Current Role at Stanford

LCLS user support and ultrafast sciences (using X-ray, electron diffraction and transient absorption spectroscopy to study ultrafast dynamics of molecules in gas, liquid and materials)

Education & Certifications

  • PhD, University of California at Berkeley, Physical Chemistry
  • MS, National Taiwan University, Chemistry
  • BS, National Taiwan Normal University, Chemistry

Work Experience

  • Experimental Research Assoicate, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (3/15/2016 - 7/15/2018)

    Using ultrafast electron and X-ray diffraction and transient THz absorption spectroscopy to study layered materials


    Menlo Park, CA

  • Postdoc Researcher, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (9/20/2013 - 3/1/2016)

    Build a new XUV transient absorption spectrometer to study ultrafast dynamics of layered materials and coordination complexes


    Urbana Illinois

  • Research Assistant, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Science, Academia Sinica (10/1/2003 - 12/20/2007)

    Hot molecule dissociation dynamics using multimass spectrometer


    Taipei City, Taiwan

All Publications

  • Aggregation of solutes in bosonic versus fermionic quantum fluids. Science advances Feinberg, A. J., Verma, D., O'Connell-Lopez, S. M., Erukala, S., Tanyag, R. M., Pang, W., Saladrigas, C. A., Toulson, B. W., Borgwardt, M., Shivaram, N., Lin, M. F., Al Haddad, A., Jäger, W., Bostedt, C., Walter, P., Gessner, O., Vilesov, A. F. 2021; 7 (50): eabk2247


    [Figure: see text].

    View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.abk2247

    View details for PubMedID 34890219

  • Carrier-Specific Hot Phonon Bottleneck in CH3NH3PbI3 Revealed by Femtosecond XUV Absorption. Journal of the American Chemical Society Verkamp, M., Leveillee, J., Sharma, A., Lin, M. F., Schleife, A., Vura-Weis, J. 2021; 143 (48): 20176-20182


    Femtosecond carrier cooling in the organohalide perovskite semiconductor CH3NH3PbI3 is measured using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and optical transient absorption spectroscopy. XUV absorption between 44 and 58 eV measures transitions from the I 4d core to the valence and conduction bands and gives distinct signals for hole and electron dynamics. The core-to-valence-band signal directly maps the photoexcited hole distribution and provides a quantitative measurement of the hole temperature. The combination of XUV and optical probes reveals that upon excitation at 400 nm, the initial hole distribution is 3.5 times hotter than the electron distribution. At an initial carrier density of 1.4 × 1020 cm-3 both carriers are subject to a hot phonon bottleneck, but at 4.2 × 1019 cm-3 the holes cool to less than 1000 K within 400 fs. This result places significant constraints on the use of organohalide perovskites in hot-carrier photovoltaics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.1c07817

    View details for PubMedID 34813692

  • Imaging the short-lived hydroxyl-hydronium pair in ionized liquid water. Science (New York, N.Y.) Lin, M., Singh, N., Liang, S., Mo, M., Nunes, J. P., Ledbetter, K., Yang, J., Kozina, M., Weathersby, S., Shen, X., Cordones, A. A., Wolf, T. J., Pemmaraju, C. D., Ihme, M., Wang, X. J. 2021; 374 (6563): 92-95


    [Figure: see text].

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abg3091

    View details for PubMedID 34591617

  • Spontaneous fluctuations in a magnetic Fe/Gd skyrmion lattice PHYSICAL REVIEW RESEARCH Seaberg, M. H., Holladay, B., Montoya, S. A., Zheng, X. Y., Lee, J. T., Reid, A. H., Koralek, J. D., Shen, L., Esposito, Coslovich, G., Walter, P., Zohar, S., Thampy, Lin, M. F., Hart, P., Nakahara, K., Streubel, R., Kevan, S. D., Fischer, P., Colocho, W., Lutman, A., Decker, F., Fullerton, E. E., Dunne, M., Roy, S., Sinha, S. K., Turner, J. J. 2021; 3 (3)
  • Direct observation of ultrafast hydrogen bond strengthening in liquid water. Nature Yang, J., Dettori, R., Nunes, J. P., List, N. H., Biasin, E., Centurion, M., Chen, Z., Cordones, A. A., Deponte, D. P., Heinz, T. F., Kozina, M. E., Ledbetter, K., Lin, M., Lindenberg, A. M., Mo, M., Nilsson, A., Shen, X., Wolf, T. J., Donadio, D., Gaffney, K. J., Martinez, T. J., Wang, X. 2021; 596 (7873): 531-535


    Water is one of the most important, yet least understood, liquids in nature. Many anomalous properties of liquid water originate from its well-connected hydrogen bond network1, including unusually efficient vibrational energy redistribution and relaxation2. An accurate description of the ultrafast vibrational motion of water molecules is essential for understanding the nature of hydrogen bonds and many solution-phase chemical reactions. Most existing knowledge of vibrational relaxation in water is built upon ultrafast spectroscopy experiments2-7. However, these experiments cannot directly resolve the motion of the atomic positions and require difficult translation of spectral dynamics into hydrogen bond dynamics. Here, we measure the ultrafast structural response to the excitation of the OH stretching vibration in liquid water with femtosecond temporal and atomic spatial resolution using liquid ultrafast electron scattering. We observed a transient hydrogen bond contraction of roughly 0.04A on a timescale of 80 femtoseconds, followed by a thermalization on a timescale of approximately 1 picosecond. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the need to treat the distribution of the shared proton in the hydrogen bond quantum mechanically to capture the structural dynamics on femtosecond timescales. Our experiment and simulations unveil the intermolecular character of the water vibration preceding the relaxation of the OH stretch.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-021-03793-9

