- Pediatric Cardiology
- Cardiac Intensive Care
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pediatrics - Cardiology
Associate Program Director, Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2020 - Present)
Medical Director, CVICU Hospitalist Program, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2018 - 2022)
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology (2018)
Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (2018) CA
Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (2017) CA
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2012)
Residency: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Pediatric Residency (2012) PA
Medical Education: Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania (2009) PA
Board Certification, American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology (2018)
Board Certification, American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2012)
Fellowship, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford, Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care (2018)
Fellowship, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford, Pediatric Cardiology (2017)
Residency, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pediatrics (2012)
MD, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (2009)
BA, Amherst College, Women's and Gender Studies (2004)
Factors Associated with Transfer Distance from Birth Hospital to Repair Hospital for First Surgical Repair among Infants with Myelomeningocele in California.
American journal of perinatology
The objective of our study was to examine factors associated with distance to care for first surgical repair among infants with myelomeningocele in California. A total of 677 eligible cases with complete geocoded data were identified for birth years 2006 to 2012 using data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative linked to hospital and vital records. The median distance from home to birth hospital among eligible infants was 9 miles, and from birth hospital to repair hospital was 15 miles. We limited our analysis to infants who lived close to the birth hospital, creating two study groups to examine transfer distance patterns: "lived close and had a short transfer" (i.e., lived <9 miles from birth hospital and traveled <15 miles from birth hospital to repair hospital; n = 92), and "lived close and had a long transfer" (i.e., lived <9 miles from birth hospital and traveled ≥15 miles from birth hospital to repair hospital; n = 96). Log-binomial regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios (aRRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Selected maternal, infant, and birth hospital characteristics were compared between the two groups. We found that low birth weight (aRR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.99) and preterm birth (aRR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.97) were positively associated, whereas initiating prenatal care early in the first trimester was inversely associated (aRR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.89) with transferring a longer distance (≥15 miles) from birth hospital to repair hospital. No significant associations were noted by maternal race-ethnicity, socioeconomic indicators, or the level of hospital care at the birth hospital. Our study identified selected infant factors associated with the distance to access surgical care for infants with myelomeningocele who had to transfer from birth hospital to repair hospital. Distance-based barriers to care should be identified and optimized when planning deliveries of at-risk infants in other populations.· Low birth weight predicted long hospital transfer distance.. · Preterm birth was associated with transfer distance.. · Prenatal care was associated with transfer distance..
View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0042-1760431
View details for PubMedID 36646096
A Scoping Review and Appraisal of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Education Literature.
2022; 3 (3): 468-484
Background: Despite a recent rise in publications describing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) education, the scope and quality of ECMO educational research and curricular assessments have not previously been evaluated.Objective: The purposes of this study are 1) to categorize published ECMO educational scholarship according to Bloom's educational domains, learner groups, and content delivery methods; 2) to assess ECMO educational scholarship quality; and 3) to identify areas of focus for future curricular development and educational research.Methods: A multidisciplinary research team conducted a scoping review of ECMO literature published between January 2009 and October 2021 using established frameworks. The Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) was applied to assess quality.Results: A total of 1,028 references were retrieved; 36 were selected for review. ECMO education studies frequently targeted the cognitive domain (78%), with 17% of studies targeting the psychomotor domain alone and 33% of studies targeting combinations of the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Thirty-three studies qualified for MERSQI scoring, with a median score of 11 (interquartile range, 4; possible range, 5-18). Simulation-based training was used in 97%, with 50% of studies targeting physicians and one other discipline.Conclusion: ECMO education frequently incorporates simulation and spans all domains of Bloom's taxonomy. Overall, MERSQI scores for ECMO education studies are similar to those for other simulation-based medical education studies. However, developing assessment tools with multisource validity evidence and conducting multienvironment studies would strengthen future work. The creation of a collaborative ECMO educational network would increase standardization and reproducibility in ECMO training, ultimately improving patient outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.34197/ats-scholar.2022-0058RE
View details for PubMedID 36312813
Distance from home to birth hospital, transfer, and mortality in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in California.
