remainder of cycling the stiffness of the locked and hybrid constructs decreased in a linear fashion (R(2) = 0.89 and 0.88, respectively), and at 1000 cycles the stiffness of the locked and hybrid constructs averaged 80.0% and 79.2% of the initial values, respectively (p = 1.0). In contrast, the unlocked constructs initially were significantly less stiff than both the locked and hybrid constructs (p < 0.001). At ten cycles the unlocked constructs retained 80.4% of their initial stiffness, and at 1000 cycles they retained only 22.3% of their initial stiffness.Hybrid constructs are mechanically similar to locked constructs, and both are significantly more stable than unlocked constructs under torsional cyclic loading.Combining screws in the hybrid configuration used in the present study did not compromise the mechanical performance of the construct. Hybrid constructs may decrease cost and may provide additional clinical value when treating fractures in osteoporotic bone.

    View details for PubMedID 16951112

  • In vivo cyclic axial compression affects bone healing in the mouse tibia JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Gardner, M. J., van der Meulen, M. C., Demetrakopoulos, D., Wright, T. M., Myers, E. R., Bostrom, M. P. 2006; 24 (8): 1679-1686

    Abstract

    Abundant evidence exists that fracture healing can be influenced by mechanical loading. However, the specific loading parameters that are osteogenic remain unknown. We hypothesized that the bone healing response in mouse tibial osteotomies would be different with a short delay before loading compared to immediate load application, as well as with higher and lower load magnitudes applied. Eighty 12-week-old mice underwent osteotomy of the left tibia followed by intramedullary nailing. Mice were divided into six groups based on days delayed until application of load (0 days or 4 days) and amplitude of cyclic load (0.5N, 1N, or 2N). Loading regimens were applied at 1 Hz for 100 cycles per day, 5 days per week for 2 weeks, using an external device that applied axial compression to the tibia. Bone healing was assessed by both microcomputed tomography (CT) and four-point bend testing. A short delay followed by cyclic application of a relatively low load led to improved fracture healing, as determined by increased callus strength, but this enhancement disappeared as load amplitudes increased. Load initiation immediately following fracture inhibited healing, regardless of the magnitude of load applied. MicroCT measurements of calluses in the early healing stage did not predict the mechanical strength of the fractures. These findings confirm that controlled, noninvasive cyclic loading can improve the strength of healing callus. However, application of load immediately after fracture appears to be detrimental to healing. Load magnitude also plays a critical role, and must be taken into account in future studies and clinical applications. As the loading parameters necessary to enhance fracture healing become refined, external compression may be used as a potent stimulus for treating fractures with decreased biological capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.20230

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239364300011

    View details for PubMedID 16788988

  • Supportive care aspects of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in patients with cancer. Supportive cancer therapy Shindle, M. K., Shindle, L., Gardner, M. J., Lane, J. M. 2006; 3 (4): 214-219

    Abstract

    As cancer survival rates continue to improve, many patients with cancer experience an increased incidence of osteolytic bone destruction that can lead to vertebral collapse. Many people with vertebral compression fractures develop pain and spinal deformity, mainly kyphosis. Kyphosis has been associated with a decrease in physical function, depression, loss of independence, decreased lung capacity, malnutrition because of early satiety, and death. Supportive care, focusing on alleviating pain and enhancing or preserving function for those with vertebral fractures, could be approached through nonoperative and operative treatments and will be reviewed in this article. Current nonoperative treatments of pathologic compression fractures include bed rest, bracing, physical therapy, bisphosphonates, and analgesics. Operative treatment currently includes minimally invasive cement augmentation techniques, such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. These surgical options have shown promising short-term results for the treatment of painful metastatic and osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality, which will allow patients with cancer the ability to improve parts of their life that were halted by pain and dysfunction.

    View details for DOI 10.3816/SCT.2006.n.019

    View details for PubMedID 18632497

  • Fixation of posterior malleolar fractures provides greater syndesmotic stability CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Gardner, M. J., Brodsky, A., Briggs, S. M., Nielson, J. H., Lorich, D. G. 2006: 165-171

    Abstract

    Syndesmotic injuries are common in ankle fractures. Traditional syndesmosis fixation may be associated with a secondary procedure. When the posterior malleolus is fractured, the posterior syndesmotic ligaments may remain intact and attached to the fragment. Our goals were to establish the incidence of syndesmotic ligament ruptures in pronation-external rotation type ankle injuries associated with posterior malleolar fractures, and to assess syndesmotic stability after fixation of the posterior malleolus compared with using a syndesmotic screw. Fifteen patients who sustained pronation-external rotation Stage 4 ankle fractures that involved the posterior malleolus were evaluated using radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. No complete tears of the posterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament occurred. A pronation-external rotation fracture pattern with a posterior malleolar fragment was created in 10 lower extremity cadaver specimens with random fixation of the posterior malleolus or the syndesmosis. Compared with the intact specimens, stiffness was restored to 70% after fixation of the posterior malleolus, and to 40% after syndesmosis stabilization. Syndesmotic stability may be obtained more effectively by fixation of the posterior malleolus rather than by using a syndesmotic screw. Although additional clinical investigation is warranted, these concepts may be useful in eliminating syndesmotic screw fixation in select patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.blo.0000203489.21206.a9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243020600029

