Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Invited Member, Provost's Advisory Committee for Postdoctoral Scholars (2009 - 2015)

Honors & Awards

  • Divisional Teaching Award, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine (2002, 2007, 2018)
  • Recognition Award for Extraordinary Service for the Advancement of Postdoctoral Fellows, Stanford University Postdoctoral Association (2012)
  • Excellence in Postdoctoral Mentoring Award, Stanford University Postdoctoral Association (2009)
  • Outstanding Leadership Award, Office of Community Health, Stanford University School of Medicine (2007)
  • Fellow, North American Association for the Study of Obesity (2001-present)
  • First Independent Research Support and Transition Award (FIRST), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (1998-2004)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Consulting Editor, Health Psychology (2017 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Postdoctoral fellowship, Stanford Prevention Research Center, CVD Epidemiology & Prevention (1997)
  • PhD, Yale University, Health/Social Psychology (1993)
  • BA, Washington University in St. Louis, Psychology (1987)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Kiernan’s research program focuses on two areas: (1) designing behavioral interventions to promote long-term weight-loss maintenance and lifestyle behavior change for high-risk subgroups; and (2) testing innovative methodological strategies to improve the design, delivery, and analysis of randomized trials.

Her intervention research challenges traditional approaches for the maintenance of health behaviors. Her NIH-funded weight-management intervention trials have clearly distinguished between skills for weight loss versus skills for weight-loss maintenance; identified a novel set of ‘stability skills’ for long-term weight-loss maintenance that explicitly optimize satisfaction of engaging in lifestyle behaviors thereby promoting subsequent adherence once intervention staff contact is removed; and reversed the typical sequence of acquiring maintenance skills to provide an early mastery experience of the stability skills prior to losing weight.

Dr. Kiernan’s methodological research includes integrating motivational interviewing techniques into interactive orientation sessions held prior to randomization to enhance participant engagement within randomized trials as well as experimentally testing and optimizing low-cost, broad-reach strategies to improve recruitment and retention of individuals from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds and high-risk subgroups.

Dr. Kiernan directs the R01 Countdown Program for the Stanford University School of Medicine Office of Faculty Development and Diversity. This intensive grant writing program for junior faculty has generated over $125M in NIH funding across 14 different NIH Institutes to date. R01 Countdown handouts are available online:

Dr. Kiernan also teaches academic courses, skills workshops, and invited lectures on research methods, grant writing, and scientific writing at the Stanford University School of Medicine as well as numerous academic institutions and conferences across the country, including programs to increase the racial/ethnic diversity of faculty investigators in science.

Clinical Trials

  • Behavioral Strategies for Weight Management Not Recruiting

    Although studies demonstrate that people who consistently keep detailed food records are more likely to maintain their weight, few people continue to keep records given the vigilant attention needed. This study will test the efficacy of an alternative approach to record keeping that may be easier for people to sustain and lead to better long-term weight management. We propose that obese adults who attempt to keep their weight within a clearly defined and personalized 'range', e.g., a 5-lb range between 200-205 pounds, will be more likely to continue weighing themselves and remain weight stable because they have learned to self-regulate, i.e., accurately monitor changes in their weight, alert themselves when they've gained too much weight, and 'finetune' their eating and physical activity in response, but with the minimum effort and attention necessary. The primary aim for this randomized trial will examine whether participants in an 8-week 'Fine-Tuning' program are more likely to weigh themselves over the 6-month study than participants in an 8-week traditional 'Record-Keeping' program.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Michaela Kiernan, (650) 723 - 8460.

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  • Personal Genomics for Preventive Cardiology Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to see if providing information to a person on their inherited (genetic) risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) helps to motivate that person to change their diet, lifestyle or medication regimen to alter their risk.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Josh Knowles, 650-804-2526.

    View full details

  • Promoting Healthy Weight With 'Stability Skills First' Not Recruiting

    Losing weight has many health benefits for women such as reducing the risk of heart attacks, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer. However, women often struggle with maintaining the weight they have lost. This may be because they need to learn skills for maintaining weight, not just losing weight. When is the optimal time is to learn these maintenance skills? It may be better to lose weight first and then learn maintenance skills since people may feel good about the weight they have lost and be motivated to maintain. Alternatively, it may be better to learn maintenance skills first and then lose weight since they may experience how easy it is to use these maintenance skills and become confident they can maintain a weight loss in the future. Therefore, this study will examine whether learning these maintenance skills--before or after losing weight--helps women succeed at maintaining weight loss.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Promoting Long-term Behavior Change to Reduce CVD Risk Not Recruiting

    Once intervention class or staff contact is removed, obese adults participating in behavioral weight-loss programs often give up healthy eating habits and regain weight. We examined whether taste-based goal setting, which minimizes perceived deprivation by promoting taste and moderation, would sustain long-term reductions in saturated fat and body mass index (BMI).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Michaela Kiernan, (650) 723 - 8460.

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  • Stanford Healthy Heart Study Not Recruiting

    People with elevated blood pressure are at higher risk of having a heart attack or stroke than people with lower blood pressure. Losing a modest amount of weight-such as 15 or 20 pounds-can reduce the risk of having a heart attack or stroke. However, it can often be a struggle to maintain weight loss over time. This study examines whether two behavioral weight-management programs can help people maintain weight loss over time. In this study, 346 adults will be randomly assigned (like flipping a coin) to one of the 12-month programs and followed for 36 months (i.e., 3 years) to see how their body weight may change.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Michaela Kiernan, PhD, 650-721-6684.

    View full details

All Publications

  • Intrinsic motivation for physical activity, healthy eating, and self-weighing in association with corresponding behaviors in early pregnancy. Preventive medicine reports Brown, S. D., Kiernan, M., Ehrlich, S. F., Zhu, Y., Hedderson, M. M., Daredia, S., Feng, J., Millman, A., Quesenberry, C. P., Ferrara, A. 2023; 36: 102456


    Healthy lifestyle behaviors influence maternal cardiovascular health, but motivation for them in pregnancy is poorly understood. We examined whether intrinsic motivation (assessed on 5-point scales for each behavior) is associated with three lifestyle behaviors in early pregnancy: physical activity, by intensity level; healthy eating, quantified with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy (AHEI-P); and weight self-monitoring, a standard weight management technique. Participants in the Northern California Pregnancy, Lifestyle and Environment Study (PETALS) population-based cohort completed validated surveys in early pregnancy (2017-18; N = 472; 22 % Asian, 6 % Black, 30 % Hispanic, 13 % multiracial, 30 % White). Cross-sectional data were analyzed in 2021-22. Overall, 40.7 % (n = 192) met United States national physical activity guidelines; the average AHEI-P score was 62.3 out of 130 (SD 11.4); and 36.9 % reported regular self-weighing (≥once/week; n = 174). In models adjusted for participant characteristics, 1-unit increases in intrinsic motivation were associated with increased likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines (risk ratio [95 % CI]: 1.66 [1.48, 1.86], p < 0.0001); meeting sample-specific 75th percentiles for vigorous physical activity (1.70 [1.44, 1.99], p < 0.0001) and AHEI-P (1.75 [1.33, 2.31], p < 0.0001); and regular self-weighing (2.13 [1.92, 2.37], p < 0.0001). A 1-unit increase in intrinsic motivation lowered the risk of meeting the 75th percentile for sedentary behavior (0.79 [0.67, 0.92], p < 0.003). Intrinsic motivation was not associated with reaching 75th percentiles for total, light, or moderate activity. Intrinsic motivation is associated with physical activity, healthy eating, and self-weighing among diverse individuals in early pregnancy. Results can inform intervention design to promote maternal health via increased enjoyment of lifestyle behaviors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pmedr.2023.102456

    View details for PubMedID 37854666

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10580041

  • Casting New Light on Statistical Power: An Illuminating Analogy and Strategies to Avoid Underpowered Trials. American journal of epidemiology Kiernan, M., Baiocchi, M. T. 2022


    Current standards for methodological rigor and trial reporting underscore the critical issue of statistical power. Yet, the chance of detecting most effects reported in randomized controlled trials in medicine and other disciplines is currently lower than winning a toss of a fair coin. Here, we propose that investigators who retain a practical understanding of how statistical power works can proactively avoid the potentially devastating consequences of underpowered trials. We first offer a vivid, carefully-constructed analogy that illuminates the underlying relationships among three of the five essential parameters-namely, statistical power, effect size, and sample size, while holding the remaining two parameters constant (type of statistical test and significance level). Second, we extend the analogy to a set of critical scenarios in which investigators commonly miss detecting intervention effects due to insufficient statistical power. Third, we highlight effective pragmatic strategies for the design and conduct of sufficiently-powered trials, without increasing sample size.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwac019

