Dr. Nick Telischak is a neurointerventional surgeon (neurointerventional radiologist) who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of stroke, brain aneurysms, brain arteriovenous malformations, brain and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae, carotid artery stenosis, vertebral body compression fractures, spinal metastases, axial back pain, and congenital vascular malformations. Dr. Telischak treats all of these conditions using minimally-invasive, image-guided procedures and state-of-the-art technology.

Clinical Focus

  • Interventional Neuroradiology
  • Neurointerventional Surgery
  • Diagnostic Neuroradiology
  • Stroke
  • Brain Aneurysm
  • Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (dAVF)
  • Brain Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
  • Moya Moya Disease
  • Spinal Compression Fracture
  • Minimally invasive back pain management
  • Neuroradiology

Academic Appointments

  • Clinical Associate Professor, Radiology
  • Clinical Associate Professor (By courtesy), Neurosurgery

Administrative Appointments

  • Neurointerventional Research Director, California Pacific Medical Center (2016 - 2019)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology (2013)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Neuroradiology (2021)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Radiology Fellowships (2016) CA
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Radiology Fellowships (2014) CA
  • Residency: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Radiology Residency (2013) MA
  • Residency: Stanford University Radiology Residency (2010) CA
  • Internship: Mary Hitchcock Memorial Hospital (2009) NH
  • Medical Education: Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine Office of the Registrar (2008) NH


  • Nick Telischak. "United States Patent 7996068 Surgical method and apparatus for identification of fluorescence", Aug 9, 2011

All Publications

  • Percutaneous Disc Biopsy versus Bone Biopsy for the Identification of Infectious Agents in Osteomyelitis/Discitis. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR Zamarud, A., Kesten, J., Park, D. J., Pulli, B., Telischak, N. A., Dodd, R. L., Do, H. M., Marks, M. P., Heit, J. J. 2024


    To determine whether sampling of the disc or bone is more likely to yield positive tissue culture results in patients with vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis (VDO).Retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients who underwent vertebral disc or vertebral body biopsy at a single institution between February 2019 and May 2023. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, presumed VDO on spinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, absence of paraspinal abscess, and technically successful percutaneous biopsy with fluoroscopic guidance. The primary outcome was a positive biopsy culture result, and secondary outcomes included complications such as nerve injury and segmental artery injury.Sixty-six patients met the inclusion criteria; 36 patients (55%) underwent disc biopsy, and 30 patients (45%) underwent bone biopsy. Six patients required a repeat biopsy for an initially negative culture result. No significant demographic, laboratory, antibiotic administration, or pain medication use differences were observed between the 2 groups. Patients who underwent bone biopsy were more likely to have a history of intravenous drug use (26.7%) compared with patients who underwent disc biopsy (5.5%; P = .017). Positive tissue culture results were observed in 41% of patients who underwent disc biopsy and 15% of patients who underwent bone biopsy (P = .016). No vessel or nerve injuries were detected after procedure in either group.Percutaneous disc biopsy is more likely to yield a positive tissue culture result than vertebral body biopsy in patients with VDO.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2024.02.016

    View details for PubMedID 38613536

  • Matched-pair analysis of patients with ischemic stroke undergoing thrombectomy using next-generation balloon guide catheters. Journal of neurointerventional surgery Kim, L. H., Choi, J., Zhou, J., Wolman, D., Pendharkar, A. V., Lansberg, M. G., Albers, G. W., Dodd, R., Do, H. M., Pulli, B., Heit, J. J., Telischak, N. A. 2023