    View details for PubMedID 34433948

  • Probing the interplay between lattice dynamics and short-range magnetic correlations in CuGeO3 with femtosecond RIXS NPJ QUANTUM MATERIALS Paris, E., Nicholson, C. W., Johnston, S., Tseng, Y., Rumo, M., Coslovich, G., Zohar, S., Lin, M. F., Strocov, V. N., Saint-Martin, R., Revcolevschi, A., Kemper, A., Schlotter, W., Dakovski, G. L., Monney, C., Schmitt, T. 2021; 6 (1)
  • Dynamic lattice distortions driven by surface trapping in semiconductor nanocrystals. Nature communications Guzelturk, B., Cotts, B. L., Jasrasaria, D., Philbin, J. P., Hanifi, D. A., Koscher, B. A., Balan, A. D., Curling, E., Zajac, M., Park, S., Yazdani, N., Nyby, C., Kamysbayev, V., Fischer, S., Nett, Z., Shen, X., Kozina, M. E., Lin, M., Reid, A. H., Weathersby, S. P., Schaller, R. D., Wood, V., Wang, X., Dionne, J. A., Talapin, D. V., Alivisatos, A. P., Salleo, A., Rabani, E., Lindenberg, A. M. 2021; 12 (1): 1860


    Nonradiative processes limit optoelectronic functionality of nanocrystals and curb their device performance. Nevertheless, the dynamic structural origins of nonradiative relaxations in such materials are not understood. Here, femtosecond electron diffraction measurements corroborated by atomistic simulations uncover transient lattice deformations accompanying radiationless electronic processes in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. Investigation of the excitation energy dependence in a core/shell system shows that hot carriers created by a photon energy considerably larger than the bandgap induce structural distortions at nanocrystal surfaces on few picosecond timescales associated with the localization of trapped holes. On the other hand, carriers created by a photon energy close to the bandgap of the core in the same system result in transient lattice heating that occurs on a much longer 200 picosecond timescale, dominated by an Auger heating mechanism. Elucidation of the structural deformations associated with the surface trapping of hot holes provides atomic-scale insights into the mechanisms deteriorating optoelectronic performance and a pathway towards minimizing these losses in nanocrystal devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-22116-0

    View details for PubMedID 33767138

  • Electron-ion coincidence measurements of molecular dynamics with intense X-ray pulses. Scientific reports Li, X., Inhester, L., Osipov, T., Boll, R., Coffee, R., Cryan, J., Gatton, A., Gorkhover, T., Hartman, G., Ilchen, M., Knie, A., Lin, M., Minitti, M. P., Weninger, C., Wolf, T. J., Son, S., Santra, R., Rolles, D., Rudenko, A., Walter, P. 2021; 11 (1): 505


    Molecules can sequentially absorb multiple photons when irradiated by an intense X-ray pulse from a free-electron laser. If the time delay between two photoabsorption events can be determined, this enables pump-probe experiments with a single X-ray pulse, where the absorption of the first photon induces electronic and nuclear dynamics that are probed by the absorption of the second photon. Here we show a realization of such a single-pulse X-ray pump-probe scheme on N[Formula: see text] molecules, using the X-ray induced dissociation process as an internal clock that is read out via coincident detection of photoelectrons and fragment ions. By coincidence analysis of the kinetic energies of the ionic fragments and photoelectrons, the transition from a bound molecular dication to two isolated atomic ions is observed through the energy shift of the inner-shell electrons. Via ab-initio simulations, we are able to map characteristic features in the kinetic energy release and photoelectron spectrum to specific delay times between photoabsorptions. In contrast to previous studies where nuclear motions were typically revealed by measuring ion kinetics, our work shows that inner-shell photoelectron energies can also be sensitive probes of nuclear dynamics, which adds one more dimension to the study of light-matter interactions with X-ray pulses.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-79818-6

    View details for PubMedID 33436816

  • Conformer-specific photochemistry imaged in real space and time. Science (New York, N.Y.) Champenois, E. G., Sanchez, D. M., Yang, J., Figueira Nunes, J. P., Attar, A., Centurion, M., Forbes, R., Gühr, M., Hegazy, K., Ji, F., Saha, S. K., Liu, Y., Lin, M. F., Luo, D., Moore, B., Shen, X., Ware, M. R., Wang, X. J., Martínez, T. J., Wolf, T. J. 2021; 374 (6564): 178-182


    [Figure: see text].

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abk3132

    View details for PubMedID 34618569

  • Carrier-specific dynamics in 2H-MoTe2 observed by femtosecond soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy using an x-ray free-electron laser. Structural dynamics (Melville, N.Y.) Britz, A., Attar, A. R., Zhang, X., Chang, H., Nyby, C., Krishnamoorthy, A., Park, S. H., Kwon, S., Kim, M., Nordlund, D., Sainio, S., Heinz, T. F., Leone, S. R., Lindenberg, A. M., Nakano, A., Ajayan, P., Vashishta, P., Fritz, D., Lin, M., Bergmann, U. 2021; 8 (1): 014501


    Femtosecond carrier dynamics in layered 2H-MoTe2 semiconductor crystals have been investigated using soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy at the x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. Following above-bandgap optical excitation of 2H-MoTe2, the photoexcited hole distribution is directly probed via short-lived transitions from the Te 3d 5/2 core level (M5-edge, 572-577eV) to transiently unoccupied states in the valence band. The optically excited electrons are separately probed via the reduced absorption probability at the Te M5-edge involving partially occupied states of the conduction band. A 400±110 fs delay is observed between this transient electron signal near the conduction band minimum compared to higher-lying states within the conduction band, which we assign to hot electron relaxation. Additionally, the transient absorption signals below and above the Te M5 edge, assigned to photoexcited holes and electrons, respectively, are observed to decay concomitantly on a 1-2 ps timescale, which is interpreted as electron-hole recombination. The present work provides a benchmark for applications of XFELs for soft x-ray absorption studies of carrier-specific dynamics in semiconductors, and future opportunities enabled by this method are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/4.0000048