    View details for PubMedID 35292796

  • Methods-Motivational Interviewing Approach for Enhanced Retention and Attendance. American journal of preventive medicine Jake-Schoffman, D. E., Brown, S. D., Baiocchi, M., Bibeau, J. L., Daubenmier, J., Ferrara, A., Galarce, M. N., Hartogensis, W., Hecht, F. M., Hedderson, M. M., Moran, P. J., Pagoto, S. L., Tsai, A., Waring, M. E., Kiernan, M. 2021; 61 (4): 606-617


    INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal and differential participant engagement in randomized trials-including retention at primary outcome assessments and attendance at intervention sessions-undermines rigor, internal validity, and trial conclusions.METHODS: First, this study describes Methods-Motivational Interviewing approach and strategies for implementation. This approach engages potential participants before randomization through interactive, prerequisite orientation sessions that illustrate the scientific rationale behind trial methods in accessible language and use motivational interviewing to diffuse ambivalence about participation. Then, this study examines the potential improvements in retention (proportion of participants assessed at follow-up visits) and attendance (e.g., mean percentage of intervention sessions attended, percentage of participants who attended 0 sessions) in 3 randomized weight-management trials that quickly added prerequisite orientations to their protocols following early signs of suboptimal or differential participant engagement (Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise [2009-2013, n=194]; Get Social [2016-2020, n=217]; GestationaL Weight Gain and Optimal Wellness [2014-2018, n=389]). Using a pre-post analytical design, adjusted estimates from regression models controlling for condition and assessment timepoint (analyses from 2020) are reported.RESULTS: After adding prerequisite orientations, all 3 trials attained higher participant engagement. Retention at assessments was 11.4% and 17.3% higher (Get Social and Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise, respectively). Mean percentage of attendance at intervention sessions was 8.8% higher (GestationaL Weight Gain and Optimal Wellness), and 10.1% fewer participants attended 0 intervention sessions (Get Social). Descriptively, all the remaining retention and attendance outcomes were consistently higher but were nonsignificant. Across the trials, adding prerequisite orientations did not impact the proportion of eligible participants enrolled or the baseline demographics.CONCLUSIONS: The Methods-Motivational Interviewing approach shows promise for increasing the rigor of randomized trials and is readily adaptable to in-person, webinar, and conference call formats.TRIAL REGISTRATION: All 3 trials are registered at (Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise: NCT00960414; Get Social: NCT02646618; and GestationaL Weight Gain and Optimal Wellness: NCT02130232).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.04.005

    View details for PubMedID 34544560

  • Effects of a methodological infographic on research participants' knowledge, transparency, and trust. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association Kiernan, M., Oppezzo, M. A., Resnicow, K., Alexander, G. L. 2018; 37 (8): 782–86


    OBJECTIVE: Given participants' research literacy is essential for clinical trial participation, evidence-based strategies are needed that improve literacy and easily accessed online. We tested whether an infographic letter-that illustrated how dropouts can distort study conclusions-improved participant knowledge about the impact of dropouts relative to a control letter.METHOD: In three distinct online samples purposely recruited to assess reproducibility, young ethnically diverse adults were randomized to read an infographic letter or control letter in a hypothetical scenario. Secondary outcomes included participants' perceived transparency of the research organization, perceived value of retention, and perceived trust of the organization. We purposely included two discriminant items, perceived value for the trial outcome and keeping commitments in general, both hypothesized not to change.RESULTS: Across samples, 20% more infographic participants correctly answered how dropouts affected study conclusions than control participants. For example (Experiment 3), nearly 90% of infographic participants correctly answered versus only two thirds of controls (88.7% vs. 66.7%, absolute percentage difference 22.0%, p < .0001). Infographic participants had substantially higher transparency, perceived value for retention, and trust (Cohen's ds = 0.4-1.0, ps < .0001), yet importantly did not value the study outcome or report keeping commitments more than control participants (Cohen's ds = 0.0-0.1, ps > .10).CONCLUSIONS: Promisingly, this transparent, visually powerful methodological infographic improved knowledge and trust. Future trials could embed and experimentally test whether such low-cost online infographics improve not only research literacy, but also trial retention, especially among populations with less initial trust about research. (PsycINFO Database Record

    View details for DOI 10.1037/hea0000631

    View details for PubMedID 30024233

  • The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat): a single categorical item sensitive to physical activity changes in overweight/obese women INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY Kiernan, M., Schoffman, D. E., Lee, K., Brown, S. D., Fair, J. M., Perri, M. G., Haskell, W. L. 2013; 37 (12): 1597-1602


    Background:Physical activity is essential for chronic disease prevention, yet <40% of overweight/obese adults meet the national activity recommendations. For time-efficient counseling, clinicians need a brief, easy-to-use tool that reliably and validly assesses a full range of activity levels, and, most importantly, is sensitive to clinically meaningful changes in activity. The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat) is a single item comprising six descriptive categories ranging from inactive to very active. This novel methodological approach assesses national activity recommendations as well as multiple clinically relevant categories below and above the recommendations, and incorporates critical methodological principles that enhance psychometrics (reliability, validity and sensitivity to change).Methods:We evaluated the L-Cat's psychometrics among 267 overweight/obese women who were asked to meet the national activity recommendations in a randomized behavioral weight-loss trial.Results:The L-Cat had excellent test-retest reliability (κ=0.64, P<0.001) and adequate concurrent criterion validity; each L-Cat category at 6 months was associated with 1059 more daily pedometer steps (95% CI 712-1407, β=0.38, P<0.001) and 1.9% greater initial weight loss at 6 months (95% CI -2.4 to -1.3, β=-0.38, P<0.001). Of interest, L-Cat categories differentiated from each other in a dose-response gradient for steps and weight loss (Ps<0.05) with excellent face validity. The L-Cat was sensitive to change in response to the trial's activity component. Women increased one L-Cat category at 6 months (M=1.0±1.4, P<0.001); 55.8% met the recommendations at 6 months whereas 20.6% did at baseline (P<0.001). Even among women not meeting the recommendations at both baseline and 6 months (n=106), women who moved 1 L-Cat categories at 6 months lost more weight than those who did not (M=-4.6%, 95% CI -6.7 to -2.5, P<0.001).Conclusions:Given strong psychometrics, the L-Cat has timely potential for clinical use such as tracking activity changes via electronic medical records, especially among overweight/obese populations who are unable or unlikely to reach national recommendations.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 16 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.36.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ijo.2013.36

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328456200013

    View details for PubMedID 23588625

  • Promoting Healthy Weight With "Stability Skills First": A Randomized Trial JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Kiernan, M., Brown, S. D., Schoffman, D. E., Lee, K., King, A. C., Taylor, C. B., Schleicher, N. C., Perri, M. G. 2013; 81 (2): 336-346


    Although behavioral weight-loss interventions produce short-term weight loss, long-term maintenance remains elusive. This randomized trial examined whether learning a novel set of "stability skills" before losing weight improved long-term weight management. Stability skills were designed to optimize individuals' current satisfaction with lifestyle and self-regulatory habits while requiring the minimum effort and attention necessary.Overweight/obese women (N = 267) were randomly assigned to one of two 6-month interventions and assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Maintenance First women participated first in an 8-week stability skills maintenance module and then in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program. Weight Loss First women participated first in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program and then in a standard 8-week problem-solving skills maintenance module. There was no intervention staff contact during the 12-month follow-up period (6-18 months).As designed, Maintenance First participants lost the same percentage of initial weight during the 6-month intervention period as Weight Loss First participants (M = -8.6%, SD = 5.7, vs. M = -9.1%, SD = 6.9; t = -0.6, p = .52). However, Maintenance First participants regained significantly less weight during the 12-month follow-up period (6-18 months) than Weight Loss First participants (M = 3.2 lb, SD = 10.4, vs. M = 7.3 lb, SD = 9.9 [M = 1.4 kg, SD = 4.7, vs. M = 3.3 kg, SD = 4.5]; t = 3.3, p = .001, d = 0.4).Learning stability skills before losing weight was successful in helping women to maintain weight loss without intervention staff contact during follow-up. These results can inform the study design of future innovative interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0030544