    View details for PubMedID 16467626

  • The ability of the Lauge-Hansen classification to predict ligament injury and mechanism in ankle fractures: An MRI study JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Demetrakopoulos, D., Briggs, S. M., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2006; 20 (4): 267-272

    Abstract

    The Lauge-Hansen classification system was designed to predict the mechanism and ligament injury patterns of ankle fractures on the basis of x-rays. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of these predicted injury sequences using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a series of patients with ankle fractures.Retrospective cohort.Two university level 1 trauma centers.Fifty-nine patients with operative ankle fractures who were evaluated with both x-ray and MRI were included.All patients had a standard 3-view ankle x-ray series before fracture reduction, followed by an MRI. All plain x-rays were assigned to a Lauge-Hansen category by an experienced orthopedic traumatologist. MRI studies were subsequently read by an MRI musculoskeletal radiologist for the integrity of the ankle ligaments.After evaluation of the x-rays, fractures were classified according to the system of Lauge-Hansen, and the predicted presence, sequence, and mechanism of injury was determined. These were then compared to the actual injured structures on MRI in each case, and the ability of the Lauge-Hansen system to accurately predict the complete injury pattern was determined for the entire cohort.Average patient age was 59 (range: 18 to 84) years. Of the 59 ankle fractures evaluated, 37 (63%) were classified as supination external rotation, 11 (19%) were pronation external rotation, 1 (2%) was supination adduction, and 10 (17%) were not classifiable on the basis of the Lauge-Hansen system. Of the 49 fractures that fit into Lauge-Hansen categories, 26 (53%) had patterns of ligamentous injury and fracture morphology that did not coincide with the Lauge-Hansen predictions. A common fracture pattern was observed in 8 of the 10 unclassifiable fractures, which included a high spiral fracture of the fibula, vertical shear fracture of the medial malleolus, posterior malleolar fracture, and complete tears of the anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament and the interosseous membrane. In addition, over 65% of patients in this series had complete ligamentous injury and a fracture of the malleolus to which the ligament attaches.These results demonstrate that the Lauge-Hansen classification system may have some limitations as a predictor of the mechanism of injury and the presence of soft-tissue damage associated with ankle fractures. The identification of a novel pattern of ankle fracture also illustrates how the system fails to describe all possible fracture patterns. For these reasons, we recommend that the Lauge-Hansen system be used only as a guide in the diagnosis and management of ankle fractures and not solely relied upon for treatment decisions. Although the exact clinical implications of the variety of ligamentous injuries observed on MRI are yet to be determined, this technique may be useful in individual cases in which doubt about joint stability and soft-tissue integrity exists. Additionally, MRI may be helpful in planning surgical approaches in atypical fractures in which injury patterns are less predictable solely on the basis of x-ray.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237660000008

    View details for PubMedID 16721242

  • Outcomes after interposition arthroplasty for treatment of hallux rigidus CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Kennedy, J. G., Chow, F. Y., Dines, J., Gardner, M., Bohne, W. H. 2006: 210-215

    Abstract

    Interposition arthroplasty reportedly improves outcomes after traditional salvage procedures for advanced hallux rigidus. We hypothesized this procedure can provide pain relief and satisfactory function with few complications. We examined 18 patients with severe articular cartilage loss who received 21 interposition arthroplasties. The patients a mean age was 56 years. They had a mean followup of 38 months. All patients had substantial loss of articular cartilage when examined intraoperatively. Patients were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores. All 18 patients had pain relief, and 17 of 18 patients said they would have the procedure again. The mean postoperative increase in range of motion of the first meta-tarsophalangeal joint was 37 degrees . The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores were 78.4 and 96.3, respectively. The complication rate was 6%. Results of our study indicate that interposition arthroplasty relieves pain and restores motion in patients with advanced hallux rigidus and may offer a reliable option to fusing the joint.Therapeutic study, Level IV (case series).

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.blo.0000201166.82690.23

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243020300029

    View details for PubMedID 16467621

  • Treatment of distal radius fractures with a low-profile dorsal plating system: an outcomes assessment. journal of hand surgery Simic, P. M., Robison, J., Gardner, M. J., Gelberman, R. H., Weiland, A. J., Boyer, M. I. 2006; 31 (3): 382-386

    Abstract

    To evaluate objective functional and radiographic outcomes after internal fixation of acute, displaced, and unstable fractures of the distal aspect of the radius in adults by using a low-profile dorsal plating system. Our hypothesis was that the low-profile dorsal plating system would allow for a reduction of extensor tendon irritation and pain and provide stable osseous fixation.Sixty consecutive unstable fractures in 59 patients were treated by open reduction internal fixation using a low-profile dorsal plating system. There were 29 type A, 14 type B, and 8 type C fractures (AO classification system). Fifty patients with 51 fractures returned for outcomes assessment by physical examination, plain radiographs, and completion of a validated musculoskeletal function assessment questionnaire. The minimum follow-up period was 1 year; the mean follow-up period was 24 months. Clinical evaluation was performed and plain radiographs were assessed for maintenance of immediate postoperative reduction and implant position. Objective functional assessment was obtained through the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire.Outcomes analysis showed no cases of extensor tendon irritation or rupture. Hardware removal was performed in 1 patient but no extensor tendon irritation or rupture was evidenced. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 11.9; implant-related discomfort was minimal. All patients had an excellent (31 patients) or good (19 patients) result according to the scoring system of Gartland and Werley. The mean active range of motion was greater than 80% of that of the contralateral wrist in flexion/extension, pronation/supination, and ulnar/radial deviation. Extensor tendon function was unimpaired in all patients. Grip and pinch strength averaged 90% and 94% of the contralateral sides, respectively. Radiographic evaluation showed no change in fracture reduction or implant position.The treatment of distal radius fractures with a low-profile stainless steel dorsal plating system is a safe and effective method that provides stable internal fixation and allows for full extensor tendon glide and full metacarpophalangeal joint motion. Objective outcome testing showed uniformly good to excellent recovery of wrist and hand function in all patients.Therapeutic, Level IV.