    View details for PubMedID 33511247

  • Structure retrieval in liquid-phase electron scattering. Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP Yang, J., Nunes, J. P., Ledbetter, K., Biasin, E., Centurion, M., Chen, Z., Cordones, A. A., Crissman, C., Deponte, D. P., Glenzer, S. H., Lin, M., Mo, M., Rankine, C. D., Shen, X., Wolf, T. J., Wang, X. 2020


    Electron scattering on liquid samples has been enabled recently by the development of ultrathin liquid sheet technologies. The data treatment of liquid-phase electron scattering has been mostly reliant on methodologies developed for gas electron diffraction, in which theoretical inputs and empirical fittings are often needed to account for the atomic form factor and remove the inelastic scattering background. In this work, we present an alternative data treatment method that is able to retrieve the radial distribution of all the charged particle pairs without the need of either theoretical inputs or empirical fittings. The merits of this new method are illustrated through the retrieval of real-space molecular structure from experimental electron scattering patterns of liquid water, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d0cp06045c

    View details for PubMedID 33367391

  • Photodissociation of aqueous I3- observed with liquid-phase ultrafast mega-electronvolt electron diffraction Structural Dynamics Ledbetter, K., et al 2020; 21: 10


    Developing femtosecond resolution methods for directly observing structural dynamics is critical to understanding complex photochemical reaction mechanisms in solution. We have used two recent developments, ultrafast mega-electron-volt electron sources and vacuum compatible sub-micron thick liquid sheet jets, to enable liquid-phase ultrafast electron diffraction (LUED). We have demonstrated the viability of LUED by investigating the photodissociation of tri-iodide initiated with a 400 nm laser pulse. This has enabled the average speed of the bond expansion to be measured during the first 750 fs of dissociation and the geminate recombination to be directly captured on the picosecond time scale.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/4.0000051

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7771998

  • Simultaneous Observation of Carrier-Specific Redistribution and Coherent Lattice Dynamics in 2H-MoTe2 with Femtosecond Core-Level Spectroscopy. ACS nano Attar, A. R., Chang, H., Britz, A., Zhang, X., Lin, M., Krishnamoorthy, A., Linker, T., Fritz, D., Neumark, D. M., Kalia, R. K., Nakano, A., Ajayan, P., Vashishta, P., Bergmann, U., Leone, S. R. 2020


    We employ few-femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy to reveal simultaneously the intra- and interband carrier relaxation and the light-induced structural dynamics in nanoscale thin films of layered 2H-MoTe2 semiconductor. By interrogating the valence electronic structure via localized Te 4d (39-46 eV) and Mo 4p (35-38 eV) core levels, the relaxation of the photoexcited hole distribution is directly observed in real time. We obtain hole thermalization and cooling times of 15 ± 5 fs and 380 ± 90 fs, respectively, and an electron-hole recombination time of 1.5 ± 0.1 ps. Furthermore, excitations of coherent out-of-plane A1g (5.1 THz) and in-plane E1g (3.7 THz) lattice vibrations are visualized through oscillations in the XUV absorption spectra. By comparison to Bethe-Salpeter equation simulations, the spectral changes are mapped to real-space excited-state displacements of the lattice along the dominant A1g coordinate. By directly and simultaneously probing the excited carrier distribution dynamics and accompanying femtosecond lattice displacement in 2H-MoTe2 within a single experiment, our work provides a benchmark for understanding the interplay between electronic and structural dynamics in photoexcited nanomaterials.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.0c06988

    View details for PubMedID 33085888

  • Tunable isolated attosecond X-ray pulses with gigawatt peak power from a free-electron laser NATURE PHOTONICS Duris, J., Li, S., Driver, T., Champenois, E. G., MacArthur, J. P., Lutman, A. A., Zhang, Z., Rosenberger, P., Aldrich, J. W., Coffee, R., Coslovich, G., Decker, F., Glownia, J. M., Hartmann, G., Helml, W., Kamalov, A., Knurr, J., Krzywinski, J., Lin, M., Nantel, M., Natan, A., O'Neal, J., Shivaram, N., Walter, P., Wang, A., Welch, J. J., Wolf, T. A., Xu, J. Z., Kling, M. F., Bucksbaum, P. H., Zholents, A., Huang, Z., Cryan, J. P., Marinelli, A., Marangos, J. P. 2020; 14 (1): 30-+
  • Optical Control of Non-Equilibrium Phonon Dynamics. Nano letters Krishnamoorthy, A., Lin, M., Zhang, X., Weninger, C., Ma, R., Britz, A., Tiwary, C. S., Kochat, V., Apte, A., Yang, J., Park, S., Li, R., Shen, X., Wang, X., Kalia, R., Nakano, A., Shimojo, F., Fritz, D., Bergmann, U., Ajayan, P., Vashishta, P. 2019


    The light-induced selective population of short-lived far-from-equilibrium vibration modes is a promising approach for controlling ultrafast and irreversible structural changes in functional nanomaterials. However, this requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics and evolution of these phonon modes and their coupling to the excited-state electronic structure. Here, we combine femtosecond mega-electronvolt electron diffraction experiments on a prototypical layered material, MoTe2, with non-adiabatic quantum molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio electronic structure calculations to show how non-radiative energy relaxation pathways for excited electrons can be tuned by controlling the optical excitation energy. We show how the dominant intravalley and intervalley scattering mechanisms for hot and band-edge electrons leads to markedly different transient phonon populations evident in electron diffraction patterns. This understanding of how tuning optical excitations affect phonon populations and atomic motion is critical for efficiently controlling light-induced structural transitions of optoelectronic devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01179