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316908500012

    View details for PubMedID 23106759

  • Momentary Influences on Self-Regulation in Two Populations With Health Risk Behaviors: Adults Who Smoke and Adults Who Are Overweight and Have Binge-Eating Disorder. Frontiers in digital health Scherer, E. A., Metcalf, S. A., Whicker, C. L., Bartels, S. M., Grabinski, M., Kim, S. J., Sweeney, M. A., Lemley, S. M., Lavoie, H., Xie, H., Bissett, P. G., Dallery, J., Kiernan, M., Lowe, M. R., Onken, L., Prochaska, J. J., Stoeckel, L. E., Poldrack, R. A., MacKinnon, D. P., Marsch, L. A. 2022; 4: 798895


    Introduction: Self-regulation has been implicated in health risk behaviors and is a target of many health behavior interventions. Despite most prior research focusing on self-regulation as an individual-level trait, we hypothesize that self-regulation is a time-varying mechanism of health and risk behavior that may be influenced by momentary contexts to a substantial degree. Because most health behaviors (e.g., eating, drinking, smoking) occur in the context of everyday activities, digital technologies may help us better understand and influence these behaviors in real time. Using a momentary self-regulation measure, the current study (which was part of a larger multi-year research project on the science of behavior change) used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess if self-regulation can be engaged and manipulated on a momentary basis in naturalistic, non-laboratory settings.Methods: This one-arm, open-label exploratory study prospectively collected momentary data for 14 days from 104 participants who smoked regularly and 81 participants who were overweight and had binge-eating disorder. Four times per day, participants were queried about momentary self-regulation, emotional state, and social and environmental context; recent smoking and exposure to smoking cues (smoking sample only); and recent eating, binge eating, and exposure to binge-eating cues (binge-eating sample only). This study used a novel, momentary self-regulation measure comprised of four subscales: momentary perseverance, momentary sensation seeking, momentary self-judgment, and momentary mindfulness. Participants were also instructed to engage with Laddr, a mobile application that provides evidence-based health behavior change tools via an integrated platform. The association between momentary context and momentary self-regulation was explored via mixed-effects models. Exploratory assessments of whether recent Laddr use (defined as use within 12 h of momentary responses) modified the association between momentary context and momentary self-regulation were performed via mixed-effects models.Results: Participants (mean age 35.2; 78% female) in the smoking and binge-eating samples contributed a total of 3,233 and 3,481 momentary questionnaires, respectively. Momentary self-regulation subscales were associated with several momentary contexts, in the combined as well as smoking and binge-eating samples. For example, in the combined sample momentary perseverance was associated with location, positively associated with positive affect, and negatively associated with negative affect, stress, and tiredness. In the smoking sample, momentary perseverance was positively associated with momentary difficulty in accessing cigarettes, caffeine intake, and momentary restraint in smoking, and negatively associated with temptation and urge to smoke. In the binge-eating sample, momentary perseverance was positively associated with difficulty in accessing food and restraint in eating, and negatively associated with urge to binge eat. While recent Laddr use was not associated directly with momentary self-regulation subscales, it did modify several of the contextual associations, including challenging contexts.Conclusions: Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that momentary self-regulation may vary in response to differing momentary contexts in samples from two exemplar populations with risk behaviors. In addition, the Laddr application may modify some of these relationships. These findings demonstrate the possibility of measuring momentary self-regulation in a trans-diagnostic way and assessing the effects of momentary, mobile interventions in context. Health behavior change interventions may consider measuring and targeting momentary self-regulation in addition to trait-level self-regulation to better understand and improve health risk behaviors. This work will be used to inform a later stage of research focused on assessing the transdiagnostic mediating effect of momentary self-regulation on medical regimen adherence and health outcomes.Clinical Trial Registration:, Identifier: NCT03352713.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fdgth.2022.798895

    View details for PubMedID 35373179

  • Introducing the MAVEN Leadership Training Initiative to diversify the scientific workforce. eLife Wang, Y. C., Brondolo, E., Monane, R., Kiernan, M., Davidson, K. W., MAVEN Leadership Team, Alfano, C. M., Diamond, B., Duer-Hefele, J., Hill-Briggs, F., Kim, J., Peacock, J., Spector, N. D., Yoon, S. 2021; 10


    Addressing gender and racial-ethnic disparities at all career stages is a priority for the research community. In this article, we focus on efforts to encourage mid-career women, particularly women of color, to move into leadership positions in science and science policy. We highlight the need to strengthen leadership skills for the critical period immediately following promotion to associate/tenured professor - when formal career development efforts taper off while institutional demands escalate - and describe a program called MAVEN that has been designed to teach leadership skills to mid-career women scientists, particularly those from underrepresented groups.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.69063

    View details for PubMedID 34032569

  • Downstream funding success of early career researchers for resubmitted versus new applications: A matched cohort. PloS one Doyle, J. M., Baiocchi, M. T., Kiernan, M. 2021; 16 (11): e0257559


    BACKGROUND: Early career researchers face a hypercompetitive funding environment. To help identify effective intervention strategies for early career researchers, we examined whether first-time NIH R01 applicants who resubmitted their original, unfunded R01 application were more successful at obtaining any R01 funding within 3 and 5 years than original, unfunded applicants who submitted new NIH applications, and we examined whether underrepresented minority (URM) applicants differentially benefited from resubmission. Our observational study is consistent with an NIH working group's recommendations to develop interventions to encourage resubmission.METHODS AND FINDINGS: First-time applicants with US medical school academic faculty appointments who submitted an unfunded R01 application between 2000-2014 yielded 4,789 discussed and 7,019 not discussed applications. We then created comparable groups of first-time R01 applicants (resubmitted original R01 application or submitted new NIH applications) using optimal full matching that included applicant and application characteristics. Primary and subgroup analyses used generalized mixed models with obtaining any NIH R01 funding within 3 and 5 years as the two outcomes. A gamma sensitivity analysis was performed. URM applicants represented 11% and 12% of discussed and not discussed applications, respectively. First-time R01 applicants resubmitting their original, unfunded R01 application were more successful obtaining R01 funding within 3 and 5 years than applicants submitting new applications-for both discussed and not discussed applications: discussed within 3 years (OR 4.17 [95 CI 3.53, 4.93]) and 5 years (3.33 [2.82-3.92]); and not discussed within 3 years (2.81 [2.52, 3.13]) and 5 years (2.47 [2.22-2.74]). URM applicants additionally benefited within 5 years for not discussed applications.CONCLUSIONS: Encouraging early career researchers applying as faculty at a school of medicine to resubmit R01 applications is a promising potential modifiable factor and intervention strategy. First-time R01 applicants who resubmitted their original, unfunded R01 application had log-odds of obtaining downstream R01 funding within 3 and 5 years 2-4 times higher than applicants who did not resubmit their original application and submitted new NIH applications instead. Findings held for both discussed and not discussed applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0257559

    View details for PubMedID 34793439

  • Interactive group-based orientation sessions: A method to improve adherence and retention in pragmatic clinical trials. Contemporary clinical trials communications Mayhew, M., Leo, M. C., Vollmer, W. M., DeBar, L. L., Kiernan, M. 2020; 17: 100527


    Background: Intervention adherence and trial retention are challenging for clinical trials testing intensive behavioral interventions. Operational constraints or trial designs may preclude using effective retention strategies such as financial incentives. We examined whether implementing pre-enrollment orientation sessions was associated with higher intervention adherence and retention in a pragmatic clinical trial.Methods: The trial tested an intensive behavioral intervention for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioids. Orientation sessions were implemented two years into trial recruitment at one site. Held before informed consent and randomization, these mandatory, group-based orientation sessions provided trial specifics, explained research methods principles, and leveraged motivational interviewing techniques. Using a pre-post design and multivariate models, we assessed adherence (number of intervention meetings attended) and retention (completed quarterly pain assessments over 12 months) before (04/2014-12/2015; n=209) and after (01/2016-02/2017; n=258) implementation. Also, we evaluated whether session implementation affected the proportion and characteristics of enrolled patients.Results: After implementing orientation sessions, patients had higher intervention adherence than before (M=7.6, SD=3.8 vs. M=5.6, SD=4.5, respectively; mean difference=2.0, 95% CI [0.9, 3.2], p=.001), and 2.8 times greater odds of completing quarterly assessments (95% CI [1.3, 5.8], p=.007). Fewer patients enrolled after implementing sessions than before (38.1% vs. 70.8%, 95% CI [26.4, 39.1], p<.001), with no differences in patient characteristics.Conclusions: Implementing orientation sessions during recruitment may be useful for promoting trial adherence and retention. To ensure enrollment goals are met, target population size and barriers affecting patients' ability to attend orientation sessions should be considered, especially for patients with complex medical conditions.Clinical trials registration number: NCT02113592.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.conctc.2020.100527

