Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Emergency Medicine

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Member, Clinical Assistant Professors Appointment and Promotions Committee (2021 - Present)
  • Associate Vice Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine (2021 - 2023)
  • Affiliate, Stanford Medicine Center for Improvement (2020 - Present)
  • Member, Patient Safety Committee, Stanford Hospital (2020 - Present)
  • Member, Pediatric Mass Casualty Incident Planning Committee (2020 - Present)
  • Co-Lead, ED/Pediatric Heme-Onc Fever/Neutropenia Taskforce (2018 - Present)
  • Member, Referring ED Outreach Steering Committee (2018 - Present)
  • Member, Pediatric ED Safety and Quality Committee (2017 - Present)
  • Pediatric Trauma Liaison, Department of Emergency Medicine (2017 - Present)
  • Quality Director, Pediatric Emergency Medicine (2017 - Present)
  • Member, Pediatric Trauma Professional Practice Evaluation Committee (2017 - 2024)

Honors & Awards

  • Stanford Health Care Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Award, Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2023)
  • Member, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society (2004)
  • Fellow, American College of Emergency Physicians (2013)
  • Early Women Faculty Leadership Development Seminar, Association of American Medical Colleges (2018)
  • Stanford Leadership Development Program, Stanford University School of Medicine (2018)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Co-Chair, Academy of Women in Academic Emergency Medicine Awards Committee, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (2021 - Present)
  • Member, Pediatric Emergency Medicine Committee, American College of Emergency Physicians (2018 - Present)
  • Member, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (2017 - Present)
  • Member, Fellow, American College of Emergency Physicians (2004 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2008)
  • Fellowship: Brown University Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship (2010) RI
  • Residency: UC Davis Emergency Medicine Residency (2007) CA
  • Internship: UC Davis Emergency Medicine Residency (2005) CA
  • Medical Education: UCLA David Geffen School Of Medicine Registrar (2004) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Pediatric Emergency Medicine (2011)

All Publications

  • Precision emergency medicine. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Strehlow, M., Alvarez, A., Blomkalns, A. L., Caretta-Wyer, H., Gharahbaghian, L., Imler, D., Khan, A., Lee, M., Lobo, V., Newberry, J. A., Riberia, R., Sebok-Syer, S., Shen, S., Gisondi, M. A. 2024


    Precision health is a burgeoning scientific discipline that aims to incorporate individual variability in biological, behavioral, and social factors to develop personalized health solutions. To date, emergency medicine has not deeply engaged in the precision health movement. However, rapid advances in health technology, data science, and medical informatics offer new opportunities for emergency medicine to realize the promises of precision health.In this article, we conceptualize precision emergency medicine as an emerging paradigm and identify key drivers of its implementation into current and future clinical practice. We acknowledge important obstacles to the specialty-wide adoption of precision emergency medicine and offer solutions that conceive a successful path forward.Precision emergency medicine is defined as the use of information and technology to deliver acute care effectively, efficiently, and authentically to individual patients and their communities. Key drivers and opportunities include leveraging human data, capitalizing on technology and digital tools, providing deliberate access to care, advancing population health, and reimagining provider education and roles. Overcoming challenges in equity, privacy, and cost is essential for success. We close with a call to action to proactively incorporate precision health into the clinical practice of emergency medicine, the training of future emergency physicians, and the research agenda of the specialty.Precision emergency medicine leverages new technology and data-driven artificial intelligence to advance diagnostic testing, individualize patient care plans and therapeutics, and strategically refine the convergence of the health system and the community.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.14962

    View details for PubMedID 38940478

  • Career Advancement Among Women Physicians in Nine Academic Medicine Specialties. Journal of women's health (2002) Lee, M. O., Flores, B., Fassiotto, M., Hobgood, C. 2023


    Objective: Gender parity lags in academic medicine. We applied the Rank Equity Index (REI) to compare the longitudinal progress of women's academic medicine careers. We hypothesized that women have different rank parity in promotion by specialty based on the proportion of women in the specialty. Materials and Methods: Aggregate data by sex for medical students, residents, assistant professors, associate professors, and professors in nine specialties were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges for 2019-2020. Specialties were clustered into terciles based on the proportion of women in the field: upper (obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, psychiatry), middle (internal medicine, emergency medicine, anesthesia), and lower (surgery, urology, and orthopedic surgery). We calculated the percentage representation by sex by specialty and rank to calculate REI. Specialty-specific REI comparisons between each rank were performed to assess parity in advancement. Results: Only specialties in the upper tercile recruited proportionally more women medical students to residency training. All specialties advanced women for the resident-to-assistant professor with psychiatry, internal medicine, emergency medicine, anesthesia, urology, and orthopedic surgery that promoted women faculty at rates above parity. No specialty demonstrated parity in advancement based on sex for the assistant professor-to-associate professor or associate professor-to-professor transitions. Conclusion: Gender inequity in advancement is evident in academic medicine starting at the assistant professor-to-associate professor stage, regardless of overall proportion of women in the specialty. This suggests a common set of barriers to career advancement of women faculty in academic medicine that must be addressed starting at the early career stage.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jwh.2022.0464

    View details for PubMedID 37192448

  • Implementation of a pediatric in situ, train-the-trainer simulation program in general emergency departments. AEM education and training Schertzer, K., Wang, N. E., Khanna, K., Lee, M. O. 2023; 7 (1): e10843