    View details for PubMedID 31260315

  • Phonon-Suppressed Auger Scattering of Charge Carriers in Defective Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. Nano letters Li, L. n., Lin, M. F., Zhang, X. n., Britz, A. n., Krishnamoorthy, A. n., Ma, R. n., Kalia, R. K., Nakano, A. n., Vashishta, P. n., Ajayan, P. n., Hoffmann, M. C., Fritz, D. M., Bergmann, U. n., Prezhdo, O. V. 2019


    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) draw strong interest in materials science, with applications in optoelectronics and many other fields. Good performance requires high carrier concentrations and long lifetimes. However, high concentrations accelerate energy exchange between charged particles by Auger-type processes, especially in TMDs where many-body interactions are strong, thus facilitating carrier trapping. We report time-resolved optical pump-THz probe measurements of carrier lifetimes as a function of carrier density. Surprisingly, the lifetime reduction with increased density is very weak. It decreases only by 20% when we increase the pump fluence 100 times. This unexpected feature of the Auger process is rationalized by our time-domain ab initio simulations. The simulations show that phonon-driven trapping competes successfully with the Auger process. On the one hand, trap states are relatively close to band edges, and phonons accommodate efficiently the electronic energy during the trapping. On the other hand, trap states localize around defects, and the overlap of trapped and free carriers is small, decreasing carrier-carrier interactions. At low carrier densities, phonons provide the main charge trapping mechanism, decreasing carrier lifetimes compared to defect-free samples. At high carrier densities, phonons suppress Auger processes and lower the dependence of the trapping rate on carrier density. Our results provide theoretical insights into the diverse roles played by phonons and Auger processes in TMDs and generate guidelines for defect engineering to improve device performance at high carrier densities.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b02005

    View details for PubMedID 31434484

  • Tabletop Femtosecond M-edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure of FeTPPCI: Metalloporphyrin Photophysics from the Perspective of the Metal JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Ryland, E. S., Lin, M., Verkamp, M. A., Zhang, K., Benke, K., Carlson, M., Vura-Weis, J. 2018; 140 (13): 4691–96


    Iron porphyrins are the active sites of many natural and artificial catalysts, and their photoinduced dynamics have been described as either relaxation into a vibrationally hot ground state or as a cascade through metal-centered states. In this work, we directly probe the metal center of iron(III) tetraphenyl porphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) using femtosecond M2,3-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Photoexcitation at 400 nm produces a (π,π*) state that evolves in 70 fs to an iron(II) ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) state. The LMCT state relaxes to a vibrationally hot ground state in 1.13 ps, without involvement of (d,d) intermediates. The tabletop extreme-ultraviolet probe, combined with semiempirical ligand field multiplet calculations, clearly distinguishes between metal-centered and ligand-centered excited states and resolves competing accounts of Fe(III) porphyrin relaxation. This work introduces tabletop M-edge XANES as a valuable tool for measuring femtosecond dynamics of molecular transition metal complexes in the condensed phase.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.8b01101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000429508600034

    View details for PubMedID 29537834

  • LCLS in-photon out: fluorescence measurement of neon using soft x-rays JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B-ATOMIC MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS Obaid, R., Buth, C., Dakovski, G. L., Beerwerth, R., Holmes, M., Aldrich, J., Lin, M., Minitti, M., Osipov, T., Schlotter, W., Cederbaum, L. S., Fritzsche, S., Berrah, N. 2018; 51 (3)
  • Carrier-Specific Femtosecond XUV Transient Absorption of PbI2 Reveals Ultrafast Nonradiative Recombination JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Lin, M., Verkamp, M. A., Leveillee, J., Ryland, E. S., Benke, K., Zhang, K., Weninger, C., Shen, X., Li, R., Fritz, D., Bergmann, U., Wang, X., Schleife, A., Vura-Weis, J. 2017; 121 (50): 27886–93
  • Ultrafast non-radiative dynamics of atomically thin MoSe2 NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Lin, M., Kochat, V., Krishnamoorthy, A., Bassman, L., Weninger, C., Zheng, Q., Zhang, X., Apte, A., Tiwary, C., Shen, X., Li, R., Kalia, R., Ajayan, P., Nakano, A., Vashishta, P., Shimojo, F., Wang, X., Fritz, D. M., Bergmann, U. 2017; 8: 1745


    Photo-induced non-radiative energy dissipation is a potential pathway to induce structural-phase transitions in two-dimensional materials. For advancing this field, a quantitative understanding of real-time atomic motion and lattice temperature is required. However, this understanding has been incomplete due to a lack of suitable experimental techniques. Here, we use ultrafast electron diffraction to directly probe the subpicosecond conversion of photoenergy to lattice vibrations in a model bilayered semiconductor, molybdenum diselenide. We find that when creating a high charge carrier density, the energy is efficiently transferred to the lattice within one picosecond. First-principles nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the observed ultrafast increase in lattice temperature and the corresponding conversion of photoenergy to lattice vibrations. Nonadiabatic quantum simulations further suggest that a softening of vibrational modes in the excited state is involved in efficient and rapid energy transfer between the electronic system and the lattice.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-017-01844-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000416229300031

    View details for PubMedID 29170416

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5701075

  • A novel method for resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering via photoelectron spectroscopy detection JOURNAL OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION Dakovski, G. L., Lin, M., Damiani, D. S., Schlotter, W. F., Turner, J. J., Nordlund, D., Ogasawara, H. 2017; 24: 1180–86


    A method for measuring resonant inelastic X-ray scattering based on the conversion of X-ray photons into photoelectrons is presented. The setup is compact, relies on commercially available detectors, and offers significant flexibility. This method is demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source with ∼0.5 eV resolution at the cobalt L3-edge, with signal rates comparable with traditional grating spectrometers.