    View details for PubMedID 16516731

  • Prediction of soft-tissue injuries in Schatzker II tibial plateau fractures based on measurements of plain radiographs JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE Gardner, M. J., Yacoubian, S., Geller, D., Pode, M., Mintz, D., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2006; 60 (2): 319-323

    Abstract

    Split-depression fractures of the lateral tibial plateau (Schatzker II) are associated with a significant risk of capsuloligamentous and meniscal injury. We hypothesized that the amount of fracture depression and widening on anteroposterior (AP) plain radiographs would correlate with the incidence of injury to these structures on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Sixty-two consecutive patients with Schatzker II tibial plateau fractures had a knee x-ray series and MRI preoperatively. AP plain radiographs were measured for lateral joint line depression and condylar widening, and MRIs were evaluated for injury to soft-tissue structures around the knee. For each structure, the threshold of depression and widening that led to the greatest disparity in soft-tissue injury was determined. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to calculate whether depression and/or widening above the thresholds were predictive for injury to individual soft-tissue structures.When depression was greater than 6 mm and widening was greater than 5 mm, lateral meniscal injury occurred in 83% of fractures, compared with 50% of fractures with less displacement (p < 0.05). When either depression or widening was at least 8 mm, medial meniscal injury occurred more frequently (depression 53%, p < 0.05; widening 78%, p < 0.05; versus neither 15%). Lateral collateral ligament and posterior cruciate ligament tears were not seen with minimally displaced fractures (< 4 mm), but the incidence of injury approached 30% with increasing displacement.Due to the limited availability of MRI in some centers, correlation of lateral condylar depression and widening, as measured on plain radiographs, to injury of various soft-tissue structures may be extremely helpful in planning open or arthroscopic treatment methods. Using these guidelines, Schatzker II fractures with depression or widening approaching 5 mm deserve heightened vigilance in diagnosing and treating these concomitant soft-tissue injuries.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.ta.0000203548.50829.92

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235767700012

    View details for PubMedID 16508489

  • Osteoporosis and skeletal fractures. HSS journal : the musculoskeletal journal of Hospital for Special Surgery Gardner, M. J., Demetrakopoulos, D., Shindle, M. K., Griffith, M. H., Lane, J. M. 2006; 2 (1): 62-69

    Abstract

    Osteoporosis affects millions of individuals worldwide, rendering them susceptible to fragility fractures of the spine, hip, and wrist and leading to significant morbidity, mortality, and economic cost. Given the substantial impact of osteoporosis on both patients and the medical community, it is imperative that physicians improve awareness and knowledge of osteoporosis in the setting of low-energy fractures. In this review, we provide information on effective means of preventing fragility fractures and introduce clinicians to issues pertinent to the patient who suffers an osteoporotic fracture. Prevention of fragility fractures centers around adequate mineral nutrition, including daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation, as well as prescription antiresorptive medications such as bisphosphonates or teriparatide therapy in severe cases, both of which have been shown to decrease future fracture risk. Balance and strength training also play important roles in the management of the osteoporotic patient, particularly following a low-energy fracture, and external hip protectors may be useful for certain patients. Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are two minimally invasive techniques that show great promise in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, although questions regarding long-term biomechanical effects still exist. Traditionally, osteoporosis has been underdiagnosed and undertreated following a low-energy fracture in an elderly patient. Although treatment rates may be improving through public health initiatives, the majority of patients with osteoporosis remain inadequately treated. Perioperative intervention programs that focus on patient education about osteoporosis and treatment options lead to significant increases in intervention and treatment. Reducing the risk of skeletal fractures in patients susceptible to osteoporosis involves improved physician education on the risk factors and management of osteoporosis, as well as informing patients on the significance of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry testing and medical treatment so that they may serve as their own healthcare advocates in this often-undertreated disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11420-005-0137-8

    View details for PubMedID 18751849

  • An assessment of the methodological quality of research published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE Brophy, R. H., Gardner, M. J., Saleem, O., Marx, R. G. 2005; 33 (12): 1812-1815