    Background: Most children receive emergency care in general emergency departments (EDs). Pediatric resuscitations require specific equipment and weight-based dosing that may be less familiar to general ED healthcare professionals. In situ simulation (ISS) improves teamwork and problem solving, and it may identify latent safety threats. This innovative program brought academic faculty to participating hospitals and taught simulation principles in a small-group environment. This format removed many of the barriers to implementing simulations for general EDs and was intended to teach principles for utilizing simulation to meet unique departmental needs.Methods: Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) framework, ED teams at eight hospitals participated in a train-the-trainer program from 2016 to 2020intended to help them implement their own ISSs. Training covered benefits of ISS, use of simulation for identifying latent safety threats, debriefing principles, and potential safety risks of ISS. Faculty also provided on-site mentoring during the implementation phase. We identified factors and barriers that contributed to the successful adoption of an ISS program.Results: Most hospitals continued their ISS program after the study ended. Several themes emerged as pearls and pitfalls to implementing a train-the-trainer program. Successful teams had strong nursing and physician leadership participation, and team members had positive working relationships with early positive feedback which encouraged future ISS implementation. Barriers to simulation included high staff turnover of nurses and physicians as well as social distancing protocols related to infection control.Conclusions: Academic EDs can partner with general EDs to implement a train-the-trainer simulation program. We describe facilitators and barriers to implementing a train-the-trainer ISS program in general EDs to improve emergency care for high-risk, low-frequency events.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10843

    View details for PubMedID 36743260

  • Creating a Safe Space for Simulation: Is it Time to Stop Calling Them Confederates? Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare Preiksaitis, C. M., Lee, M. O., Schertzer, K. 2022


    Use of the term "confederate" is often used in research literature to describe an individual allied with the research team. Confederate is used in simulation research to describe participants allied with the simulation facilitator. Confederate can also refer to the Confederate States of America and has connotations of racial injustice and slavery. Use of this term in simulation may adversely affect psychological safety of learners. Use of the term within the literature is a potential driver of use during simulation sessions. We completed a rapid review of the health care simulation literature to determine the frequency of the term confederate. From 2000 to 2021, 2635 uses of confederate were identified in 765 articles. There seems to be an increased trend in use of this word. We argue that alternative terms exist and should be used to maximize psychological safety of learners.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000710

    View details for PubMedID 36455290

  • Characteristics of Pediatric Patient Transfers From General Emergency Departments in California From 2005 to 2018. Pediatric emergency care Lee, M. O., Wall, J., Saynina, O., Camargo, C. A., Wang, N. E. 2022


    OBJECTIVE: Each year, approximately 300,000 pediatric patients are transferred out of emergency departments (EDs). Emergency department transfers may not only provide a higher level of care but also incur increased resource use and cost. Our objective was to identify hospital characteristics and patient demographics and conditions associated with ED transfer as well as the trend of transfers over time.METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of pediatric visits to EDs in California using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development ED data set (2005-2018). Hospitals were categorized based on inpatient pediatric capabilities. Patients were characterized by demographics and Clinical Classifications Software diagnostic categories. Regression models were created to analyze likelihood of outcome of transfer compared with admission.RESULTS: Over the 14-year period, there were 38,117,422 pediatric visits to 364 EDs in California with a transfer rate of 1% to 2%. During this time, the overall proportion of pediatric transfers increased, whereas pediatric admissions decreased for all hospital types. Transfers were more likely in general hospitals without licensed pediatric beds (odds ratio [OR], 16.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.87-16.67) and in general hospitals with licensed pediatric beds (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 3.46-3.62) than in general hospitals with pediatric intensive care unit beds. Mental illness (OR, 61.00; 95% CI, 57.90-63.20), poisoning (OR, 11.78; 95% CI, 11.30-12.30), diseases of the circulatory system (OR, 6.13; 95% CI, 5.84-6.43), diseases of the nervous system (OR, 4.61; 95% CI, 4.46-4.76), and diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (OR, 3.21; 95% CI, 3.62; 95% CI, 3.45-3.79) had increased odds of transfer.CONCLUSION: Emergency departments in general hospitals without pediatric intensive care units and patients' Clinical Classifications Software category were associated with increased likelihood of transfer. A higher proportion of patients with complex conditions are transferred than those with common conditions. General EDs may benefit from developing transfer processes and protocols for patients with complex medical conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PEC.0000000000002885

    View details for PubMedID 36440988

  • Computed tomography rates in pediatric trauma patients among emergency medicine and pediatric emergency medicine physicians. Journal of pediatric surgery Pariaszevski, A., Wang, N. E., Lee, M. O., Brown, I., Imler, D., Lowe, J., Fang, A. 2022


    Pediatric trauma patients undergo fewer computed tomography (CT) scans when evaluated at pediatric trauma centers (PTC) versus adult trauma centers (ATC) with no change in clinical outcome. Factors contributing to this difference are unclear. We sought to identify whether the training background of physicians, specifically emergency medicine (EM) versus pediatric emergency medicine (PEM), affected the CT rate of pediatric trauma patients within one institution.A single-center retrospective study of CT utilization based on attending physicians' training in trauma patients <18 years between November 2018 and November 2020. Attendings were categorized into two groups: EM residency with no PEM fellowship, or pediatrics/EM residency with PEM fellowship. Primary outcomes measured were the proportion of patients receiving a CT and CT positivity rate.Of 463 study patients, CTs were obtained in 145/228 (64%) patients by EM, and 130/235 (55%) by PEM (p=.07). CT positivity rate was 21% and 19% in EM and PEM, respectively (p=.46). The mean number of CTs per patient in EM was 2.8 compared to 2.1 in PEM (p<.01), and for patients with an injury severity score (ISS) >15, mean number of CTs per patient increased to 4.9 in EM versus 2.4 in PEM (p=.01).The mean number of CTs ordered per patient was statistically higher for EM attendings. The differences between CT rates highlight future opportunities for ongoing development of pediatric trauma imaging guidelines and radiation exposure reduction.Retrospective Study, Level III.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2022.10.042