    Balloon guide catheters (BGCs) have not been widely adopted, possibly due to the incompatibility of past-generation BGCs with large-bore intermediate catheters. The next-generation BGC is compatible with large-bore catheters. We compared outcomes of thrombectomy cases using BGCs versus conventional guide catheters.We conducted a retrospective study of 110 thrombectomy cases using BGCs (n=55) and non-BGCs (n=55). Sixty consecutive thrombectomy cases in whom the BOBBY BGC was used at a single institution between February 2021 and March 2022 were identified. Of these, 55 BGC cases were 1:1 matched with non-BGC cases by proceduralists, age, gender, stent retriever + aspiration device versus aspiration-only, and site of occlusion. First-pass effect was defined as Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction 2b or higher with a single pass.The BGC and non-BGC cohorts had similar mean age (67.2 vs 68.9 years), gender distribution (43.6% vs 47.3% women), median initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (14 vs 15), and median pretreatment ischemic core volumes (12 mL vs 11.5 mL). BGC and non-BGC cases had similar rates of single pass (60.0% vs 54.6%), first-pass effect (58.2% vs 49.1%), and complications (1.8% vs 9.1%). In aspiration-only cases, the BGC cohort had a significantly higher rate of first-pass effect (100% vs 50.0%, p=0.01). BGC was associated with a higher likelihood of achieving a modified Rankin Scale score of 2 at discharge (OR 7.76, p=0.02). No additional procedural time was required for BGC cases (46.7 vs 48.2 min).BGCs may be safely adopted with comparable procedural efficacy, benefits to aspiration-only techniques, and earlier functional improvement compared with conventional guide catheters.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/jnis-2023-020635

    View details for PubMedID 37793796

  • A matched-pair case control study identifying hemodynamic predictors of cerebral aneurysm growth using computational fluid dynamics. Frontiers in physiology Weiss, A. J., Panduro, A. O., Schwarz, E. L., Sexton, Z. A., Lan, I. S., Geisbush, T. R., Marsden, A. L., Telischak, N. A. 2023; 14: 1300754


    Introduction: Initiation and progression of cerebral aneurysms is known to be driven by complex interactions between biological and hemodynamic factors, but the hemodynamic mechanism which drives aneurysm growth is unclear. We employed robust modeling and computational methods, including temporal and spatial convergence studies, to study hemodynamic characteristics of cerebral aneurysms and identify differences in these characteristics between growing and stable aneurysms. Methods: Eleven pairs of growing and non-growing cerebral aneurysms, matched in both size and location, were modeled from MRA and CTA images, then simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Key hemodynamic characteristics, including wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and portion of the aneurysm under low shear, were evaluated. Statistical analysis was then performed using paired Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Results: The portion of the aneurysm dome under 70% of the parent artery mean wall shear stress was higher in growing aneurysms than in stable aneurysms and had the highest significance among the tested metrics (p = 0.08). Other metrics of area under low shear had similar levels of significance. Discussion: These results align with previously observed hemodynamic trends in cerebral aneurysms, indicating a promising direction for future study of low shear area and aneurysm growth. We also found that mesh resolution significantly affected simulated WSS in cerebral aneurysms. This establishes that robust computational modeling methods are necessary for high fidelity results. Together, this work demonstrates that complex hemodynamics are at play within cerebral aneurysms, and robust modeling and simulation methods are needed to further study this topic.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fphys.2023.1300754

    View details for PubMedID 38162830

  • A case of recurrent aneurysm resulting from dual antiplatelet plus anticoagulation after confirmed aneurysm closure following coil-assisted flow diversion. Radiology case reports Geisbush, T. R., Pulli, B., Wolman, D. N., Pendharkar, A. V., Telischak, N. A. 2022; 17 (11): 4075-4078


    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is a management cornerstone for intracranial aneurysms treated with flow diversion. However, combined dual antiplatelet plus anticoagulation (triple therapy) can be indicated in some patients with important associated risks. Here we present the case of a 72-year-old woman with prior history of subarachnoid hemorrhage who was started on triple therapy (enoxaparin and DAPT) following successful flow diversion of an enlarging but unruptured left fetal posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Her post-procedural course was complicated by in-stent thrombosis in the setting of a missed ticagrelor dose and subsequent development of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An early follow-up angiogram confirmed occlusion of the aneurysm. However, after initiation of triple therapy, the aneurysm partially recanalized and her symptoms recurred. Subsequent discontinuation of enoxaparin lead to prompt aneurysm re-occlusion. To our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of confirmed intra-aneurysmal thrombolysis in a successfully treated aneurysm after triple therapy initiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.radcr.2022.07.091

    View details for PubMedID 36065245

  • Comparison of embolization strategies for mixed plexiform and fistulous brain arteriovenous malformations: a computational model analysis of theoretical risks of nidus rupture. Journal of neurointerventional surgery Jain, M. S., Telischak, N. A., Heit, J. J., Do, H. M., Massoud, T. F. 2021