    Abstract

    Evidence-based medicine has become a popular topic in academic medicine during the past several decades and more recently in orthopaedics and sports medicine.Articles published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine have shown an improvement in methodological quality in 2001-2003, compared with 1991-1993.Systematic review.All articles published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine during the periods 1991-1993 and 2001-2003 were reviewed and classified by type of study. The use of pertinent methodologies such as prospective data collection, randomization, blinding, and controlled studies was noted for each article. The frequency of each article type and the use of evidence-based techniques were compared across study periods.Case series and descriptive studies decreased during the study period, from 27.4% to 15.3% (P = .00003) and from 11.9% to 5.6% (P = .001), respectively, of articles published. Prospective cohort studies increased from 4.7% to 14.1% (P = .000005), and randomized, prospective clinical trials increased from 2.7% to 5.9% of articles (P = .04). More studies tested an explicit hypothesis (P = .0000002), used prospective data collection (P = .000003), and used blinding (P = .02), and more studies identified a funding source (P = .004).Overall, there was a shift toward more prospective and randomized research designs published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine during 2001-2003 compared to 1991-1993, demonstrating an improvement in the methodological quality of published research.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0363546505278304

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233567200003

    View details for PubMedID 16157847

  • Helical plating of the proximal humerus INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Gardner, M. J., Griffith, M. H., Lorich, D. G. 2005; 36 (10): 1197-1200

    Abstract

    The ideal treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus has not been definitively agreed upon. Several recent reports have described a technique of helical plating for proximal humeral fractures, in which the proximal plate is placed laterally on the greater tuberosity, and spirals 90 degrees distally to lie on the anterior surface of the humeral shaft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of helical plating using a less invasive surgical approach and placing screws percutaneously in the distal plate. Dissection of 10 cadaveric upper extremity specimens was performed, using an extended anterolateral acromial approach followed by percutaneous helical plating. With the plate secured, the neurovascular structures which crossed the anterior humerus superficial to the plate were exposed and identified. Only the musculocutaneous nerve crossed anterior to the plate and was at risk for percutaneous screw placement. The nerve location was found in a consistent location among the specimens. The danger zone for the nerve location was found to be at an average of 13.5 cm from the greater tuberosity (99% CI: 12.2-14.8 cm). Though clinical experience is necessary to validate this plating technique, it appears that avoiding this danger zone in which the musculocutaneous nerve crosses will allow safe percutaneous screw placement and permit minimally invasive plating of these fractures.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2005.06.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232874500010

    View details for PubMedID 16129438

  • Prevention and treatment of osteoporotic fractures. Minerva medica Gardner, M. J., Demetrakopoulos, D., Shindle, M. K., Griffith, M. H., Lane, J. M. 2005; 96 (5): 343-352

    Abstract

    With the aging international population, osteoporosis has become an epidemic. This painless disease is characterized by a decreased bone mass, resulting in decreased structural integrity of bone, and often goes undiagnosed. Typical osteoporotic fractures include vertebrae, hip, and wrist fractures, and these may have a dramatic impact on quality of life, even if the fracture is successfully treated. Many antiresorptive agents have demonstrated the ability to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures, and newer anabolic agents may further reduce risk. Non-medical treatments, such as external hip protectors and balance and low-impact strength training, are also very effective in preventing fractures. Before specific treatments can be addressed, however, osteoporosis must first be considered as a diagnosis in any patient with a low-energy fracture. This requires continued public health initiatives involving patient and physician education regarding the necessity for bone mass measurement and the merits of antiresorptive therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 16227949

  • The mechanical behavior of locking compression plates compared with dynamic compression plates in a cadaver radius model. Journal of orthopaedic trauma Gardner, M. J., Brophy, R. H., Campbell, D., Mahajan, A., Wright, T. M., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2005; 19 (9): 597-603

    Abstract

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to compare the mechanical behavior of a locked compression plate, which uses threaded screw heads to create a fixed angle construct, with a dynamic compression plate construct in a cadaver radius model.Mechanical study with cyclic testing and high-speed optical motion analysis.Biomechanics laboratory at an academic institution.Eighteen pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver radii were divided into 3 groups of 6 to be tested as a group in each of the following force applications: anteroposterior (AP) bending, mediolateral bending, or torsion.Each bone was osteotomized leaving a 5-mm fracture gap and then fixed with a plate. For each pair, 1 radius received a standard plate (limited-contact dynamic compression plates; LC-DCP), the contralateral radius was fixed with a locking compression plate (LCP), and specimens underwent cyclic loading. Normalized stiffness, average energy absorbed, and Newton-cycles to failure were calculated. In addition, a 3-dimensional, high-speed, infrared motion analysis system was used to evaluate motion at the fracture site.Construct stiffness, fracture site motion, cycles to failure, and energy absorption. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to detect differences between groups with time.In the torsion group, LCP specimens failed at 60% greater Newton-cycles than the LC-DCP (1473 vs. 918; P < 0.05). In the AP group, the LC-DCP absorbed significantly greater energy during 10,000 cycles compared with the LCP group (P < 0.05). The 2 constructs demonstrated different biomechanical behavior with time. As cycling progressed in the LC-DCP specimens under torsion testing, stiffness (measured at the actuator at the bone ends) did not change significantly; however, fracture motion (measured at the fracture surfaces) decreased significantly (P = 0.04). The LCP specimens did not display similar behavior.Our findings indicated that LCP constructs may demonstrate subtle mechanical superiority compared with the LC-DCP. The LCP specimens had less energy absorption in the AP group and survived longer in the torsion group. Discordance of motion between measurement regions was observed only in the LC-DCP torsion group, and may have been caused by plate-bone slippage or bone-screw subcatastrophic failure. However, many other compared parameters were found to be similar, and the clinical significance of the few differences found between constructs mandates further investigation.