    View details for PubMedID 36418201

  • Infantile ischemic stroke secondary to profound arteriopathy JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS OPEN Goli, S. G., Pal, R., Lee, S., Lee, M. O. 2022; 3 (4): e12768


    Pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is an uncommon emergency department (ED) presentation. We share the case of a 4-month-old female with a chief complaint of irritability and difficulty feeding. During ED evaluation, she developed lateral gaze deviation, tongue deviation, and rhythmic leg movements. Computed tomography of the head revealed a right-sided hypodensity concerning for ischemic infarct without hemorrhagic conversion. Subsequent brain magnetic resonance imaging and arteriography confirmed a large right-sided cerebral infarct and demonstrated narrowing and tortuosity of almost all extra- and intracranial vessels. Comprehensive pediatric AIS workup, including echocardiogram and laboratory tests for anemia, hypercoagulability, inflammatory, and genetic panels, were non-diagnostic. This case highlights the difficulty in diagnosis of pediatric AIS due to low clinical suspicion, limited neurologic examination, and non-specific presentations that may suggest stroke mimics. Maintenance of clinical suspicion and early recognition of pediatric AIS can result in earlier initiation of neuroprotective measures and optimization of imaging strategies for better outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/emp2.12768

    View details for Web of Science ID 000820793300001

    View details for PubMedID 35813523

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9255893

  • Emergency Medicine Physicians' Screening Practices for Physical Child Abuse in Infants with Skull Fractures CHILD ABUSE REVIEW Lee, M. O., Fang, A., Nuno, M., Atigapramoj, N., Leibovich, S., Magana, J. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1002/car.2726

    View details for Web of Science ID 000718646600001

  • Evaluation of the 2020 Pediatric Emergency Physician Workforce in the US. JAMA network open Bennett, C. L., Espinola, J. A., Sullivan, A. F., Boggs, K. M., Clay, C. E., Lee, M. O., Samuels-Kalow, M. E., Camargo, C. A. 2021; 4 (5): e2110084


    Importance: Given the mortality disparities among children and adolescents in rural vs urban areas, the unique health care needs of pediatric patients, and the annual emergency department volume for this patient population, understanding the availability of pediatric emergency physicians (EPs) is important. Information regarding the available pediatric EP workforce is limited, however.Objective: To describe the demographic characteristics, training, board certification, and geographic distribution of the 2020 clinically active pediatric EP workforce in the US.Design, Setting, and Participants: This national cross-sectional study of the 2020 pediatric EP workforce used the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile database, which was linked to American Board of Medical Specialties board certification information. Self-reported training data in the database were analyzed to identify clinically active physicians who self-reported pediatric emergency medicine (EM) as their primary or secondary specialty. The Physician Masterfile data were obtained on March 11, 2020.Main Outcomes and Measures: The Physician Masterfile was used to identify all clinically active pediatric EPs in the US. The definition of EM training was completion of an EM program (inclusive of both an EM residency and/or a pediatric EM fellowship) or a combined EM program (internal medicine and EM, family medicine and EM, or pediatrics and EM). Physician location was linked and classified by county-level Urban Influence Codes. Pediatric EP density was calculated and mapped using US Census Bureau population estimates.Results: A total of 2403 clinically active pediatric EPs were working in 2020 (5% of all clinically active emergency physicians), of whom 1357 were women (56%) and the median (interquartile range) age was 46 (40-55) years. The overall pediatric EP population included 1718 physicians (71%) with EM training and 641 (27%) with pediatric training. Overall, 1639 (68%) were board certified in pediatric EM, of whom 1219 (74%) reported EM training and 400 (24%) reported pediatrics training. Nearly all pediatric EPs worked in urban areas (2369 of 2402 [99%]), and pediatric EPs in urban compared with rural areas were younger (median [interquartile range] age, 46 [40-55] years vs 59 [48-65] years). Pediatric EPs who completed their training 20 years ago or more compared with those who completed training more recently were less likely to work in urban settings (633 [97%] vs 0-4 years: 440 [99%], 5-9 years: 547 [99%], or 10-19 years: 723 [99%]; P=.006). Three states had 0 pediatric EPs (Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming), and 3 states had pediatric EPs in only 1 county (Alaska, New Mexico, and North Dakota). Less than 1% of counties had 4 or more pediatric EPs per 100 000 population.Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that almost all pediatric EPs worked in urban areas, leaving rural areas of the US with limited availability of pediatric emergency care. This finding may have profound implications for children and adolescents needing emergency care.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.10084

    View details for PubMedID 34003272

  • Protecting the emergency physician workforce during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic through precision scheduling at an academic tertiary care trauma center. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians open Lee, M. O., Ribeira, R., Fang, A., Cantwell, L., Khanna, K., Smith, C., Gharahbaghian, L. 2021; 2 (1): e12221