    View details for PubMedID 32083219

  • Challenges and Opportunities for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease Among Young Adults: Report From a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group. Journal of the American Heart Association Gooding, H. C., Gidding, S. S., Moran, A. E., Redmond, N. n., Allen, N. B., Bacha, F. n., Burns, T. L., Catov, J. M., Grandner, M. A., Harris, K. M., Johnson, H. M., Kiernan, M. n., Lewis, T. T., Matthews, K. A., Monaghan, M. n., Robinson, J. G., Tate, D. n., Bibbins-Domingo, K. n., Spring, B. n. 2020: e016115


    Improvements in cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates among young adults in the past 2 decades have been offset by increasing racial/ethnic and gender disparities, persistence of unhealthy lifestyle habits, overweight and obesity, and other CVD risk factors. To enhance the promotion of cardiovascular health among young adults 18 to 39 years old, the medical and broader public health community must understand the biological, interpersonal, and behavioral features of this life stage. Therefore, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, with support from the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, convened a 2-day workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, in September 2017 to identify research challenges and opportunities related to the cardiovascular health of young adults. The current generation of young adults live in an environment undergoing substantial economic, social, and technological transformations, differentiating them from prior research cohorts of young adults. Although the accumulation of clinical and behavioral risk factors for CVD begins early in life, and research suggests early risk is an important determinant of future events, few trials have studied prevention and treatment of CVD in participants <40 years old. Building an evidence base for CVD prevention in this population will require the engagement of young adults, who are often disconnected from the healthcare system and may not prioritize long-term health. These changes demand a repositioning of existing evidence-based treatments to accommodate new sociotechnical contexts. In this article, the authors review the recent literature and current research opportunities to advance the cardiovascular health of today's young adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.120.016115

    View details for PubMedID 32993438

  • Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of self-regulation. Behaviour research and therapy Eisenberg, I. W., Bissett, P. G., Canning, J. R., Dallery, J., Enkavi, A. Z., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Gonzalez, O., Green, A. I., Greene, M. A., Kiernan, M., Kim, S. J., Li, J., Lowe, M. R., Mazza, G. L., Metcalf, S. A., Onken, L., Parikh, S. S., Peters, E., Prochaska, J. J., Scherer, E. A., Stoeckel, L. E., Valente, M. J., Wu, J., Xie, H., MacKinnon, D. P., Marsch, L. A., Poldrack, R. A. 2018; 101: 46-57


    Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psychological and neural components of self-regulation remain poorly understood, which contributes to theoretical inconsistencies and hinders maximally effective intervention development. We outline a research program that seeks to define a neuropsychological ontology of self-regulation, articulating the cognitive components that compose self-regulation, their relationships, and their associated measurements. The ontology will be informed by two large-scale approaches to assessing individual differences: first purely behaviorally using data collected via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, then coupled with neuroimaging data collected from a separate population. To validate the ontology and demonstrate its utility, we will then use it to contextualize health risk behaviors in two exemplar behavioral groups: overweight/obese adults who binge eat and smokers. After identifying ontological targets that precipitate maladaptive behavior, we will craft interventions that engage these targets. If successful, this work will provide a structured, holistic account of self-regulation in the form of an explicit ontology, which will better clarify the pattern of deficits related to maladaptive health behavior, and provide direction for more effective behavior change interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.014

    View details for PubMedID 29066077

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5801197

  • The Relationship Between the Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire Among Rural Intervention Participants of Varying Health Literacy Status. Journal of physical activity & health Kružliaková, N. n., Estabrooks, P. A., You, W. n., Hedrick, V. n., Porter, K. n., Kiernan, M. n., Zoellner, J. n. 2018; 15 (4): 269–78


    A pragmatic, self-reported physical activity measure is needed for individuals of varying health literacy status.This study is a secondary analysis of a 6-month behavioral intervention for rural Appalachian adults developed using health literacy strategies. We examined the relationship and responsiveness of the Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat) and adapted Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) and determined if baseline health literacy status moderates intervention effects.Of 301 enrolled participants, 289 completed the L-Cat at baseline and 212 at 6 months. Approximately 33% were low health literate and 43% reported annual income of ≤$14,999. There was high agreement (84.1%) between the L-Cat and adapted GLTEQ for classifying individuals as meeting physical activity recommendations with little differences by health literacy level (low literacy 80.4% and high literacy 85.9%). The primary source of incongruent classification was the adapted GLTEQ classified almost 20% of individuals as meeting recommendations, whereas the L-Cat classified them as not meeting recommendations. There were differences in responsiveness between measures, but baseline health literacy status did not moderate change in any L-Cat or adapted GLTEQ measures.Implications and recommendations for using the L-Cat 2.3 and GLTEQ among individuals of varying health literacy status are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1123/jpah.2017-0284

    View details for PubMedID 29421974

  • The ASIBS Short Course: A unique strategy for increasing statistical competency of junior investigators in academic medicine. Journal of clinical and translational science Benn, E. K., Tu, C., Palermo, A. S., Borrell, L. N., Kiernan, M., Sandre, M., Bagiella, E. 2017; 1 (4): 235-239


    As clinical researchers at academic medical institutions across the United States increasingly manage complex clinical databases and registries, they often lack the statistical expertise to utilize the data for research purposes. This statistical inadequacy prevents junior investigators from disseminating clinical findings in peer-reviewed journals and from obtaining research funding, thereby hindering their potential for promotion. Underrepresented minorities, in particular, confront unique challenges as clinical investigators stemming from a lack of methodologically rigorous research training in their graduate medical education. This creates a ripple effect for them with respect to acquiring full-time appointments, obtaining federal research grants, and promotion to leadership positions in academic medicine. To fill this major gap in the statistical training of junior faculty and fellows, the authors developed the Applied Statistical Independence in Biological Systems (ASIBS) Short Course. The overall goal of ASIBS is to provide formal applied statistical training, via a hybrid distance and in-person learning format, to junior faculty and fellows actively involved in research at US academic medical institutions, with a special emphasis on underrepresented minorities. The authors present an overview of the design and implementation of ASIBS, along with a short-term evaluation of its impact for the first cohort of ASIBS participants.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/cts.2017.298

    View details for PubMedID 29657857

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5890315

  • Impact of a Genetic Risk Score for Coronary Artery Disease on Reducing Cardiovascular Risk: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study. Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine Knowles, J. W., Zarafshar, S. n., Pavlovic, A. n., Goldstein, B. A., Tsai, S. n., Li, J. n., McConnell, M. V., Absher, D. n., Ashley, E. A., Kiernan, M. n., Ioannidis, J. P., Assimes, T. L. 2017; 4: 53


    We tested whether providing a genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) would serve as a motivator to improve adherence to risk-reducing strategies.We randomized 94 participants with at least moderate risk of CAD to receive standard-of-care with (N = 49) or without (N = 45) their GRS at a subsequent 3-month follow-up visit. Our primary outcome was change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) between the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits (ΔLDL-C). Secondary outcomes included other CAD risk factors, weight loss, diet, physical activity, risk perceptions, and psychological outcomes. In pre-specified analyses, we examined whether there was a greater motivational effect in participants with a higher GRS.Sixty-five participants completed the protocol including 30 participants in the GRS arm. We found no change in the primary outcome between participants receiving their GRS and standard-of-care participants (ΔLDL-C: -13 vs. -9 mg/dl). Among participants with a higher GRS, we observed modest effects on weight loss and physical activity. All other secondary outcomes were not significantly different, including anxiety and worry.Adding GRS to standard-of-care did not change lipids, adherence, or psychological outcomes. Potential modest benefits in weight loss and physical activity for participants with high GRS need to be validated in larger trials.