    View details for PubMedID 16247303

  • Radiographic measurements do not predict syndesmotic injury in ankle fractures - An MRI study CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Nielson, J. H., Gardner, M. J., Peterson, M. G., Sallis, J. G., Potter, H. G., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2005: 216-221

    Abstract

    Several radiographic measurements have been described and are used to determine ligamentous injury in ankle fractures, particularly of the deltoid and syndesmosis complex. Because the accuracy of these radiographic measurements has been questioned, we sought to evaluate their accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging as an indicator for injury. Seventy patients with closed ankle fractures were entered prospectively into the study, and all had standard plain radiographic evaluations before reduction (anteroposterior, lateral, and mortise) and magnetic resonance imaging. Four radiographic measurements were made on initial ankle injury films: tibiofibular clear space on the anteroposterior view, tibiofibular overlap on the anteroposterior and mortise views, and medial clear space on the mortise view. These radiographic measurements and their association with magnetic resonance imaging findings then were analyzed. A medial clear space measurement greater than 4 mm correlated with disruption of the deltoid and the tibiofibular ligaments. We found no association between the tibiofibular clear space and overlap measurements on radiographs with syndesmotic injury on magnetic resonance imaging scans.Prognostic study, Level II-1 (retrospective study). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.blo.0000161090.86162.19

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230292900033

    View details for PubMedID 15995444

  • Periprosthetic patellar fracture after an open knee dislocation. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Gulotta, L. V., Gardner, M. J., Rose, H. A., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2005: 265-269

    Abstract

    We present a patient who sustained an open knee dislocation with a periprosthetic fracture of the patella and who was treated satisfactorily with tension band wiring and a conservative rehabilitation program. In addition to describing this unique combination of injuries, we review the literature on the treatment of periprosthetic patellar fractures. Although internal fixation of these fractures historically has provided unpredictable results, we think that it is warranted if the patella has adequate bone stock.

    View details for PubMedID 15995451

  • The extended anterolateral acromial approach allows minimally invasive access to the proximal humerus CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Gardner, M. J., Griffith, M. H., Dines, J. S., Briggs, S. M., Weiland, A. J., Lorich, D. G. 2005: 123-129

    Abstract

    Lateral approaches to the proximal humerus have been limited by the position of the axillary nerve. Extensive surgical dissection through a deltopectoral approach may further damage the remaining tenuous blood supply in comminuted fractures. The purpose of our study was to explore a direct anterolateral, less invasive approach to the proximal humerus. Twenty cadaver shoulders were dissected using the extended anterolateral acromial approach through the anterior deltoid raphe. Multiple parameters were measured regarding the axillary nerve. The nerve was easily palpable in all specimens as it exited the quadrilateral space, and predictably was found and protected deep to the raphe, approximately 35 mm from the prominence of the greater tuberosity. Examination of the entire anterior nerve revealed that no branches besides the main motor trunk crossed the deltoid raphe. Subsequently, this approach was used in 16 patients with proximal humerus fractures, none of whom has had complications related to the surgical approach. This minimally invasive surgical approach seems to be safe, and may be useful in treating proximal humerus fractures.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.blo.0000152872.95806.09

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228910700018

    View details for PubMedID 15864041

  • Not all spondylolisthesis grading instruments are reliable CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Timon, S. J., Gardner, M. J., Wanich, T., Poynton, A., Pigeon, R., Widmann, R. F., Rawlins, B. A., Burke, S. W. 2005: 157-162

    Abstract

    Spondylolisthesis is the slippage of one vertebral body on an adjacent level, and occurs commonly at the lumbosacral junction in children. Many radiographic measurement instruments have been described to predict progression and need for intervention. We evaluated the reliability of eight common grading instruments. Four raters reviewed 30 lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine in patients with spondylolisthesis. Each rater measured each film twice, and had mean individual correlation coefficients of at least 0.76 (range, 0.76-0.91). Only three measurements had interobserver correlations greater than 0.75 (slip percentage, Meyerding's grade, and sacral inclination), which corresponded to excellent reliability. For intraobserver reliability, six measurements had correlations greater than 0.75 (all except kyphosis angle and lumbar index), indicating excellent agreement. Slip percent, Meyerding's grade, and sacral inclination had excellent interobserver agreement and intraobserver agreement.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.blo.0000154205.10944.72

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228910700023

    View details for PubMedID 15864046

  • Surgical dislocation of the hip for fractures of the femoral head JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Suk, M., Pearle, A., Buly, R. L., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2005; 19 (5): 334-342

    Abstract

    Traumatic dislocations of the hip are high-energy injuries that frequently occur with fractures of the femoral head. Controversy exists regarding many aspects of the treatment of these fractures, but following reduction, large displaced head fragments require open reduction and internal fixation. Traditionally, an anterior approach to the hip joint has been used for surgical access to the femoral head, but this incision often results in limited visualization and subsequent difficulty with anatomic reduction. Recently, a surgical hip dislocation technique has been described for acetabular fractures and deformities of the proximal femur. At our institution, this technique has been used for femoral head fractures resulting in superior visualization and fracture stabilization. This article details the technique and its application.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229395700007