    View details for PubMedID 29091061

  • Impact of spatial chirp on high-harmonic extreme ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy of thin films JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA B-OPTICAL PHYSICS Lin, M., Verkamp, M. A., Ryland, E. S., Zhang, K., Vura-Weis, J. 2016; 33 (9): 1986–92
  • Shrinking the Synchrotron: Tabletop Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption of Transition-Metal Complexes JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS Zhang, K., Lin, M., Ryland, E. S., Verkamp, M. A., Benke, K., de Groot, F. F., Girolami, G. S., Vura-Weis, J. 2016; 7 (17): 3383–87


    We show that the electronic structure of molecular first-row transition-metal complexes can be reliably measured using tabletop high-harmonic XANES at the metal M2,3 edge. Extreme ultraviolet photons in the 50-70 eV energy range probe 3p → 3d transitions, with the same selection rules as soft X-ray L2,3-edge absorption (2p → 3d excitation). Absorption spectra of model complexes are sensitive to the electronic structure of the metal center, and ligand field multiplet simulations match the shapes and peak-to-peak spacings of the experimental spectra. This work establishes high-harmonic spectroscopy as a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of molecular inorganic, bioinorganic, and organometallic compounds.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b01393

    View details for Web of Science ID 000382603300015

    View details for PubMedID 27513100

  • Sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy setup for pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS Shavorskiy, A., Neppl, S., Slaughter, D. S., Cryan, J. P., Siefermann, K. R., Weise, F., Lin, M., Bacellar, C., Ziemkiewicz, M. P., Zegkinoglou, I., Fraund, M. W., Khurmi, C., Hertlein, M. P., Wright, T. W., Huse, N., Schoenlein, R. W., Tyliszczak, T., Coslovich, G., Robinson, J., Kaindl, R. A., Rude, B. S., Oelsner, A., Maehl, S., Bluhm, H., Gessner, O. 2014; 85 (9): 093102


    An apparatus for sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies with pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources is presented. A differentially pumped hemispherical electron analyzer is equipped with a delay-line detector that simultaneously records the position and arrival time of every single electron at the exit aperture of the hemisphere with ~0.1 mm spatial resolution and ~150 ps temporal accuracy. The kinetic energies of the photoelectrons are encoded in the hit positions along the dispersive axis of the two-dimensional detector. Pump-probe time-delays are provided by the electron arrival times relative to the pump pulse timing. An average time-resolution of (780 ± 20) ps (FWHM) is demonstrated for a hemisphere pass energy E(p) = 150 eV and an electron kinetic energy range KE = 503-508 eV. The time-resolution of the setup is limited by the electron time-of-flight (TOF) spread related to the electron trajectory distribution within the analyzer hemisphere and within the electrostatic lens system that images the interaction volume onto the hemisphere entrance slit. The TOF spread for electrons with KE = 430 eV varies between ~9 ns at a pass energy of 50 eV and ~1 ns at pass energies between 200 eV and 400 eV. The correlation between the retarding ratio and the TOF spread is evaluated by means of both analytical descriptions of the electron trajectories within the analyzer hemisphere and computer simulations of the entire trajectories including the electrostatic lens system. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the by far dominant contribution to the TOF spread is acquired within the hemisphere. However, both experiment and computer simulations show that the lens system indirectly affects the time resolution of the setup to a significant extent by inducing a strong dependence of the angular spread of electron trajectories entering the hemisphere on the retarding ratio. The scaling of the angular spread with the retarding ratio can be well approximated by applying Liouville's theorem of constant emittance to the electron trajectories inside the lens system. The performance of the setup is demonstrated by characterizing the laser fluence-dependent transient surface photovoltage response of a laser-excited Si(100) sample.

    View details for PubMedID 25273702

  • Atomic-Scale Perspective of Ultrafast Charge Transfer at a Dye-Semiconductor Interface JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS Siefermann, K. R., Pemmaraju, C. D., Neppl, S., Shavorskiy, A., Cordones, A. A., Vura-Weis, J., Slaughter, D. S., Sturm, F. P., Weise, F., Bluhm, H., Strader, M. L., Cho, H., Lin, M., Bacellar, C., Khurmi, C., Guo, J., Coslovich, G., Robinson, J. S., Kaindl, R. A., Schoenlein, R. W., Belkacem, A., Neumark, D. M., Leone, S. R., Nordlund, D., Ogasawara, H., Krupin, O., Turner, J. J., Schlotter, W. F., Holmes, M. R., Messerschmidt, M., Minitti, M. P., Gul, S., Zhang, J. Z., Huse, N., Prendergast, D., Gessner, O. 2014; 5 (15): 2753-2759


    Understanding interfacial charge-transfer processes on the atomic level is crucial to support the rational design of energy-challenge relevant systems such as solar cells, batteries, and photocatalysts. A femtosecond time-resolved core-level photoelectron spectroscopy study is performed that probes the electronic structure of the interface between ruthenium-based N3 dye molecules and ZnO nanocrystals within the first picosecond after photoexcitation and from the unique perspective of the Ru reporter atom at the center of the dye. A transient chemical shift of the Ru 3d inner-shell photolines by (2.3 ± 0.2) eV to higher binding energies is observed 500 fs after photoexcitation of the dye. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of ab initio calculations using constrained density functional theory. Strong indications for the formation of an interfacial charge-transfer state are presented, providing direct insight into a transient electronic configuration that may limit the efficiency of photoinduced free charge-carrier generation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jz501264x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340222200044