    View details for PubMedID 28856136

  • Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of self-regulation Behaviour Research and Therapy Eisenberg, I. W., Bissett, P. G., Enkavi, A. Z., Poldrack, R. A. 2017: 46–57


    Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psychological and neural components of self-regulation remain poorly understood, which contributes to theoretical inconsistencies and hinders maximally effective intervention development. We outline a research program that seeks to define a neuropsychological ontology of self-regulation, articulating the cognitive components that compose self-regulation, their relationships, and their associated measurements. The ontology will be informed by two large-scale approaches to assessing individual differences: first purely behaviorally using data collected via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, then coupled with neuroimaging data collected from a separate population. To validate the ontology and demonstrate its utility, we will then use it to contextualize health risk behaviors in two exemplar behavioral groups: overweight/obese adults who binge eat and smokers. After identifying ontological targets that precipitate maladaptive behavior, we will craft interventions that engage these targets. If successful, this work will provide a structured, holistic account of self-regulation in the form of an explicit ontology, which will better clarify the pattern of deficits related to maladaptive health behavior, and provide direction for more effective behavior change interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.014

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5801197

  • Putting the brakes on the "drive to eat": Pilot effects of naltrexone and reward-based eating on food cravings among obese women EATING BEHAVIORS Mason, A. E., Laraia, B., Daubenmier, J., Hecht, F. M., Lustig, R. H., Puterman, E., Adler, N., Dallman, M., Kiernan, M., Gearhardt, A. N., Epel, E. S. 2015; 19: 53-56

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2015.06.008

    View details for PubMedID 26164674

  • Outreach to diversify clinical trial participation: A randomized recruitment study CLINICAL TRIALS Brown, S. D., Partee, P. N., Feng, J., Quesenberry, C. P., Hedderson, M. M., Ehrlich, S. F., Kiernan, M., Ferrara, A. 2015; 12 (3): 205-211


    Racial and ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in clinical research, yet few recruitment strategies have been rigorously evaluated.We experimentally tested whether targeted recruitment letters acknowledging diabetes health disparities and health risks specific to recipients' racial/ethnic group improved two metrics of trial participation: willingness to be screened and enrollment. This experiment was efficiently nested within a randomized clinical trial examining a preventive lifestyle intervention among women at high risk for diabetes. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (N = 445) were randomized to receive a targeted recruitment letter with health risk information specific to their racial/ethnic group (n = 216), or a standard letter with risk information for the general population (n = 229). All letters were bilingual in English and Spanish.The targeted as compared to the standard letter did not improve screening or enrollment rates overall or within separate racial/ethnic groups. Among Latina women who preferred Spanish, the targeted letter showed trends for improved screening (66.7% vs 33.3%, p = .06) and enrollment rates (38.9% vs 13.3%, p = .13). In contrast, among Latina women who preferred English, the targeted letter significantly lowered screening (29.6% vs 57.1%, p = .04) and showed trends for lowered enrollment rates (25.9% vs 50.0%, p = .07).Results from this randomized study appear to suggest that recruitment letters with diabetes health risk information targeted to recipients' race/ethnicity may improve one metric of clinical trial participation among Latina women who prefer Spanish, but not English. Larger experimental studies, incorporating input from diverse participant stakeholders, are needed to develop evidence-based minority recruitment strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1740774514568125

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353984100003

    View details for PubMedID 25644997

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4424096

  • Minority recruitment into clinical trials: Experimental findings and practical implications CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL TRIALS Brown, S. D., Lee, K., Schoffman, D. E., King, A. C., Crawley, L. M., Kiernan, M. 2012; 33 (4): 620-623


    Racial and ethnic minorities in the US suffer disproportionately from obesity and related comorbidities, yet remain underrepresented in health research. To date, research on practical strategies to improve minority reach and recruitment into clinical trials is primarily descriptive rather than experimental. Within a randomized behavioral weight management trial for obese women, this recruitment experiment examined whether two characteristics of direct mail letters, an ethnically-targeted statement and personalization, increased the response rate among minority women. The ethnically-targeted statement noted ethnic-specific information about health risks of obesity. Personalized letters included recipients' names/addresses in the salutation and a handwritten signature on high-quality letterhead. Of women sent direct mail letters (N=30,000), those sent letters with the ethnically-targeted statement were more likely to respond than women sent letters with the generic statement, 0.8% (n=121) vs. 0.6% (n=90) respectively, p=.03, a 34.4% increase. Women sent personalized letters were no more likely to respond than women sent non-personalized letters, p=.53. In the weight management trial itself, of 267 women randomized into the trial, 33.7% (n=90) were minorities. Of minority women randomized into the trial, 68.9% (n=62) were recruited by direct mail letters: 75.8% (n=47) of those were sent a letter and 24.2% (n=15) were referred by friends/family who were sent a letter. The results indicate that a simple modification to a standard recruitment letter can have a meaningful impact on minority reach and recruitment rates. Practical implications include using ethnically-targeted, non-personalized direct mail letters and recruiting through friends/family at no additional cost.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2012.03.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305711700010

    View details for PubMedID 22449836

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3361553

  • Treatment matching for obesity: identifying mediators of psychosocial and behavioral intervention components. International journal of obesity supplements Kiernan, M. 2012; 2: S23-S25


    In light of the limited long-term success of obesity treatments, it is tempting to consider the elusive goal of 'treatment matching', in which characteristics of individuals are optimally matched to targeted treatments to improve success. Previous frameworks for treatment matching in obesity have primarily focused on basic physiological characteristics, such as initial degree of overweight, and on treatment intensity, such as stepped-care alternatives (self-help manuals, group support, medication and surgery). Few studies have empirically evaluated the success of these frameworks. Given recent advances in genomics, neuroscience and other fields, both the breadth of domains and combinations of individuals' characteristics that could be used for treatment matching have increased markedly. Although the obesity field seems poised to build on these advances, a crucial challenge remains regarding the treatments themselves. Ultimately, the success of treatment matching will rely on identifying treatment intervention components with well-differentiated and empirically supported mediators, that is, clear insights into how intervention components work. Here we examine the scope of this challenge specifically for the design of efficacious psychosocial and behavioral intervention components, and identify areas for future research.

    View details for PubMedID 25089190

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4109088

  • Randomized Trial of Personal Genomics for Preventive Cardiology Design and Challenges CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR GENETICS Knowles, J. W., Assimes, T. L., Kiernan, M., Pavlovic, A., Goldstein, B. A., Yank, V., McConnell, M. V., Absher, D., Bustamante, C., Ashley, E. A., Ioannidis, J. P. 2012; 5 (3): 368-376

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.112.962746

    View details for PubMedID 22715281

  • Social Support for Healthy Behaviors: Scale Psychometrics and Prediction of Weight Loss Among Women in a Behavioral Program OBESITY Kiernan, M., Moore, S. D., Schoffman, D. E., Lee, K., King, A. C., Taylor, C. B., Kiernan, N. E., Perri, M. G. 2012; 20 (4): 756-764


    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N = 267; mean BMI 32.1 ± 3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) "never" or "rarely" experienced support from friends or family. Using nonparametric classification methods, we identified two subscales-support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity-that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who "never" experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who "never" experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend vs. family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/oby.2011.293

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302143300008

    View details for PubMedID 21996661

  • Practices Associated with Weight Loss Versus Weight-Loss Maintenance Results of a National Survey AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Sciamanna, C. N., Kiernan, M., Rolls, B. J., Boan, J., Stuckey, H., Kephart, D., Miller, C. K., Jensen, G., Hartmann, T. J., Loken, E., Hwang, K. O., Williams, R. J., Clark, M. A., Schubart, J. R., Nezu, A. M., Lehman, E., Dellasega, C. 2011; 41 (2): 159-166


    Few studies have examined the weight-control practices that promote weight loss and weight-loss maintenance in the same sample.To examine whether the weight control practices associated with weight loss differ from those associated with weight-loss maintenance.Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 1165 U.S. adults. The adjusted associations of the use of 36 weight-control practices in the past week with success in weight loss (≥10% lost in the past year) and success in weight-loss maintenance (≥10% lost and maintained for ≥1 year) were examined.Of the 36 practices, only 8 (22%) were associated with both weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Overall, there was poor agreement (kappa=0.22) between the practices associated with weight loss and/or weight-loss maintenance. For example, those who reported more often following a consistent exercise routine or eating plenty of low-fat sources of protein were 1.97 (95% CI=1.33, 2.94) and 1.76 (95% CI=1.25, 2.50) times more likely, respectively, to report weight-loss maintenance but not weight loss. Alternatively, those who reported more often doing different kinds of exercises or planning meals ahead of time were 2.56 (95% CI=1.44, 4.55) and 1.68 (95% CI=1.03, 2.74) times more likely, respectively, to report weight loss but not weight-loss maintenance.Successful weight loss and weight-loss maintenance may require two different sets of practices. Designing interventions with this premise may inform the design of more effective weight-loss maintenance interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amepre.2011.04.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292958900007

    View details for PubMedID 21767723

  • Outcome expectations and realizations as predictors of weight regain among dieters EATING BEHAVIORS Moore, S. D., King, A. C., Kiernan, M., Gardner, C. D. 2011; 12 (1): 60-63


    This prospective study tested whether (a) baseline outcome expectations regarding the benefits of a weight-loss diet, (b) 6-month outcome realizations regarding perceived benefits actually experienced, and/or (c) the interaction between them predicted 6-12-month weight regain among overweight/obese women randomized to one of four popular weight-loss diets (N=311). Positive 6-month realizations regarding improvements in physical shape and appearance predicted less 6-12-month weight regain among Atkins diet participants only (n=70), controlling for baseline expectations, the expectations-realization interaction, and initial weight loss. Atkins participants displayed three distinct patterns of regain based on levels of 6-month realizations and initial weight loss. Experimental research should investigate whether improving realizations leads to reduced weight regain in response to this popular diet.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2010.08.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286845700010