    View details for PubMedID 15891543

  • Low incidence of ulnar nerve injury with crossed pin placement for pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures using a mini-open technique JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Green, D. W., Widmann, R. F., Frank, J. S., Gardner, M. J. 2005; 19 (3): 158-163

    Abstract

    Several recent studies have suggested that medial pinning in pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures leads to increased rates of ulnar nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury in a consecutive series of supracondylar fractures treated using a standardized technique of crossed pin placement.Single cohort retrospective.Metropolitan university tertiary care center.Seventy-one consecutive children with Gartland type II or type III supracondylar humerus were treated surgically by 2 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons at 1 institution between 1995 and 2000 using a medial mini-open and cross-pinning technique. Sixty-five patients were available for follow-up (92%).Patients were treated with a combination of medial and lateral pins using a mini-incision technique.Outcomes analyzed included ulnar nerve injury and clinical and radiographic evidence of healing.The study group consisted of 65 patients, of whom 29 (45%) presented with Gartland type III fractures, and the remaining 36 (55%) presented with a type II fracture. There were no ulnar nerve motor injuries. One patient was noted to have transient sensory changes in the ulnar nerve distribution postoperatively, which resolved by the 1-week follow-up visit. All patients were noted to have normal ulnar motor and sensory nerve function at final follow-up (average 4.5 months). No cases of nonunion, malunion, or infection were identified during the follow-up period.The rate of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury with this specific technique of crossed pin placement for extension-type supracondylar humerus fractures was extremely low in this series. A single case of transient ulnar sensory neuropraxia occurred. Our series demonstrates that crossed pin fixation can be performed safely and reliably and is an appropriate treatment option for unstable supracondylar humerus fractures.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227506800002

    View details for PubMedID 15758668

  • Treatment of intertrochanteric hip fractures with the AO trochanteric fixation nail ORTHOPEDICS Gardner, M. J., Bhandari, M., Lawrence, B. D., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2005; 28 (2): 117-122

    Abstract

    Further biomechanical and clinical studies are necessary to validate the efficacy of the Trochanteric Fixation Nail, but in our experience this is an improvement over the currently available devices.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227209500004

    View details for PubMedID 15751364

  • The incidence of soft tissue injury in operative tibial plateau fractures - A magnetic resonance Imaging analysis of 103 patients JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Yacoubian, S., Geller, D., Suk, M., Mintz, D., Potter, H., Fet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2005; 19 (2): 79-84

    Abstract

    The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of injury to soft tissue structures of the knee in tibial plateau fractures scheduled for surgery.Prospective cohort.Level I academic medical center.One hundred three consecutive patients with acute tibial plateau fractures indicated for operative intervention.Standard x-ray examinations, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, were performed in the emergency department. Subsequently all patients had magnetic resonance imaging performed. The Schatzker and AO/OTA classifications were used to classify each fracture pattern based solely on the x-rays. Soft tissue injuries were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.Fifteen categories of injury were determined as positive or negative on each magnetic resonance imaging, which included tears of the cruciates, collateral ligaments, menisci, and posterolateral corner.The overall incidence of injury to soft tissues was higher than previously reported. Only 1 patient (1%) in the series had complete absence of any soft tissue injury. Seventy-nine patients (77%) sustained a complete tear or avulsion of 1 or more cruciate or collateral ligaments. Ninety-four patients (91%) had evidence of lateral meniscus pathology. Forty-five patients (44%) had medial meniscus tears. Seventy patients (68%) had tears of 1 or more of the posterolateral corner structures of the knee. The most frequent fracture pattern was a lateral plateau split-depression (Schatzker II) (60%). No pure depression injuries (Schatzker III, AO/OTA 41-B2) were seen.The incidence of complete ligamentous or meniscal disruption associated with operative tibial plateau fractures was higher than previously reported. Though the clinical importance of injury to each of these structures is unknown, the treating surgeon should be aware that a variety of soft tissue injuries are common in these fractures. In addition, all fractures had at least 1 cortical split visible on magnetic resonance imaging, implying that pure depression patterns are very rare or may not exist.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226924300002

    View details for PubMedID 15677922

  • Complete exposure of the articular surface for fixation of patellar fractures JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Gardner, M. J., Griffith, M. H., Lawrence, B. D., Lorich, D. G. 2005; 19 (2): 118-123

    Abstract

    Anterior tension band fixation constructs are among the mainstay of treatment of patella fractures and lead to reliable results with simple transverse fracture patterns. However, comminuted fractures of the patella require much more extensive articular reconstruction than interdigitating two large fragments to achieve a good result. In this report, we describe a technique for exposure, reduction, and stabilization of patella fractures that allows for direct visual reduction of the articular surface. Subsequent devices are applied directly to the bony surfaces of the patella without soft-tissue interposition, which distinguishes it from traditional approaches. This technique may be used to ensure articular surface congruity in simple transverse fractures and may be particularly useful in comminuted fractures when patellar excision would otherwise be considered.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226924300008

    View details for PubMedID 15677928

  • Interventions to improve osteoporosis treatment following hip fracture. A prospective, randomized trial. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Gardner, M. J., Brophy, R. H., Demetrakopoulos, D., Koob, J., Hong, R., Rana, A., Lin, J. T., Lane, J. M. 2005; 87 (1): 3-7