    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created new emergency physician staffing challenges. Emergency physicians may be taken out of the workforce because of respiratory symptoms or pending severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 test results. Vulnerable emergency physician populations with increased risk of serious disease and death from COVID-19 include physicians at older ages; those with chronic medical conditions, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases and immunosuppression; and potentially pregnancy. We present our approach to planning for staffing issues through precision scheduling. We describe the actions taken to protect our vulnerable physicians and maximize our physician coverage. Measures include optimizing workforce; increasing backup call system; adjusting shifts based on patient arrival times, volume, and surge predictions; minimizing exposure to COVID-19 and reduce personal protective equipment use through telemedicine, huddles, and, creating lower risk emergency department care areas; and standardizing intubations to limit exposure.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/emp2.12221

    View details for PubMedID 33615307

  • Does shock index, pediatric age-adjusted predict mortality by trauma center type? The journal of trauma and acute care surgery Austin, J. R., Ye, C., Lee, M. O., Chao, S. D. 2021; 91 (4): 649-654


    Pediatric trauma patients are treated at adult trauma centers (ATCs), mixed pediatric and ATCs (MTC), or pediatric trauma centers (PTCs). Shock index, pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) can prospectively identify severely injured children. This study characterized the differences in mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS) among pediatric trauma patients with elevated SIPA (eSIPA) at different trauma centers types.Pediatric patients (1-14 years) were queried from the 2013 to 2016 National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with eSIPA were included for analysis. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included rates of splenectomy, computed tomography chest scans, laparotomy, and hospital LOS. Unadjusted frequencies and multivariable regression analyses were performed. An alpha level of 0.01 was used to determine significance.Out of 189,003 pediatric trauma patients, 15,832 were included for analysis. After controlling for age, race, sex, payment method, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale score, hospital teaching status, and number of hospital beds, there was no significant difference in mortality among eSIPA patients at ATCs (odds ratio [OR], 0.753; p = 0.078) and MTCs (OR, 1.051; p = 0.776) when compared with PTCs. This remained true even among the most severely injured eSIPA patients (Injury Severity Score > 25). Splenectomy rates were higher at ATCs (OR, 3.234; p = 0.005), as were computed tomography chest scan rates (ATC OR, 4.423; p < 0.001; MTC OR, 6.070; p < 0.001) than at PTCs. There was a trend toward higher splenectomy rates at MTCs (OR, 2.910; p = 0.030) compared with PTCs, but this did not reach statistical significance. Laparotomy rates and hospital LOS were not significantly different.Among eSIPA pediatric trauma patients, there was no difference in mortality between trauma center types. However, other secondary findings indicate that specialty care at PTCs may help optimize the care of pediatric trauma patients.Retrospective cohort study, level IV.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TA.0000000000003197

    View details for PubMedID 34559163

  • Improving Pediatric Acute Care Through Simulation (ImPACTS): A Scalable Model for Academic-Community Collaboration. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Lee, M. O., Camargo, C. A., Sebok-Syer, S. S. 2021; 96 (12): 1625-1626

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000004396

    View details for PubMedID 35134019

  • Emergency department treatment of asthma in children: A review. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians open Lee, M. O., Sivasankar, S., Pokrajac, N., Smith, C., Lumba-Brown, A. 2020; 1 (6): 1552-1561


    Asthma is the most common chronic illness in children, with >700,000 emergency department (ED) visits each year. Asthma is a respiratory disease characterized by a combination of airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and variable outflow obstruction, with clinical presentations ranging from mild to life-threatening. Standardized ED treatment can improve patient outcomes, including fewer hospital admissions. Informed by the most recent guidelines, this review focuses on the optimal approach to diagnosis and treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations who present to the ED.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/emp2.12224

    View details for PubMedID 33392563

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7771822

  • Using In Situ Simulations to Improve Pediatric Patient Safety in Emergency Departments. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Lee, M. O., Schertzer, K., Khanna, K., Wang, N. E., Camargo, C. A., Sebok-Syer, S. S. 2020


    PROBLEM: Given the complex interaction between patients, individual providers, health care teams, and the clinical environment, patient safety events with serious consequences are most likely to occur in intensive care units, operating rooms, and emergency departments (EDs). With low-frequency, high-risk events such as pediatric resuscitations, health care teams working in EDs may not have the clinical opportunity to identify deficiencies, review and reinforce knowledge and skills, and problem solve in authentic clinical conditions. Without creating opportunities to safely practice, hospitals run the risk of having health care teams and environments that are not prepared to provide optimal patient care.APPROACH: Researchers employed a case series design and used a train-the-trainer model for in situ simulation. They trained health care professionals (instructors) in 3 general, non-academic EDs in the San Francisco Bay area of California to perform pediatric resuscitation in situ simulations in 2018-2019. In situ simulations occur in the clinical work environment with simulation participants (teams) who are health care professionals taking care of actual patients.OUTCOMES: Teams made up of physicians, nurses, and ED technicians were evaluated for clinical performance, teamwork, and communication during in situ simulations conducted by instructors at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Debriefing after the simulations identified multiple latent safety threats (i.e., unidentified potential safety hazards) that were previously unknown. Each ED's pediatric readiness-their ability to provide emergency care for children-was evaluated at baseline and 12 months.NEXT STEPS: The authors will continue to monitor and examine the impact and sustainability of the pediatric in situ simulation program on pediatric readiness scores and its possible translation to other high-risk clinical settings, as well as explore the relationship between in situ simulations and patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000003807