    View details for PubMedID 21184975

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3053006

  • The Jade Ribbon Campaign: A Model Program for Community Outreach and Education to Prevent Liver Cancer in Asian Americans JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT AND MINORITY HEALTH Chao, S. D., Chang, E. T., Le, P. V., Prapong, W., Kiernan, M., So, S. K. 2009; 11 (4): 281-290


    The Jade Ribbon Campaign (JRC) is a culturally targeted, community-based outreach program to promote the prevention, early detection, and management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer among Asian Americans. In 2001, 476 Chinese American adults from the San Francisco Bay Area attended an HBV screening clinic and educational seminar. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 13%; only 8% of participants showed serologic evidence of protective antibody from prior vaccination. Participants reported low preventive action before the clinic, but after one year, 67% of those with chronic HBV infection had consulted a physician for liver cancer screening, and 78% of all participants had encouraged family members to be tested for HBV. The increase in HBV awareness, screening, and physician follow-up suggests that culturally aligned interventions similar to the JRC may help reduce the disproportionate burden of disease to chronic HBV infection among Asian Americans.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10903-007-9094-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281505100005

    View details for PubMedID 17990118

  • How and why criteria defining moderators and mediators differ between the Baron & Kenny and MacArthur approaches HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY Kraemer, H. C., Kiernan, M., Essex, M., Kupfer, D. J. 2008; 27 (2): S101-S108


    In recognition of the increasingly important role of moderators and mediators in clinical research, clear definitions are sought of the two terms to avoid inconsistent, ambiguous, and possibly misleading results across clinical research studies.The criteria used to define moderators and mediators proposed by the Baron & Kenny approach, which have been long used in social/behavioral research, are directly compared to the criteria proposed by the recent MacArthur approach, which modified the Baron & Kenny criteria.After clarifying the differences in criteria between approaches, the rationale for the modifications is clarified and the implications for the design and interpretation of future studies considered.Researchers may find modifications introduced in the MacArthur approach more appropriate to their research objectives, particularly if their research might have a direct influence on decision making.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0278-6133.27.2(Suppl.).S101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254823500002

    View details for PubMedID 18377151

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3376898

  • Concerns about infertility risks among pediatric oncology patients and their parents PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER Oosterhuis, B. E., Goodwin, T., Kiernan, M., Hudson, M. M., Dahl, G. V. 2008; 50 (1): 85-89


    Given pediatric cancer patients are living into adulthood, parents and patients need to be informed about fertility-related side effects of their particular treatment.We surveyed 97 parents of pediatric patients of all ages as well as 37 adolescent patients of 14 years or older who were presented for care at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) at the Stanford University Medical Center. We estimated the potential infertility risk (low, intermediate, and high) based on the child's treatment regimen.In contrast to our hypothesis, the majority of parents in all three risk categories were concerned about fertility-related side effects of cancer treatment. Many parents with children at low risk were concerned (58.3%) whereas not all parents with children at intermediate or high risk were concerned, 61.5% and 73.3% respectively, P = 0.43. Indeed, over 50% of all parents were erroneously concerned that cancer therapies cause DNA damage to their child's eggs (or sperm). Only 29.9% of parents were satisfied with the amount of information received. Similar patterns were seen among the adolescent patient sample.Parents of pediatric cancer patients and teenage patients have concerns about fertility-related side effects regardless of treatment received. Targeted education about infertility risk before and after treatment can address these gaps.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.21261

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251410400015

    View details for PubMedID 17514741

  • Use of a community mobile health van to increase early access to prenatal care MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL Edgerley, L. P., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L., Kiernan, M., Daniels, K. I. 2007; 11 (3): 235-239


    To examine whether the use of a community mobile health van (the Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Women's Health Van) in an underserved population allows for earlier access to prenatal care and increased rate of adequate prenatal care, as compared to prenatal care initiated in community clinics.We studied 108 patients who initiated prenatal care on the van and delivered their babies at our University Hospital from September 1999 to July 2004. One hundred and twenty-seven patients who initiated prenatal care in sites other than the Women's Health Van, had the same city of residence and source of payment as the study group, and also delivered their babies at our hospital during the same time period, were selected as the comparison group. Gestational age at which prenatal care was initiated and the adequacy of prenatal care - as defined by Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (RGINDEX) - were compared between cases and comparisons.Underserved women utilizing the van services for prenatal care initiated care three weeks earlier than women using other services (10.2 +/- 6.9 weeks vs. 13.2 +/- 6.9 weeks, P = 0.001). In addition, the data showed that van patients and non-van patients were equally likely to receive adequate prenatal care as defined by R-GINDEX (P = 0.125).Women who initiated prenatal care on the Women's Health Van achieved earlier access to prenatal care when compared to women initiating care at other community health clinics.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-006-0174-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246578900005

    View details for PubMedID 17243022

  • Image-guided robotic radiosurgery for spinal metastases RADIOTHERAPY AND ONCOLOGY Gibbs, I. C., Kamnerdsupaphon, P., Ryu, M., Dodd, R., Kiernan, M., Change, S. D., Adler, J. R. 2007; 82 (2): 185-190


    To determine the effectiveness and safety of image-guided robotic radiosurgery for spinal metastases.From 1996 to 2005, 74 patients with 102 spinal metastases were treated using the CyberKnife at Stanford University. Sixty-two (84%) patients were symptomatic. Seventy-four percent (50/68) of previously treated patients had prior radiation. Using the CyberKnife, 16-25 Gy in 1-5 fractions was delivered. Patients were followed clinically and radiographically for at least 3 months or until death.With mean follow-up of 9 months (range 0-33 months), 36 patients were alive and 38 were dead at last follow-up. No death was treatment related. Eighty-four (84%) percent of symptomatic patients experienced improvement or resolution of symptoms after treatment. Three patients developed treatment-related spinal injury. Analysis of dose-volume parameters and clinical parameters failed to identify predictors of spinal cord injury.Robotic radiosurgery is effective and generally safe for spinal metastases even in previously irradiated patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.radonc.2006.11.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245151400011

    View details for PubMedID 17257702

  • Attitudes and practices of pediatric oncology providers regarding fertility issues PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER Goodwin, T., Oosterhuis, B. E., Kiernan, M., Hudson, M. A., Dahl, G. V. 2007; 48 (1): 80-85


    Given the higher survival rates of childhood cancer, health care providers must be aware of the side effects of cancer therapies to educate patients and provide appropriate interventions to reduce cancer-related morbidity. To understand the current practices and attitudes in a pediatric hematology/oncology clinic, health care providers were surveyed regarding fertility issues pertinent to their patient care. PARTICIPANTS AND INSTRUMENTS: In this study, 93.8% (30/32) health care providers in one pediatric hematology/oncology department completed a 44-item survey assessing knowledge, current practices, obstacles to current practices, perceptions of patient differences, and improvements to future practice.The majority of health care providers were aware of the adverse effects of alkylating agents (90.7%) and of abdominal and pelvic radiation (100.0%) on fertility. However, only half were aware of gender differences in gonadotoxicity (50.0%) or knowledgeable of current research and technology in fertility preservation (53.3%). While only 34.6% of providers currently consulted with specialists, nearly all (92.8%) indicated a desire to do so in the future, but 64.3% indicated difficulties in finding proper facilities and specialists for their patients. Almost all (96.6%) agreed that providers and patient families need more information regarding the effects of cancer therapy on fertility.Surveyed pediatric oncology providers considered fertility to be an important issue for childhood cancer patients and desired more resources regarding effects on fertility and fertility preservation. Greater communication needs to be established between pediatric oncology providers and specialists in reproductive medicine and endocrinology to ensure adequate professional collaboration and patient referrals.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.20814

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242425000015

    View details for PubMedID 16572406

  • Characteristics of pediatric patients at risk of poor emergency department aftercare ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Wang, N. E., Kiernan, M., Golzari, M., Gisondi, M. A. 2006; 13 (8): 840-847


    To identify and characterize subgroups of a pediatric population at risk of poor emergency department (ED) aftercare compliance.This was a prospective, cohort study conducted at a university hospital ED with a 2003 pediatric census of 11,040 patients. A convenience sample of 461 children was enrolled. The study follow-up rate was 97%. The primary outcomes were guardian compliance with instructions for physician follow-up appointment and with obtaining prescribed medications. Predictors of compliance outcomes were analyzed by using recursive partitioning to describe population subgroups at risk of poor compliance.Only 60.4% of patient guardians followed up with instructions to see a physician. Children with private insurance were more likely to follow up than were children without private insurance (76.8% vs. 46.5%, p < 0.001). Of children with private insurance, those with high-acuity diagnoses were more likely to follow up than were patients with low-acuity diagnoses (80.0% vs. 38.5%, p < 0.001). Of children who were considered underinsured (defined as publicly insured or uninsured), those with English-speaking guardians were more likely to follow up than were those with non-English-speaking guardians (58.0% vs. 40.0%, p < 0.05). Only 63.3% of patient guardians obtained prescribed medications. Privately insured children were more likely to obtain medications than were underinsured children (71.0% vs. 58.0%, p < 0.05). Descriptive profiles of the subgroups revealed that those with lower socioeconomic status were at greatest risk of poor aftercare compliance.Compliance with ED aftercare instructions remains a challenge. Health insurance disparities are associated with poor ED aftercare compliance in our pediatric population. Interventions aimed at improving compliance could be targeted to specific subgroups on the basis of their descriptive profiles.