    View details for PubMedID 26277975

  • Ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide probed by femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M., Neumark, D. M., Gessner, O., Leone, S. R. 2014; 140 (6): 064311


    Strong-field induced ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide, CH2=CHBr, are probed using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy. Strong-field ionization is initiated with an intense femtosecond, near infrared (NIR, 775 nm) laser field. Femtosecond XUV pulses covering the photon energy range of 50-72 eV probe the subsequent dynamics by measuring the time-dependent spectroscopic features associated with transitions of the Br (3d) inner-shell electrons to vacancies in molecular and atomic valence orbitals. Spectral signatures are observed for the depletion of neutral C2H3Br, the formation of C2H3Br(+) ions in their ground (X̃) and first excited (Ã) states, the production of C2H3Br(++) ions, and the appearance of neutral Br ((2)P3/2) atoms by dissociative ionization. The formation of free Br ((2)P3/2) atoms occurs on a timescale of 330 ± 150 fs. The ionic à state exhibits a time-dependent XUV absorption energy shift of ∼0.4 eV within the time window of the atomic Br formation. The yield of Br atoms correlates with the yield of parent ions in the à state as a function of NIR peak intensity. The observations suggest that a fraction of vibrationally excited C2H3Br(+) (Ã) ions undergoes intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution followed by the C-Br bond dissociation. The C2H3Br(+) (X̃) products and the majority of the C2H3Br(++) ions are relatively stable due to a deeper potential well and a high dissociation barrier, respectively. The results offer powerful new insights about orbital-specific electronic processes in high field ionization, coupled vibrational relaxation and dissociation dynamics, and the correlation of valence hole-state location and dissociation in polyatomic molecules, all probed simultaneously by ultrafast table-top XUV spectroscopy.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4865128

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331868100026

    View details for PubMedID 24527919

  • Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d(-1)6p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M., Pfeiffer, A. N., Neumark, D. M., Leone, S. R., Gessner, O. 2012; 137 (24): 244305


    Light-induced coupling of core-excited states of Xe atoms is investigated by femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy with photon energies ranging from 50 eV to 72 eV. Coupling of the 4d(-1)((2)D(5/2))6p((2)P(3/2)) (65.1 eV) and 4d(-1)((2)D(3/2))6p((2)P(1/2)) (67.0 eV) core-excited states to nearby states by a strong infrared laser field leads to a threefold enhancement of XUV transmission. The transmission at 65.1 eV (67.0 eV) changes from 3.2 ± 0.4% (5.9 ± 0.5%) without the coupling laser to 9 ± 2% (22 ± 5%) at the maximum of the laser field. A strong-field induced broad XUV absorption feature between 60 eV and 65 eV is ascribed to splitting of the field-free absorption lines into multiple branches when the Rabi frequencies of the coupling transitions exceed the infrared laser frequency. This picture is supported by a comparison of the strong-field induced absorption spectrum with a numerical integration of the von Neumann equation for a few-level quantum system. The valence hole-alignment of strong-field ionized Xe is revisited, confirming the previously observed reduced alignment compared to theoretical predictions.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4772199

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312832100014

    View details for PubMedID 23277934

  • Photostability of amino acids: photodissociation dynamics of phenylalanine chromophores PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Tseng, C., Lin, M., Yang, Y., Ho, Y., Ni, C., Chang, J. 2010; 12 (19): 4989–95


    The theoretical prediction of H atom elimination on the excited state of phenol, imidazole and indole, the respective chromophores for the amino acids tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan, and the confirmation of theoretical prediction by experimental observations have a great impact on the explanation of photostability of amino acids upon irradiation with UV photons. On the other hand, no theoretical prediction of the excited state photodissociation dynamics has been made on the other aromatic amino acid, phenylalanine. In this work, photodissociation dynamics for various phenylalanine chromophores, including, phenylethylamine, N-methyl-phenylethylamine, and N-acetyl phenylalanine methyl ester was investigated in a molecular beam at 248 and 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. The major dissociation channel for these compounds is the C-C bond cleavage. However, the photofragment translational energy distribution of phenylethylamine contains two components. The slow component corresponds to the dissociation on the ground state surface after internal conversion, and the fast component represents the dissociation from an excited state with a large exit barrier. The competition between the dissociation on the ground state and on the excited state changes as the size of chromophores increases. Internal conversion to the ground state prior to dissociation becomes the major nonradiative process for large chromophores. This study reveals the size-dependent photostability for these amino acid chromophores.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b925338f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277359300011

    View details for PubMedID 20405063

  • Photodissociation dynamics of small aromatic molecules studied by multimass ion imaging JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Ni, C., Tseng, C., Lin, M., Dyakov, Y. A. 2007; 111 (44): 12631–42


    The photodissociation dynamics of various aromatic molecules, studied using multimass ion imaging techniques, is reviewed. The experimental data reveals new isomerization and dissociation mechanisms. Our investigation of benzene, pyridine, and pyrimidine finds that H-atom elimination thresholds remain the same for the three molecules. We also notice that ring-opening dissociation thresholds decrease rapidly with the increase of the number of nitrogen atoms in the aromatic ring. Hydrogen atom elimination is the sole dissociation channel for benzene at 193 nm. Along with H-atom elimination, we observe five distinct ring-opening dissociation channels for pyridine at 193 nm. No dissociation channels were observed for benzene and pyridine at 248 nm. Ring-opening dissociation channels are the major channels for pyrimidine, which dissociates at 193 nm and also at 248 nm. A six-membered to seven-membered ring isomerization was observed for photodissociation processes involving toluene, m-xylene, aniline, 4-methylpyridine, alpha-fluorotoluene, and 4-fluorotoluene, indicating a general isomerization mechanism for all such aromatic molecules. What is significant, is that during the isomerization, atoms (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, fluorine, and hydrogen) belonging to respective alkyl or amino groups are involved in an exchange with atoms within the aromatic ring. This type of isomerization is not observed in other aromatic isomerization mechanisms. For small tyrosine chromophores, such as phenol, 4-methylphenol, and 4-ethylphenol, H-atom elimination from a repulsive excited state plays a key role. However, dissociation is quenched in large chromophores like 4-(2-aminoethyl)-phenol. Our work demonstrates the capability and high sensitivity of multimass ion imaging techniques in the study of aromatic compounds.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp074904j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250650800003