    Abstract

    Treatment of osteoporosis following a hip fracture has been notoriously poor. Many efforts have been made to improve treatment rates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a perioperative inpatient intervention program, involving patient education and providing a list of questions for the primary care physician, increased the percentage of patients in whom osteoporosis was addressed following a hip fracture.A prospective, randomized trial involving eighty patients who had been admitted to an academic medical center with a low-energy hip fracture was conducted. During their hospitalization, the study group patients were engaged in a fifteen-minute discussion regarding the association between osteoporosis and hip fractures, the efficacy of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and of bisphosphonates in its treatment, and the importance of medical follow-up for osteoporosis management. These patients were also provided with five questions regarding osteoporosis treatment to be given to their primary medical physician, and they were reminded about the questions during a follow-up telephone call six weeks later. The patients in the control group received a brochure describing methods for preventing falls. Both groups were contacted by telephone at six months after discharge to determine whether osteoporosis had been addressed. Positive indicators of intervention included assessment of bone mineral density with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and initiation of antiresorptive therapy.The average age in each group was eighty-two years, and 78% of the patients were female. Four patients in each group did not survive through the six-month follow-up period and were excluded from the trial. Fifteen (42%) of the thirty-six patients who had been randomized to the study group, compared with only seven (19%) of the thirty-six patients in the control group, had their osteoporosis addressed by their primary physician. This difference between the groups was significant (p = 0.036).Patients who were provided with information and questions for their primary care physician about osteoporosis were more likely to receive appropriate therapeutic intervention than were patients who had not received the information and questions. Orthopaedic surgeons have a unique opportunity to improve the rate of osteoporosis treatment in the perioperative period following a hip fracture by educating patients and directing them toward channels for long-term osteoporosis management.

    View details for PubMedID 15634808

  • Has locked plating completely replaced conventional plating? American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Gardner, M. J., Helfet, D. L., Lorich, D. G. 2004; 33 (9): 439-446

    Abstract

    The 2 main approaches to fracture plate fixation--compression plating and internal splinting--result in differing biomechanics and subsequent healing response patterns. A number of advantages to using the newer internal fixators have been described, but there are still several indications for traditional compression plating.

    View details for PubMedID 15509108

  • Surgical treatment of pediatric femoral shaft fractures CURRENT OPINION IN PEDIATRICS Gardner, M. J., Lawrence, B. D., Griffith, M. H. 2004; 16 (1): 51-57

    Abstract

    Femoral shaft fractures are among the most common fractures in children. Depending on the patient's age, fracture location, pattern, mechanism of injury, and associated injuries, several different treatment options exist. The purpose of this review is to discuss these different clinical situations and the recommended treatment methods, as well as to characterize the latest literature and recommendations.In the past several years, there have been significant changes in the approach to the treatment of pediatric femoral shaft fractures, particularly in school-aged children. Young children have traditionally been treated conservatively with good results, and this method is still currently advocated. Adolescents over the age of 12 are generally treated with rigid intramedullary rods. However, in children between the ages of 5 and 12, new surgical treatment modalities have been tested with good outcomes, and, as new data emerge, these methods are becoming preferable to conservative treatment.Children who sustain femoral shaft fractures can present difficult challenges to both orthopedists and pediatricians. A recent shift in treatment in children between ages of 5 and 12 from nonoperative to surgical intervention has led to shorter hospital stays and earlier return to activity with reliable fracture healing.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220641100009

    View details for PubMedID 14758114

  • Osteoporotic femoral neck fractures: management and current controversies. Instructional course lectures Gardner, M. J., Lorich, D. G., Lane, J. M. 2004; 53: 427-439

    Abstract

    Osteoporosis is a pervasive disease among the growing elderly population. Femoral neck fractures are often a direct result of osteoporosis and are challenging to treat. Surgical interventions seek to return the patient to preinjury function as quickly as possible, but many obstacles exist. Disruption of the blood supply occurs regardless of the fracture pattern, and in the active elderly population, reduction and fixation should be done as soon as possible to minimize healing problems. Closed reduction with percutaneous cannulated screw instrumentation is currently the fixation method of choice, but even with meticulous technique, moderate complication rates persist. Newer devices and biologic bone augmentation cement show promise in decreasing postoperative fracture collapse. Patients in whom a stable reduction cannot be achieved or who have a limited life expectancy should undergo arthroplasty. Unipolar and bipolar arthroplasty have both been effective in restoring function and have been the standard of care in these patients. Recent evidence suggests that active elderly patients who have acetabular disease or severely displaced fractures may benefit most from primary total hip arthroplasty.