    View details for DOI 10.1197/j.aem.2006.04.021

    View details for PubMedID 16880500

  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma - The Stanford experience, 1997-2004 ARCHIVES OF DERMATOLOGY Berk, D. R., Johnson, D. L., Uzieblo, A., Kiernan, M., Swetter, S. M. 2005; 141 (8): 1016-1022


    To review sentinel lymph node (SLN) data from Stanford University Medical Center from January 1, 1997, to January 1, 2004, including rates of SLN positivity according to 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor classification, relation to other clinical and pathologic prognostic factors, and rates and sites of melanoma recurrence.Retrospective case series.Stanford University Medical Center and Stanford melanoma clinics.A total of 274 consecutive patients with primary melanoma who underwent SLN biopsy (SLNB) between January 1, 1997, and January 1, 2004, or who were referred to the Stanford melanoma clinics after SLNB and were followed up through March 2005.All patients underwent standard wide local excision of their primary tumors and SLNB with intradermal injection of isosulfan blue dye and/or technetium sulfur colloid.Rates of SLN positivity per 2002 AJCC tumor classification, relation to other clinical and pathologic prognostic factors, and rates and sites of melanoma recurrence in node-negative and node-positive patients.Positive SLNs were detected in 39 (15%) of 260 cases, including 0 (0%) of 45 for cutaneous melanomas 1.0 mm thick or less (T1), 21 (18%) of 115 for melanomas 1.01 to 2.0 mm thick (T2), 12 (19%) of 64 for melanomas 2.01 to 4.0 mm thick (T3), and 5 (16%) of 32 for melanomas thicker than 4.0 mm (T4). Median Breslow depths were 1.89 mm for SLN-positive biopsy specimens and 1.50 mm for SLN-negative biopsy specimens (P = .07). The recurrence rate was 46% among SLN-positive patients, with a median time to recurrence of 8 months. Bivariate analysis revealed SLN positivity to be associated with AJCC tumor classification (P = .02), location on the trunk (P = .03), and presence of ulceration (P = .03). By multivariate logistic regression, ulceration (P = .01) was predictive of SLN positivity, whereas SLN status (P< .001), ulceration (P = .02), and location (P = .03) were predictive of recurrent disease.Data from the past 8 years confirm the accuracy and prognostic value of SLNB in cutaneous melanoma and the low rate of regional nodal recurrence for SLN-negative patients.

    View details for PubMedID 16103331

  • Innovative techniques to address retention in a behavioral weight-loss trial 24th Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Behavioral-Medicine Goldberg, J. H., Kiernan, M. OXFORD UNIV PRESS. 2005: 439–47


    Given that retention rates for weight-loss trials have not significantly improved in the past 20 years, identifying effective techniques to enhance retention is critical. This paper describes a conceptual and practical advance that may have improved retention in a behavioral weight-loss trial-the novel application of motivational interviewing techniques to diffuse ambivalence during interactive group-based orientation sessions prior to randomization. These orientation sessions addressed ambivalence about making eating and exercise behavior changes, ambivalence about joining a randomized controlled trial, and unrealistic weight-loss expectations. During these sessions, overweight and obese men and women learned about the health benefits of modest weight loss as well as trial design, the importance of a control condition, random assignment and the impact of dropouts. Participants were then divided into groups of three or four, and asked to generate two pros and two cons of being assigned to a control condition and an active condition. Participants shared their pros and cons with the larger group, while the investigator asked open-ended questions, engaged in reflective listening and avoided taking a 'pro-change' position. Retention was high, with 96% of the participants (N = 162) completing 18-month clinic visits.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/her/cyg139

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230346300006

    View details for PubMedID 15598664

  • Is a Web survey as effective as a mail survey? A field experiment among computer users AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EVALUATION Kiernan, N. E., Kiernan, M., Oyler, M. A., Gilles, C. 2005; 26 (2): 245-252
  • Physical activity as a nonpharmacological treatment for depression: A review Complementary Health Practice Review Phillips WT, Kiernan M, King AC 2003; 8: 139-152
  • Men gain additional psychological benefits by adding exercise to a weight-loss program OBESITY RESEARCH Kiernan, M., King, A. C., Stefanick, M. L., Killen, J. D. 2001; 9 (12): 770-777


    Adding exercise to a comprehensive weight-loss program might not only attenuate any psychological distress associated with weight-loss attempts but also may provide psychological benefits. This study examined whether a diet-plus-exercise weight-loss program improved psychological outcomes more than a diet-only weight-loss program or an assessment-only control group.This study was part of a larger 1-year randomized weight-loss trial examining the effects of diet and exercise on cardiovascular disease risk factors in 264 overweight adults. Psychological measures specific to weight control (e.g., cognitive restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and body dissatisfaction) as well as traditional measures of psychological distress (e.g., symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress) were obtained at baseline and 1 year.Men and women in either weight-loss program reported greater restraint, less disinhibition, and less hunger at 1 year than those in no program. Men in the diet-plus-exercise program experienced additional increases in restraint and decreases in hunger than did men in the diet-only program. Women in the diet-plus-exercise program did not experience additional psychological benefits specific to weight control than those in the diet-only program, despite increases in aerobic capacity.The pattern seen for overweight men in the diet-plus-exercise program at 1 year-greater restraint, less disinhibition, and less hunger-is similar to the pattern seen in successful weight maintainers. These results underscore the need for innovative strategies that will enhance and sustain the pattern of psychological benefits specific to weight control associated with successful weight loss, especially for overweight women.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172892000006

    View details for PubMedID 11743061

  • Is parental control over children's eating associated with childhood obesity? Results from a population-based sample of third graders OBESITY RESEARCH Robinson, T. N., Kiernan, M., Matheson, D. M., Haydel, K. F. 2001; 9 (5): 306-312


    Identifying parental behaviors that influence childhood obesity is critical for the development of effective prevention and treatment programs. Findings from a prior laboratory study suggest that parents who impose control over their children's eating may interfere with their children's ability to regulate intake, potentially resulting in overweight. These findings have been widely endorsed; however, the direct relationship between parental control of children's intake and their children's degree of overweight has not been shown in a generalized sample.This study surveyed 792 third-grade children with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds from 13 public elementary schools. Parental control over children's intake was assessed through telephone interviews using a state-of-the-art instrument, and children were measured for height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness.Counter to the hypothesis, parental control over children's intake was inversely associated with overweight in girls, as measured by body mass index, r = -0.12, p < 0.05, and triceps skinfolds, r = -0.11, p < 0.05. This weak relationship became only marginally significant when controlling for parents' perceptions of their own weight, level of household education, and children's age. No relationship between parental control of children's intake and their children's degree of overweight was found in boys.Previous observations of the influence of parental control over children's intake in middle-class white families did not generalize to 8- to 9-year-olds in families with diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. The present findings reveal a more complex relationship between parental behaviors and children's weight status.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168685300005

    View details for PubMedID 11346672

  • Do logistic regression and signal detection identify different subgroups at risk? Implications for the design of tailored interventions PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS Kiernan, M., Kraemer, H. C., Winkleby, M. A., King, A. C., Taylor, C. B. 2001; 6 (1): 35-48