    View details for PubMedID 33116057

  • Patient safety and quality outcomes for ED patients admitted to alternative care area inpatient beds Lee, M. O., Arthofer, R., Callagy, P., Kohn, M. A., Niknam, K., Camargo, C. A., Shen, S. W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2020: 272–77
  • Patient Age, Race and Emergency Department Treatment Area Associated with "Topbox" Press Ganey Scores. The western journal of emergency medicine Lee, M. O., Altamirano, J. n., Garcia, L. C., Gisondi, M. A., Wang, N. E., Lippert, S. n., Maldonado, Y. n., Gharahbaghian, L. n., Ribeira, R. n., Fassiotto, M. n. 2020; 21 (6): 117–24


    Hospitals commonly use Press Ganey (PG) patient satisfaction surveys for benchmarking physician performance. PG scores range from 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest, which is known as the "topbox" score. Our objective was to identify patient and physician factors associated with topbox PG scores in the emergency department (ED).We looked at PG surveys from January 2015-December 2017 at an academic, urban hospital with 78,000 ED visits each year. Outcomes were topbox scores for the questions: "Likelihood of your recommending our ED to others"; and "Courtesy of the doctor." We analyzed topbox scores using generalized estimating equation models clustered by physician and adjusted for patient and physician factors. Patient factors included age, gender, race, ethnicity, and ED area where patient was seen. The ED has four areas based on patient acuity: emergent; urgent; vertical (urgent but able to sit in a recliner rather than a gurney); and fast track (non-urgent). Physician factors included age, gender, race, ethnicity, and number of years at current institution.We analyzed a total of 3,038 surveys. For "Likelihood of your recommending our ED to others," topbox scores were more likely with increasing patient age (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.12); less likely among female compared to male patients (OR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.93); less likely among Asian compared to White patients (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83); and less likely in the urgent (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.93) and vertical areas (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.53-0.95) compared to fast track. For "Courtesy of the doctor," topbox scores were more likely with increasing patient age (OR 1.1; CI, 1.06-1.14); less likely among Asian (OR 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58-0.84), Black (OR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45-0.96), and Hispanic patients (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55-0.83) compared to White patients; and less likely in urgent area (OR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.95) compared to fast track.Increasing patient age was associated with increased likelihood of topbox scores, while Asian patients, and urgent and vertical areas had decreased likelihood of topbox scores. We encourage hospitals that use PG topbox scores as financial incentives to understand the contribution of non-service factors to these scores.

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2020.8.47277

    View details for PubMedID 33207156

  • Emergency department implementation of abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging for pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians open Lumba-Brown, A. n., Lee, M. O., Brown, I. n., Cornwell, J. n., Dannenberg, B. n., Fang, A. n., Ghazi-Askar, M. n., Grant, G. n., Imler, D. n., Khanna, K. n., Lowe, J. n., Wang, E. n., Wintermark, M. n. 2020; 1 (5): 994–99


    Pediatric head injury is a common presenting complaint in the emergency department (ED), often requiring neuroimaging or ED observation for diagnosis. However, the traditional diagnostic neuroimaging modality, head computed tomography (CT), is associated with radiation exposure while prolonged ED observation impacts patient flow and resource utilization. Recent scientific literature supports abbreviated, or focused and shorter, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a feasible and accurate diagnostic alternative to CT for traumatic brain injury. However, this is a relatively new application and its use is not widespread. The aims of this review are to describe the science and applications of abbreviated brain MRI and report a model protocol's development and ED implementation in the evaluation of children with head injury for replication in other institutions.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/emp2.12055

    View details for PubMedID 33145550

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7593499

  • Emergency department treatment of asthma in children: A review JACEP Open Lee, M. O., Sivasankar, S., Pokrajac, N., Smith, C., Lumba-Brown, A. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1002/emp2.12224

  • Patient safety and quality outcomes for ED patients admitted to alternative care area inpatient beds. The American journal of emergency medicine Lee, M. O., Arthofer, R., Callagy, P., Kohn, M. A., Niknam, K., Camargo, C. A., Shen, S. 2019


    BACKGROUND: Inpatient hallway beds are one solution to mitigate emergency department (ED) crowding due to boarding of admitted patients. Alternative Care Areas (AltCA) beds are located in inpatient hallways, cardiac catheterization lab, and endoscopy. We examined whether AltCA beds were associated with increased risk of patient safety and quality outcomes: transfer to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mortality, hospital-acquired infections (HAI), falls, and 72-hour hospital readmission.METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients age >18 years admitted from the ED to non-ICU beds at an urban, academic hospital. AltCA bed exclusion criteria: dementia, frequent respiratory interventions, contact or airborne isolation, psychiatric admission, and inability to ambulate. The study periods were: pre-intervention 9/1/2014-3/31/2015, transition 9/1/2015-3/31/2016, and post-intervention 9/1/2016-3/31/2017. Data analysis used unadjusted and multivariable analyses which controlled for age, sex, race, ethnicity, insurance, ED triage Emergency Service Index (ESI) level, and telemetry order.RESULTS: The study included 16,801 patients, with 622 (3.7%) patients in AltCA beds. AltCA beds had younger patients than standard inpatient beds, 57.7 years and 61.7 years; fewer telemetry order, 48.4% and 59.3%; and fewer ESI level 2, 16.1% and 26.2%. AltCA beds had shorter hospital LOS than standard inpatient beds, 2.7 days and 3.4 days. AltCA beds had decreased risk of transfer to ICU -10.6 (95%CI: -18.3, -2.8) and HAI -13.4 (95%CI: -20.3, -6.5) compared to standard inpatient beds.CONCLUSION: Patients in AltCA beds did not have increased risk of patient safety and quality outcomes but rather decreased risk of transfer to ICU and HAI than standard inpatient beds.