    View details for PubMedID 15116632

  • A minimally invasive approach for plate fixation of the proximal humerus. Bulletin (Hospital for Joint Diseases (New York, N.Y.)) Gardner, M. J., Griffith, M. H., Dines, J. S., Lorich, D. G. 2004; 62 (1-2): 18-23

    Abstract

    Plate fixation for unstable fractures of the proximal humerus has seen mixed results as evidenced by the trials of new methods of fixation. The deltopectoral surgical approach is most frequently used and requires significant muscle retraction and soft tissue stripping to expose the lateral humeral neck. This may contribute to avascular necrosis and fixation failure. Lateral approaches have been limited to 5 cm distal to the acromion because of the course of the anterior branch of the axillary nerve. A recent anatomic study has demonstrated the predictability of the position of the axillary nerve as it crosses the anterior deltoid raphe, which allows it to be isolated and protected, and dissection can be extended distally. In addition, no accessory motor branches to the anterior head of the deltoid cross the raphe, so extending an incision through the raphe after protecting the main motor branch of the axillary does not place the innervation to the anterior deltoid at risk. This surgical approach allows exposure of the proximal humerus and indirect reduction of the fracture, with subsequent locking plate fixation, adhering to the principles of biological fixation.

    View details for PubMedID 15517853

  • The aging spine: new technologies and therapeutics for the osteoporotic spine EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL Lane, J. M., Gardner, M. J., Lin, J. T., van der Meulen, M. C., Myers, E. 2003; 12: S147-S154

    Abstract

    Osteoporosis results in low-energy fractures of the spine. The load necessary to cause a vertebral fracture is determined by the characteristics related to the vertebral body structure, mineral content, and quality of bone. Radiographic techniques centered on dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) permit a determination of bone mass and fracture risk. Current medical therapies principally using bisphosphonate and pulsatile PTH profoundly decrease the risk of fracture (50+%). Fall prevention strategies can further decrease the possibility of fracture. A comprehensive approach to osteoporosis can favorably alter the disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00586-003-0636-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186708700010

    View details for PubMedID 14534849

  • Orthopedic issues after cerebrovascular accident. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Gardner, M. J., Ong, B. C., Liporace, F., Koval, K. J. 2002; 31 (10): 559-568

    Abstract

    Patients who have had a cerebrovascular accident with resultant hemiplegia often present to the orthopedic surgeon with characteristic complaints and deformities. The most common of these include muscle spasticity and contracture, shoulder pain, hip fracture, and heterotopic ossification. Although some of these disorders are clinically evident, others may be easily overlooked. The purpose of this article is to summarize the most common orthopedic aspects of hemiplegic patients who have had a cerebrovascular accident.

    View details for PubMedID 12405561

  • Improvement in the undertreatment of osteoporosis following hip fracture. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Gardner, M. J., Flik, K. R., Mooar, P., Lane, J. M. 2002; 84-A (8): 1342-1348

    Abstract

    Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by decreased bone mass and increased fracture risk in postmenopausal women and the elderly. Hip fractures are among the most common consequences of osteoporosis and unfortunately usually occur late in the course of the disease. When a patient is admitted to the hospital with a fragility hip fracture, a unique opportunity for diagnosis and treatment presents itself. Fortunately, several medications have proven to be effective in lowering the risk of future fractures. The purposes of the present study were to test the hypothesis that most fragility hip fractures go untreated and to determine whether educational efforts to raise physician awareness have led to an improvement in osteoporosis treatment rates.A retrospective cohort study was performed with use of the patient databases at two university medical centers and one university-affiliated community hospital. The charts of 300 randomly selected patients were sorted with use of ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) codes for femoral neck fractures. There were 100 patients from each center, with twenty-five patients from each year between 1997 and 2000. The admitting diagnosis, mechanism of injury, admission medications, procedures performed during hospitalization, and discharge medications were then extracted and analyzed. During this period, the National Osteoporosis Foundation established guiding principles for the treatment of fragility fractures.Of the seventy-five patients from all centers for each year from 1997 to 2000, 11%, 13%, 24%, and 29%, respectively, were discharged with a prescription for some medication targeting osteopenia, either supplemental calcium or an antiosteoporotic medication (estrogen, calcitonin, a bisphosphonate, or raloxifene). A trended chi-square analysis of this increase revealed a p value of <0.001, indicating that this improvement in treatment was unlikely due to chance alone. Fifty-eight (19.3%) of the 300 patients in the study received a prescription at the time of discharge. However, forty of these patients (13.3% of the overall group) received calcium and only eighteen (6.0% of the overall group) received a medication to actively prevent bone resorption and treat osteoporosis. In addition, no patient underwent a bone density scan while in the hospital.Elderly patients and postmenopausal women who are admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with a low-energy femoral neck fracture have been undertreated for osteoporosis. However, over the four years of the present study, there was a significant increase in the rate of treatment. It is hoped that treatment rates will continue to increase in the future with continued educational efforts.

    View details for PubMedID 12177263

  • Evaluation and treatment of dural tears in lumbar spine surgery - A review CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Bosacco, S. J., Gardner, M. J., Guille, J. T. 2001: 238-247

    Abstract

    Incidental durotomy is a frequent complication of lumbar spinal surgery. The number and complexity of spinal procedures is increasing, leading to a greater prevalence of dural tears; therefore, it is imperative that spine surgeons be familiar with safe and effective closure techniques. Occasionally, a tear may not be recognized during the procedure, so that one must recognize the signs and symptoms of a cerebrospinal fluid leak postoperatively. Several newer treatment concepts show promise. The current study represents an extensive review of the recent literature on the prevalence, mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of dural tears. The authors provide an overview of the problem, an update on current treatment strategies, and describe the senior author's technique of repair, which is easy to do and is effective in stopping additional leakage of cerebrospinal fluid.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170217600034

    View details for PubMedID 11501817