    View details for PubMedID 17935318

  • Photodissociation dynamics of phenol JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A Tseng, C., Lee, Y. T., Lin, M., Ni, C., Liu, S., Lee, Y., Xu, Z. F., Lin, M. C. 2007; 111 (38): 9463–70


    The photodissociation of phenol at 193 and 248 nm was studied using multimass ion-imaging techniques and step-scan time-resolved Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The major dissociation channels at 193 nm include cleavage of the OH bond, elimination of CO, and elimination of H(2)O. Only the former two channels are observed at 248 nm. The translational energy distribution shows that H-atom elimination occurs in both the electronically excited and ground states, but elimination of CO or H(2)O occurs in the electronic ground state. Rotationally resolved emission spectra of CO (1

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp073282z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249655600038

    View details for PubMedID 17691716

  • Photodissociation of S atom containing amino acid chromophores JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M., Dyakov, Y. A., Lee, Y. T., Lin, S. H., Mebel, A. M., Ni, C. 2007; 127 (6): 064308


    Photodissociation of 3-(methylthio)propylamine and cysteamine, the chromophores of S atom containing amino acid methionine and cysteine, respectively, was studied separately in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. Four dissociation channels were observed for 3-(methylthio)propylamine, including (1) CH(3)SCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NH(2)-->CH(3)SCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NH+H, (2) CH(3)SCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NH(2)-->CH(3)+SCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NH(2), (3) CH(3)SCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NH(2)-->CH(3)S+CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NH(2), and (4) CH(3)SCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NH(2)-->CH(3)SCH(2)+CH(2)CH(2)NH(2). Two dissociation channels were observed from cysteamine, including (5) HSCH(2)CH(2)NH(2)-->HS+CH(2)CH(2)NH(2) and (6) HSCH(2)CH(2)NH(2)-->HSCH(2)+CH(2)NH(2). The photofragment translational energy distributions suggest that reaction (1) and parts of the reactions (2), (3), (5) occur on the repulsive excited states. However, reaction (4), (6) occur only after the internal conversion to the electronic ground state. Since the dissociation from an excited state with a repulsive potential energy surface is very fast, it would not be quenched completely even in the condensed phase. Our results indicate that reactions following dissociation may play an important role in the UV photochemistry of S atom containing amino acid chromophores in the condensed phase. A comparison with the potential energy surface from ab initio calculations and branching ratios from RRKM calculations was made.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2761916

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248760300016

    View details for PubMedID 17705597

  • Photostability of amino acids: Internal conversion versus dissociation JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M., Tzeng, C., Dyakov, Y. A., Ni, C. 2007; 126 (24): 241104


    Photodissociation dynamics for various tryptophan chromophores was studied at 193 or 248 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. The competition between internal conversion to the ground electronic state and dissociation from the repulsive excited state reveals size-dependent photostability for these amino acid chromophores. As the size of chromophore increases, internal conversion to the ground state becomes the major nonradiative process. For tryptophan and larger chromophores, dissociation directly from the repulsive state is completely quenched.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2751150

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247625800006

    View details for PubMedID 17614530

  • Photodissociation dynamics of nitrobenzene and o-nitrotoluene JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M., Lee, Y. T., Ni, C., Xu, S., Lin, M. C. 2007; 126 (6): 064310


    Photodissociation of nitrobenzene at 193, 248, and 266 nm and o-nitrotoluene at 193 and 248 nm was investigated separately using multimass ion imaging techniques. Fragments corresponding to NO and NO(2) elimination from both nitrobenzene and o-nitrotoluene were observed. The translational energy distributions for the NO elimination channel show bimodal distributions, indicating two dissociation mechanisms involved in the dissociation process. The branching ratios between NO and NO(2) elimination channels were determined to be NONO(2)=0.32+/-0.12 (193 nm), 0.26+/-0.12 (248 nm), and 0.4+/-0.12(266 nm) for nitrobenzene and 0.42+/-0.12(193 nm) and 0.3+/-0.12 (248 nm) for o-nitrotoluene. Additional dissociation channels, O atom elimination from nitrobenzene, and OH elimination from o-nitrotoluene, were observed. New dissociation mechanisms were proposed, and the results are compared with potential energy surfaces obtained from ab initio calculations. Observed absorption bands of photodissociation are assigned by the assistance of the ab initio calculations for the relative energies of the triplet excited states and the vertical excitation energies of the singlet and triplet excited states of nitrobenzene and o-nitrotoluene. Finally, the dissociation rates and lifetimes of photodissociation of nitrobenzene and o-nitrotoluene were predicted and compared to experimental results.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2435351

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244250200014

    View details for PubMedID 17313218

  • Photodissociation dynamics of pyrimidine JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M. F., Dyakov, Y. A., Tseng, C. M., Mebel, A. M., Lin, S. H., Lee, Y. T., Ni, C. K. 2006; 124 (8): 084303