    View details for PubMedID 31085010

  • 2019 Annual Meeting Supplement. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2019; 26 Suppl 1: S9–S318

    View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.13756

    View details for PubMedID 31009162

  • A Research Agenda to Advance Pediatric Emergency Care Through Enhanced Collaboration Across Emergency Departments Barata, I., Auerbach, M., Badaki-Makun, O., Benjamin, L., Joseph, M. M., Lee, M. O., Mears, K., Petrack, E., Wallin, D., Ishimine, P., Denninghoff, K. R. WILEY. 2018: 1415-1426

    View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.13642

    View details for Web of Science ID 000453464100011

  • A Research Agenda to Advance Pediatric Emergency Care Through Enhanced Collaboration Across Emergency Departments. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Barata, I., Auerbach, M., Badaki-Makun, O., Benjamin, L., Joseph, M. M., Lee, M. O., Mears, K., Petrack, E., Wallin, D., Ishimine, P., Denninghoff, K. R. 2018


    In 2018, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) convened a consensus conference entitled, "Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference: Aligning the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Research Agenda to Reduce Health Outcome Gaps." This article is the product of the breakout session: Enhancing collaboration in pediatric emergency care (PEM practice in non-children's hospitals). This subcommittee consisting of emergency medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, and quality improvement experts, as well as a patient advocate identified main outcome gaps in the care of children in the EDs in the following areas: variations in pediatric care and outcomes, pediatric readiness, and gaps in knowledge translation. The goal for this session was to create a research agenda that facilitates collaboration and partnering of diverse stakeholders to develop a system of care across all ED settings with the aim of improving quality and increasing safe medical care for children. The following recommended research strategies emerged: explore the use of technology as well as collaborative networks for education, research, and advocacy to develop and implement patient care guidelines, pediatric knowledge generation and dissemination, pediatric quality improvement; and prepare all EDs to care for the acutely ill and injured pediatric patients. In conclusion, collaboration between general EDs and academic pediatric centers on research, dissemination, and implementation of evidence into clinical practice is a solution to improving the quality of pediatric care across the continuum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for PubMedID 30353946

  • Screening residents for infant lumbar puncture readiness with just-in-time simulation-based assessments. BMJ simulation & technology enhanced learning Kessler, D. O., Chang, T. P., Auerbach, M., Fein, D. M., Lavoie, M. E., Trainor, J., Lee, M. O., Gerard, J. M., Grossman, D., Whitfill, T., Pusic, M. 2017; 3 (1): 17-22


    Determining when to entrust trainees to perform procedures is fundamental to patient safety and competency development.To determine whether simulation-based readiness assessments of first year residents immediately prior to their first supervised infant lumbar punctures (LPs) are associated with success.This prospective cohort study enrolled paediatric and other first year residents who perform LPs at 35 academic hospitals from 2012 to 2014. Within a standardised LP curriculum, a validated 4-point readiness assessment of first year residents was required immediately prior to their first supervised LP. A score ≥3 was required for residents to perform the LP. The proportion of successful LPs (<1000 red blood cells on first attempt) was determined. Process measures included success on any attempt, number of attempts, analgesia usage and use of the early stylet removal technique.We analysed 726 LPs reported from 1722 residents (42%). Of the 432 who underwent readiness assessments, 174 (40%, 95% CI 36% to 45%) successfully performed their first LP. Those who were not assessed succeeded in 103/294 (35%, 95% CI 30% to 41%) LPs. Assessed participants reported more frequent direct attending supervision of the LP (diff 16%; 95% CI 8% to 22%), greater use of topical analgesia (diff 6%; 95% CI 1% to 12%) and greater use of the early stylet removal technique (diff 11%; 95% CI 4% to 19%) but no difference in number of attempts or overall procedural success.Simulation-based readiness assessments performed in a point-of-care fashion were associated with several desirable behaviours but were not associated with greater clinical success with LP.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjstel-2016-000130

    View details for PubMedID 35515095

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8990194

  • Screening residents for infant lumbar puncture readiness with just-in-time simulation-based assessments BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning Kessler, D. O., Chang, T. P., Auerbach, M., Fein, D. M., Lavoie, M. E., Trainor, J., Lee, M. O., Gerard, J. M., Grossman, D., Whitfill, T., Pusic, M. 2017; 3: 17-22
  • The Correlation of Workplace Simulation-Based Assessments With Interns' Infant Lumbar Puncture Success A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study SIMULATION IN HEALTHCARE-JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR SIMULATION IN HEALTHCARE Auerbach, M., Fein, D. M., Chang, T. P., Gerard, J., Zaveri, P., Grossman, D., Van Ittersum, W., Rocker, J., Whitfill, T., Pusic, M., Kessler, D. O. 2016; 11 (2): 126-133