    Identifying subgroups of high-risk individuals can lead to the development of tailored interventions for those subgroups. This study compared two multivariate statistical methods (logistic regression and signal detection) and evaluated their ability to identify subgroups at risk. The methods identified similar risk predictors and had similar predictive accuracy in exploratory and validation samples. However, the 2 methods did not classify individuals into the same subgroups. Within subgroups, logistic regression identified individuals that were homogeneous in outcome but heterogeneous in risk predictors. In contrast, signal detection identified individuals that were homogeneous in both outcome and risk predictors. Because of the ability to identify homogeneous subgroups, signal detection may be more useful than logistic regression for designing distinct tailored interventions for subgroups of high-risk individuals.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//1082-989X.6.1.35

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170728000004

    View details for PubMedID 11285811

  • Methodologic issues in measuring physical activity and physical fitness when evaluating the role of dietary supplements for physically active people Workshop on Role of Dietary Supplements for Physically Active People Haskell, W. L., Kiernan, M. AMER SOC CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2000: 541S–550S


    Physical activity and physical fitness are complex entities comprising numerous diverse components that present a challenge in terms of accurate, reliable measurement. Physical activity can be classified by its mechanical (static or dynamic) or metabolic (aerobic or anaerobic) characteristics and its intensity (absolute or relative to the person's capacity). Habitual physical activity can be assessed by using a variety of questionnaires, diaries, or logs and by monitoring body movement or physiologic responses. Selection of a measurement method depends on the purpose of the evaluation, the nature of the study population, and the resources available. The various components of physical fitness can be assessed accurately in the laboratory and, in many cases, in the field by using a composite of performance tests. Most coaches and high-level athletes would accept as very beneficial a dietary supplement that would increase performance in a competitive event by even 3%; for example, lowering a runner's time of 3 min, 43 s in the 1500 m by 6.7 s. To establish that such small changes are caused by the dietary supplement requires carefully conducted research that involves randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies designed to maximize statistical power. Statistical power can be increased by enlarging sample size, selecting tests with high reliability, selecting a potent but safe supplement, and maximizing adherence. Failure to design studies with adequate statistical power will produce results that are unreliable and will increase the likelihood that a true effect will be missed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088634200009

    View details for PubMedID 10919958

  • Identifying patients for weight-loss treatment - An empirical evaluation of the NHLBI obesity education initiative expert panel treatment recommendations ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Kiernan, M., Winkleby, M. A. 2000; 160 (14): 2169-2176


    The NHLBI (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Obesity Education Initiative Expert Panel recently proposed that clinicians and other health care professionals use a new treatment algorithm to identify patients for weight-loss treatment. In addition to the usual assessment of body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), the new algorithm includes the assessment of abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference) and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.We examined the percentage of adults meeting the criteria of the panel's treatment algorithm: BMI > or =30 or ¿[BMI, 25.0-29.9 or waist circumference >88 cm (women) >102 cm (men)] and > or = 2 CVD risk factors¿ in a sample of 2844 black, 2754 Mexican American, and 3504 white adults, aged 25 to 64 years, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.Across ethnic groups, more than 98% of adults (normal weight, overweight, and obese) received the same treatment recommendations using the panel's algorithm and an algorithm based only on BMI and CVD risk factors, without waist circumference. For normal-weight adults, almost none (0.0%-1.8%) had a large waist circumference as defined above and 2 or more CVD risk factors. Using the usual criterion of a BMI of 30 or higher, a substantial percentage of at-risk overweight women and men (BMI, 25.0-29.9) with 2 or more CVD risk factors were missed (8.4% and 19.3%, respectively).Despite the potential importance of abdominal obesity as a CVD risk factor, these results challenge the clinical utility of including waist circumference in this new algorithm and suggest that using BMI and CVD risk factors may be sufficient.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088233300013

    View details for PubMedID 10904460

  • Using direct mail to recruit hispanic adults into a dietary intervention: An experimental study ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Kiernan, M., Phillips, K., Fair, J. M., King, A. C. 2000; 22 (1): 89-93


    Identifying strategies for successful recruitment of ethnic minorities into scientific studies is critical. Without effective methods, investigators may fail to recruit the desired sample size, take longer to recruit than planned, and delay progress for research in minority health. Direct mail is an appealing recruitment method because of the potential for reaching large target populations and producing a high volume of inquiries about a study with relatively little staff effort. To determine which of three direct mail strategies yielded higher recruitment, 561 Hispanic employees were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) a flyer about a worksite dietary intervention; (b) the same flyer plus a personalized hand-signed letter containing heart disease risk statistics for the general American population; or (c) the flyer plus a personalized hand-signed letter containing statistics for Hispanics. Two orthogonal chi-square comparisons were examined. The personalized letters plus flyer yielded a significantly higher response rate (7.8%) than the flyer alone (2.1%), X2(1, N = 561) = 7.5, p = .006. However, the personalized letter with Hispanic heart disease risk statistics did not yield a statistically significant higher response rate (9.1%) than the letter with the general population risk statistics (6.5%), X2(1, N = 370) = 0.9, p > .34. These findings suggest that personalized approaches can increase the effectiveness of direct mail efforts for recruiting ethnic minorities into interventions and may be particularly helpful for large-scale interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088802800011

    View details for PubMedID 10892533

  • The effects of marital transitions on changes in physical activity: Results from a 10-year community study ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE King, A. C., Kiernan, M., Ahn, D. K., Wilcox, S. 1998; 20 (2): 64-69


    The potential effects of making a marital transition on subsequent physical activity were evaluated across a ten-year period in a population-based sample of 302 women and 256 men ages 25 to 75 years. Subjects completed a structured interview at five timepoints throughout the ten-year period during which they reported on their physical activity level as well as marital status. The transition from a married to a single state did not affect physical activity relative to remaining married when analyses of either slopes or mean values were used. In contrast, the transition from a single to a married state resulted in significant positive changes in physical activity relative to remaining single throughout the study period when physical activity slopes, though not means, were compared. The results suggest that marriage may potentially set the stage for natural changes in physical activity that could be capitalized on through appropriate intervention, but additional research is needed to verify this in light of the inconsistent pattern of findings.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078467900003

    View details for PubMedID 9989310

  • Characteristics of successful and unsuccessful dieters: An application of signal detection methodology ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Kiernan, M., King, A. C., Kraemer, H. C., Stefanick, M. L., Killen, J. D. 1998; 20 (1): 1-6


    Signal detection methods were used to identify predictors of successful weight loss in 177 mildly to moderately overweight women and men assigned to one of two weight-loss programs. Predictors included initial demographic, physiological, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics, and program type (e.g. diet-only and diet-plus-exercise). Successful weight loss was defined as a loss of at least two units of body mass index at one year. Four subgroups were identified. Participants in the diet-plus-exercise program who were initially more satisfied with their bodies and did not have a history of repeated weight loss were most likely to succeed (63% succeeded). In contrast, participants assigned to the diet-plus-exercise program who were either extremely dissatisfied with their bodies or who had a history of repeated weight loss were at similar risk for failure as participants in the diet-only program (only 26% to 35% succeeded). The results underscore the potential utility of exploring these subgroups further to inform the development of new treatment strategies to increase the likelihood of success.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075741800001

    View details for PubMedID 9755345

  • Can we identify who will adhere to long-term physical activity? Signal detection methodology as a potential aid to clinical decision making HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY King, A. C., Kiernan, M., Oman, R. F., Kraemer, H. C., Hull, M., Ahn, D. 1997; 16 (4): 380-389


    Signal detection methodology was used to identify the best combination of predictors of long-term exercise adherence in 269 healthy, initially sedentary adults ages 50-65 years. Less educated individuals who were assigned to supervised home-based exercise of either higher or lower intensity and who were less stressed and less fit at baseline than other individuals had the greatest probability of successful adherence by the 2nd year. Overweight individuals assigned to a group-based exercise program were the least likely to be successful 2 years later. Predictors of short-term (1-year) adherence were generally similar to predictors of 2-year adherence. Signal detection analysis may be useful for identifying subgroups of people at risk for underadherence who subsequently might be targeted for intervention.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XJ90600011

    View details for PubMedID 9237091



    We examined the association between level of exercise and degree of weight preoccupation in a large sample of male and female runners, as well as risk factors posited to influence weight and eating concerns in the general population. Subjects were 2,459 males and 1,786 females who had completed a questionnaire on weight and eating concerns in a national running magazine. Eight percent of the males and 24% of the females had symptomatic scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Exercise level, defined as weekly running mileage, was positively associated with excessive weight and eating concerns in males but not in females. Both sexes with a history of weight cycling were more likely to have symptomatic EAT scores than those with no such history. These results highlight the importance of studying these concerns in males as well as females and of examining the role of exercise level and weight-cycling history in the development of serious weight preoccupations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KL03300011

    View details for PubMedID 1286662