    Photodissociation of pyrimidine at 193 and 248 nm was investigated separately using vacuum ultraviolet photoionization at 118.4 and 88.6 nm and multimass ion imaging techniques. Six dissociation channels were observed at 193 nm, including C4N2H4 --> C4N2H3 + H and five ring opening dissociation channels, C4N2H4 --> C3NH3 + HCN, C4N2H4 --> 2C2NH2, C4N2H4 --> CH3N + C3NH, C4N2H4 --> C4NH2 + NH2, and C4N2H4 --> CH2N + C3NH2. Only the first four channels were observed at 248 nm. Photofragment translational energy distributions and dissociation rates indicate that dissociation occurs in the ground electronic state after internal conversion at both wavelengths. The dissociation rates were found to be >5 x 10(7) and 1 x 10(6) s(-1) at 193 and 248 nm, respectively. Comparison with the potential energies from ab initio calculations have been made.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2174011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235663300018

    View details for PubMedID 16512712

  • Photodissociation and photoisomerization of α-fluorotoluene and 4-fluorotoluene in a molecular beam The Journal of Chemical Physics Huang, C., Jiang, J., Dyakov, Y., Lin, M., Tseng, C., Lin, S., Lee, Y., Ni, C. 2006; 125: 133305
  • Photodissociation dynamics of indole in a molecular beam JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M. F., Tseng, C. M., Lee, Y. T., Ni, C. K. 2005; 123 (12): 124303


    Photodissociation of indole at 193 and 248 nm under collision-free conditions has been studied in separate experiments using multimass ion imaging techniques. H atom elimination was found to be the only dissociation channel at both wavelengths. The photofragment translational energy distribution obtained at 193 nm contains a fast and a slow component. Fifty-four percent of indole following the 193 nm photoexcitation dissociate from electronically excited state, resulting in the fast component. The rest of 46% indole dissociate through the ground electronic state, giving rise to the slow component. A dissociation rate of 6 x 10(5) s(-1), corresponding to the dissociation from the ground electronic state, was determined. Similar two-component translational energy distribution was observed at 248 nm. However, more than 80% of indole dissociate from electronically excited state after the absorption of 248 nm photons. A comparison with the potential energy surfaces from the ab initio calculation has been made.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2009736

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232206500014

    View details for PubMedID 16392478

  • Photodissociation dynamics of pyridine JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M. F., Dyakov, Y. A., Tseng, C. M., Mebel, A. M., Lin, S. H., Lee, Y. T., Ni, C. K. 2005; 123 (5): 054309


    Photodissociation of pyridine, 2,6-d2-pyridine, and d5-pyridine at 193 and 248 nm was investigated separately using multimass ion imaging techniques. Six dissociation channels were observed at 193 nm, including C5NH5 --> C5NH4 + H (10%) and five ring opening dissociation channels, C5NH5 --> C4H4 + HCN, C5NH5 --> C3H3 + C2NH2, C5NH5 --> C2H4 +C3NH, C5NH5 --> C4NH2 + CH3 (14%), and C5NH5 --> C2H2 + C3NH3. Extensive H and D atom exchanges of 2,6-d2-pyridine prior to dissociation were observed. Photofragment translational energy distributions and dissociation rates indicate that dissociation occurs in the ground electronic state after internal conversion. The dissociation rate of pyridine excited by 248-nm photons was too slow to be measured, and the upper limit of the dissociation rate was estimated to be 2x10(3) s(-1). Comparisons with potential energies obtained from ab initio calculations and dissociation rates obtained from the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory have been made.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1994849

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231168700025

    View details for PubMedID 16108641

  • Photodissociation dynamics of C6HxF6-x (x=1-4) at 193 nm JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Lin, M. F., Dyakov, Y. A., Lin, S. H., Lee, Y. T., Ni, C. K. 2005; 109 (17): 8344–49


    Photodissociation of fluorine-substituted benzenes, including 1,3-difluorobenzene, 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene, and pentafluorobenzene, at 193 nm under collision-free conditions has been studied in separate experiments using multimass ion imaging techniques. HF elimination was found to be the major dissociation channel for all of these molecules. Small amounts of photofragments of C(6)H(3)F(2) and C(6)H(2)F(3) from 1,3-difluorobenzene and 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene, respectively, were also observed. They correspond to the minor dissociation channel of hydrogen elimination. Dissociation rates and fragment translational energy distributions obtained from experimental measurements suggest that HF and hydrogen elimination reactions occur in the ground electronic state. The potential energy surface obtained from ab initio calculations indicates that the four-center reaction in the ground electronic state is the major dissociation mechanism for the HF eliminations. A comparison with the RRKM calculation has been made.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp07647g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228847500009

    View details for PubMedID 16851978

  • Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in the photoionization of ethanol and 1-propanol clusters JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Tsai, S. T., Jiang, J. C., Lin, M. F., Lee, Y. T., Ni, C. K. 2004; 120 (19): 8979–84


    Tunable VUV laser was used to initiate the ion-molecule reactions in the clusters of ethanol and 1-propanol by photoionization in the region between 10.49 to 10.08 eV. Ionic products were detected by the time-of-flight mass spectrometer. In addition to the protonated clusters from proton transfer reactions, the products corresponding to beta carbon-carbon bond cleavage were found to be one of the major products for small sizes of clusters. A comparison with photoionization of methanol clusters and the results of ab initio calculation has been made.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1704637

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221146400011

    View details for PubMedID 15267833

  • H and CH3 eliminations in the photodissociation of chlorotoluene JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M. F., Huang, C. L., Kislov, V. V., Mebel, A. M., Lee, Y. T., Ni, C. K. 2003; 119 (15): 7701–4

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1609393

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185703100010

  • Photodissociation dynamics of azulene JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lin, M. F., Huang, C. L., Lee, Y. T., Ni, C. K. 2003; 119 (4): 2032–36

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1584664

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184103000019