    Little data are available to guide supervisors' decisions regarding when trainees are prepared to safely perform their first procedure on a patient. We aimed to describe the correlation of simulation-based assessments, in the workplace, with interns' first clinical infant lumbar puncture (ILP) success.This is a prospective, observational subcomponent of a larger study of incoming interns at 33 academic medical centers (July 2010 to June 2012) assessing the impact of just-in-time training. When an intern's patient required an ILP, a just-in-time simulation-based skills refresher was conducted with his or her supervisor. At the end of the refresher, supervisors assessed interns' ILP skills on a simulator in the workplace before clinical performance using a four point anchored scale. The primary outcome was the correlation of supervisors' assessment and interns' procedural success. The number needed to assess for this instrument (1 / absolute risk reduction) was calculated.A total of 1600 interns were eligible to participate, and 1215 were enrolled. A total of 297 completed an assessment and a subsequent clinical ILP. Success rates for each scale rating were 29% (18/63) for novice, 39% (51/130) for beginner, 55% (46/83) for competent, and 43% (9/21) for proficient. The correlation coefficient was 0.161 (95% confidence interval, 0.057-0.265), indicating a weak correlation between supervisor rating and success. Success rate was 53% for the ratings of competent or proficient compared with 35% for the ratings of novice or beginner. Using the global rating scale for the summative assessment to determine procedural readiness could lead to 1 fewer patient experiencing a failed ILP for every 6 interns tested (6.2; 95% confidence interval, 4.0-8.5).A simulation-based assessment of interns conducted in the workplace before their first ILP has some value in predicting clinical ILP success.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000135

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374277600010

    View details for PubMedID 27043098

  • Variation in specialists' reported hospitalization practices of children sustaining blunt head trauma. The western journal of emergency medicine Vance, C. W., Lee, M. O., Holmes, J. F., Sokolove, P. E., Palchak, M. J., Morris, B. A., Kuppermann, N. 2013; 14 (1): 29-36


    Questions surround the appropriate emergency department (ED) disposition of children who have sustained blunt head trauma (BHT). Our objective was to identify physician disposition preferences of children with blunt head trauma (BHT) and varying computed tomography (CT) findings.WE SURVEYED PEDIATRIC AND GENERAL EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS (EP), PEDIATRIC NEUROSURGEONS (PNSURG), GENERAL NEUROSURGEONS (GNSURG), PEDIATRIC SURGEONS (PSURG) AND TRAUMA SURGEONS REGARDING CARE OF TWO HYPOTHETICAL PATIENTS: Case 1: a 9-year-old who fell 10 feet and Case 2: an 11-month-old who fell 5 feet. We presented various CT findings and asked physicians about disposition preferences. We evaluated predictors of patient discharge using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for hospital and ED characteristics and clinician experience. Pediatric EPs served as the reference group.Of 2,341 eligible surveyed, 715 (31%) responded. Most would discharge children with linear skull fractures (Case 1, 71%; Case 2, 62%). Neurosurgeons were more likely to discharge children with small subarachnoid hemorrhages (Case 1 PNSurg OR 6.87, 95% CI 3.60, 13.10; GNSurg OR 6.54, 95% CI 2.38, 17.98; Case 2 PNSurg OR 5.38, 95% CI 2.64, 10.99; GNSurg OR 6.07, 95% CI 2.08, 17.76). PSurg were least likely to discharge children with any CT finding, even linear skull fractures (Case 1 OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.08, 0.23; Case 2 OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.11, 0.30). Few respondents (<6%) would discharge children with small intraventricular, subdural, or epidural bleeds.Substantial variation exists between specialties in reported hospitalization practices of neurologically-normal children with BHT and traumatic CT findings.

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2012.3.6924

    View details for PubMedID 23447754

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3582520

  • Variation in specialists' reported hospitalization practices of children sustaining blunt abdominal trauma. The western journal of emergency medicine Sokolove, P. E., Kuppermann, N., Vance, C. W., Lee, M. O., Morris, B. A., Holmes, J. F. 2013; 14 (1): 37-46


    Children with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) are often hospitalized despite no intervention. We identified factors associated with emergency department (ED) disposition of children with BAT and differing computed tomography (CT) findings.We surveyed pediatric and general emergency physicians (EPs), pediatric and trauma surgeons regarding care of 2 hypothetical asymptomatic patients: a 9-year-old struck by a slow-moving car (Case 1) and an 11-month-old who fell 10 feet (Case 2). We presented various abdominal CT findings and asked physicians about disposition preferences. We evaluated predictors of patient discharge using multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for hospital and ED characteristics, and clinician experience. Pediatric EPs served as the reference group.Of 2,003 eligible surveyed, 636 (32%) responded. For normal CTs, 99% would discharge in Case 1 and 88% in Case 2. Prominent specialty differences included: for trace intraperitoneal fluid (TIF), 68% would discharge in Case 1 and 57% in Case 2. Patients with TIF were less likely to be discharged by pediatric surgeons (Case 1: OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.82; Case 2: OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.79). Patients with renal contusions were less likely to be discharged by pediatric surgeons (Case 1: OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32, 0.95) and more likely by general EPs (Case 1: OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.25, 2.69; Case 2: OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.14, 4.89).Substantial variation exists between specialties in reported hospitalization practices of asymptomatic children after abdominal trauma with minor CT findings. Better evidence is needed to guide disposition decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2012.3.6911

