Parkinson's disease is characterized by sub-second resting-state spatio-oscillatory patterns: A contribution from deep convolutional neural network.
2022; 36: 103266
Deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) provides a multivariate framework to detect relevant spatio-oscillatory patterns in the data beyond common mass-univariate statistics. Yet, its practical application is limited due to the low interpretability of the results beyond accuracy. We opted to use DCNN with a minimalistic architecture design and large penalized terms to yield a generalizable and clinically relevant network model. Our network was trained based on the scalp topology of the electroencephalography (EEG) from an open access dataset, constituting our primary sample of healthy controls (n = 25) and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients (n = 25), with and without medication. Next, we validated the model on another independent, yet comparable open access EEG dataset (healthy controls (n = 20) and PD patients (n = 20)), which was unseen to the network. We applied Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) interpretability technique to create a localization map exhibiting the key network predictors, based on the gradients of the classification score flowing into the last convolutional layer. Accordingly, our results indicated that a sub-second of intrinsic oscillatory power pattern in the beta band over the occipitoparietal, gamma band over the left motor cortex as well as theta band over the frontoparietal cluster, had the largest impact on the network score for dissociating the PD patients from age- and gender-matched healthy controls, across the two datasets. We further found that the off-medication motor symptoms were related to the occipitoparietal off-medication beta power whereas the disease duration was associated with the off-medication beta power of the motor cortex. The on-medication theta power of the frontoparietal was related to the improvement of the motor symptoms. In conclusion, our method enabled us to characterize PD patho-electrophysiology according to the multivariate topographic analysis approach, where both spatial and frequency aspects of the oscillations were simultaneously considered. Moreover, our approach was free from common reference problem of the EEG data analyses.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103266
View details for PubMedID 36451369