Birth defects research
BACKGROUND: Prior studies report a lower risk of mortality among neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) who are born at a cardiac surgical center, but many neonates with HLHS are born elsewhere and transferred for repair. We investigated the associations between the distance from maternal home to birth hospital, the need for transfer after birth, sociodemographic factors, and mortality in infants with HLHS in California from 2006 to 2011.METHODS: We used linked data from two statewide databases to identify neonates for this study. Three groups were included in the analysis: "lived close/not transferred," "lived close/transferred," and "lived far/not transferred." We defined "lived close" versus "lived far" as 11miles, the median distance from maternal residence to birth hospital. Log-binomial regression models were used to identify the association between sociodemographic variables, distance to birth hospital and transfer. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify the association between mortality and distance to birth hospital and transfer. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables.RESULTS: Infants in the lived close/not transferred and the lived close/transferred groups (vs. the lived far/not transferred group) were more likely to live in census tracts above the 75th percentile for poverty with relative risks 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-2.68) and 1.21 (95% CI 1.05-1.40), respectively. Neonatal mortality was higher among the lived close/not transferred group compared with the lived far/not transferred group (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.67).CONCLUSIONS: Infants born to mothers experiencing poverty were more likely to be born close to home. Infants with HLHS who were born close to home and not transferred to a cardiac center had a higher risk of neonatal mortality than infants who were delivered far from home and not transferred. Future studies should identify the barriers to delivery at a cardiac center for mothers experiencing poverty.
View details for DOI 10.1002/bdr2.2020
View details for PubMedID 35488460
Timing of Transfer and Mortality in Neonates with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome in California.
Maternal race/ethnicity is associated with mortality in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We investigated whether maternal race/ethnicity and other sociodemographic factors affect timing of transfer after birth and whether timing of transfer impacts mortality in infants with HLHS. We linked two statewide databases, the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative and records from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, to identify cases of HLHS born between 1/1/06 and 12/31/11. Cases were divided into three groups: birth at destination hospital, transfer on day of life 0-1 ("early transfer"), or transfer on day of life≥2 ("late transfer"). We used log-binomial regression models to estimate relative risks (RR) for timing of transfer and Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. We excluded infants who died within 60days of life without intervention from the main analyses of timing of transfer, since intervention may not have been planned in these infants. Of 556 cases, 107 died without intervention (19%) and another 52 (9%) died within 28days. Of the 449 included in analyses of timing of transfer, 28% were born at the destination hospital, 49% were transferred early, and 23% were transferred late. Late transfer was more likely for infants of low birthweight (RR 1.74) and infants born to US-born Hispanic (RR 1.69) and black (RR 2.45) mothers. Low birthweight (HR 1.50), low 5-min Apgar score (HR 4.69), and the presence of other major congenital anomalies (HR 3.41), but not timing of transfer, predicted neonatal mortality. Late transfer was more likely in neonates born to US-born Hispanic and black mothers but was not associated with higher mortality.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-021-02561-w
View details for PubMedID 33533967
- Toward Opioid-Free Fast Track for Pediatric Congenital Cardiac Surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 2019
- Birth Location of Infants with Critical Congenital Heart Disease in California PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY 2019; 40 (2): 310–18
Birth Location of Infants with Critical Congenital Heart Disease in California.
The American Academy of Pediatrics classifies neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) from level I to IV based on the acuity of care each unit can provide. Birth in a higher level center is associated with lower morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations. Congenital heart disease accounts for 25-50% of infant mortality related to birth defects in the U.S., but recent data are lacking on where infants with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) are born. We used a linked dataset from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development to access ICD-9 diagnosis codes for all infants born in California from 2008 to 2012. We compared infants with CCHD to the general population, identified where infants with CCHD were born based on NICU level of care, and predicted level IV birth among infants with CCHD using logistic regression techniques. From 2008 to 2012, 6325 infants with CCHD were born in California, with 23.7% of infants with CCHD born at a level IV NICU compared to 8.4% of the general population. Level IV birth for infants with CCHD was associated with lower gestational age, higher maternal age and education, the presence of other congenital anomalies, and the diagnosis of a single ventricle lesion. More infants with CCHD are born in a level IV NICU compared to the general population. Future studies are needed to determine if birth in a lower level of care center impacts outcomes for infants with CCHD.
View details for PubMedID 30415381
Long-term pediatric ventricular assist device therapy: a case report of 2100+ days of support.
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been placed as destination therapy in adults for over twenty years but have only recently been considered an option in a subset of pediatric patients. A 2016 report from the Pediatric Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support (PediMACS) revealed only eight pediatric patients implanted as destination therapy. We report the case of an adolescent male with Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) who underwent VAD placement in 2011 as bridge to candidacy. He subsequently decided to remain as destination therapy and so far has accrued over 2100 days on VAD support, the longest duration of pediatric VAD support reported in the literature to date.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000546
View details for PubMedID 28195883