    View details for PubMedID 23447755

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3582521

  • A Medical Simulation-based Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents in Neonatal Resuscitation ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Lee, M. O., Brown, L. L., Bender, J., Machan, J. T., Overly, F. L. 2012; 19 (5): 577-585


    The objective was to determine if a medical simulation-based neonatal resuscitation educational intervention is a more effective teaching method than the current emergency medicine (EM) curriculum at one 4-year EM residency program.A prospective, randomized study of second-, third-, and fourth-year EM residents was performed. Of 36 potential subjects, 27 residents were enrolled. Each resident was assessed at baseline and after the intervention using 1) a questionnaire to evaluate confidence in leading adult, pediatric, and neonatal resuscitation and prior neonatal resuscitation experience and 2) a neonatal resuscitation simulation scenario in which each participant was the code leader to evaluate knowledge and skills. Assessments were digitally recorded and reviewed independently by two Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) instructors using a validated neonatal resuscitation scoring tool. Controls (15 participants) received the current EM curriculum. The intervention group (12 participants) experienced an educational session, which incorporated didactics, skills station, and medical simulation about neonatal resuscitation. Outcomes measured included changes in overall neonatal resuscitation score, number of critical actions, time to initial steps of neonatal resuscitation, and changes in confidence level leading neonatal resuscitation.Baseline neonatal resuscitation scores were similar for the control and intervention groups. At the final assessment, the intervention group's neonatal resuscitation score improved (p = 0.016) and the control group's score did not. The intervention group performed 2.31 more critical actions overall and the time to achieve warming (p = 0.0002), drying (p < 0.0001), tactile stimulation (p = 0.002), and placing a hat on the patient (p <0.0001) were also improved compared to controls. At the baseline assessment, 80% of the control group and 75% of the intervention group reported being "not at all confident" in leading neonatal resuscitation. At the final assessment, the proportion of residents who were "not at all confident" leading neonatal resuscitation decreased to 35% in the intervention group compared to 67% of the control group. The majority of the intervention group (65%) reported an increased level of confidence in leading neonatal resuscitation.Medical simulation can be an effective tool to assess the knowledge and skills of EM residents in neonatal resuscitation. Our simulation-based educational intervention significantly improved EM residents' knowledge and performance of the critical initial steps in neonatal resuscitation. A medical simulation-based educational intervention may be used to improve EM residents' knowledge and performance with neonatal resuscitation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2012.01361.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304133300013

    View details for PubMedID 22594362



    Use of illicit drugs results in an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, which is often seen in the Emergency Department (ED). Chest pain is frequently associated with cocaine and methamphetamine use.To determine if the self-report of recent cocaine or methamphetamine use is reliable in illicit stimulant drug users who present to the ED with chest pain.A retrospective review of patients presenting to the ED from July 1, 2004 through June 30, 2006 was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: age >or= 18 years, chief complaint of chest pain, documented social history of drug abuse, positive urine toxicology screen and myoglobin and troponin levels measured, sent from the ED.For the 318 patients who met the inclusion criteria, the self-report rate of cocaine or methamphetamine use was 51.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.57). No difference was found in the self-report rate between users of methamphetamine vs. cocaine (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.7-1.7). There also was no difference in the self-report rate by patient age < 50 years compared to patient age >or= 50 years (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.42-1.08). The self-report rate for males compared to females was not significantly different (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.54-1.4). Patients who had a positive troponin were not significantly more likely to self-report drug use than patients who did not have a positive troponin (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.55-2.2).The self-report rate among cocaine- or methamphetamine-using patients presenting to the ED with chest pain was 51.8%. There seems to be no significant difference in the self-report rate among those who use methamphetamine vs. those who use cocaine, nor by gender, nor stratified by age over 50 years.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.05.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269813600019

    View details for PubMedID 19081702

  • Significance of appendiceal thickening in association with typhlitis in pediatric oncology patients PEDIATRIC RADIOLOGY McCarville, M. B., Thompson, J., Li, C. H., Adelman, C. S., Lee, M. O., Alsammarae, D., May, M. V., Jones, S. C., Rao, B. N., Sandlund, J. T. 2004; 34 (3): 245-249


    The management of pediatric oncology patients with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening is complex because they are generally poor surgical candidates and often have confounding clinical findings.We sought to determine the significance of appendiceal thickening in pediatric oncology patients who also had typhlitis. Specifically, we evaluated the impact of this finding on the duration of typhlitis, its clinical management, and outcome.From a previous review of the management of typhlitis in 90 children with cancer at our institution, we identified 4 with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening. We compared colonic wall measurements, duration of typhlitis symptoms, management, and outcome of patients with appendiceal thickening and typhlitis to patients with typhlitis alone.There was no significant difference in duration of typhlitis symptoms between patients with typhlitis only (15.6+/-1.2 days) and those with typhlitis and appendiceal thickening (14.5+/-5.8 days; P=0.9). Two patients with appendiceal thickening required surgical treatment for ischemic bowel, and two were treated medically. Only one patient in the typhlitis without appendiceal thickening group required surgical intervention. There were no deaths in children with appendiceal thickening; two patients died of complications of typhlitis alone.Our findings suggest that appendiceal thickening does not predict a prolonged course of typhlitis in pediatric oncology patients, but it may indicate an increased risk of serious complications from this disease process.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-003-1122-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220090000010

    View details for PubMedID 14722695