    BACKGROUND: High-flow fistulas related to plexiform nidi are found in 40% of large brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Endovascular occlusion of intranidal fistulas before plexiform components is empirically considered safe, but potential ensuing dangerous re-routing of flow through plexiform vessels may in theory raise their rupture risk. It remains unclear whether it is safer to embolize plexiform or fistulous vessels initially. We used a novel biomathematical AVM model to compare theoretical hemodynamic changes and rupture risks on sequential embolizations of both types of nidus vessels.METHODS: We computationally modeled a theoretical AVM as an electrical circuit containing a nidus consisting of a massive stochastic network ensemble comprising 1000 vessels. We sampled and individually simulated 10000 different nidus morphologies with a fistula angioarchitecturally isolated from its adjacent plexiform nidus. We used network analysis to calculate mean intravascular pressure (Pmean) and flow rate within each nidus vessel; and Monte Carlo analysis to assess overall risks of nidus rupture when simulating sequential occlusions of vessel types in all 10000 nidi.RESULTS: We consistently observed lower nidus rupture risks with initial fistula occlusion in different network morphologies. Intranidal fistula occlusion simultaneously reduced Pmean and flow rate within draining veins.CONCLUSIONS: Initial occlusion of AVM fistulas theoretically reduces downstream draining vessel hypertension and lowers the risk of rupture of an adjoining plexiform nidus component. This mitigates the theoretical concern that fistula occlusion may cause dangerous redistribution of hemodynamic forces into plexiform nidus vessels, and supports a clinical strategy favoring AVM fistula occlusion before plexiform nidus embolization.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-018067

    View details for PubMedID 34893533

  • Intraoperative Neuromonitoring for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Embolization: A Propensity-Score Matched Retrospective Database Study. Cureus Feng, A. Y., Sussman, E. S., Jin, M. C., Wong, S., Lopez, J., Pulli, B., Heit, J. J., Telischak, N. 2021; 13 (1): e12946


    Introduction The treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) may result in neurologic morbidity, particularly when an AVM is located in or adjacent to eloquent brain regions. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) may be utilized to reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury during endovascular AVM embolization; however, IONM for endovascular AVM embolization is not ubiquitously the standard of care. Methods Admissions for AVM embolization were assessed from the IBM MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases (IBM Watson Health, Somers, NY). Inclusion criterion for patients was continuous enrollment six months before and after the index encounter. The use of IONM and presence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were noted. Propensity-score matched cohorts with and without IONM were generated to minimize bias between treatment groups (adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities). Results From 2007 to 2016, there were 16,279 patients diagnosed with cerebral AVM in the MarketScan database. Embolized patients were stratified into IONM and non-IONM cohorts; there were 357 patients in the IONM cohort and 1775 patients in the non-IONM cohort. Provider types were significantly different between cohorts (p<0.005). Unruptured AVMs were significantly more likely to be embolized with adjunctive IONM (17.7%) compared to ruptured AVMs (7.9%) (p<0.005). After balancing for baseline comorbidities, there were 266 patients in the IONM cohort, and 1347 patients in the non-IONM cohort. Among unruptured AVM patients, IONM was linked to a significantly shorter length of stay (2.72 versus 4.92 days; p<0.005), significantly lower rates of complications within 30 days of discharge (0.00% versus 1.88%; p=0.038), and significantly lower total payment ($40,179 versus $50,844; p<0.0001). Conclusion Endovascular embolization for unruptured AVMs performed with adjunctive IONM was associated with shorter length of stay, lower complication rates, and hospitalization costs.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.12946

    View details for PubMedID 33654622

  • Efficacy and safety of embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas via the ophthalmic artery. Interventional neuroradiology : journal of peritherapeutic neuroradiology, surgical procedures and related neurosciences Mayercik, V. A., Sussman, E. S., Pulli, B., Dodd, R. L., Do, H. M., Telischak, N. A., Marks, M. P., Steinberg, G. K., Chang, S. D., Heit, J. J. 2020: 1591019920969270


    INTRODUCTION: Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) are vascular lesions with arteriovenous shunting that may be treated with surgical obliteration or endovascular embolization. Some DAVF, such as anterior cranial fossa DAVF (AC-DAVF) derive their arterial supply from ophthalmic artery branches in nearly all cases, and trans-arterial embolization carries a risk of vision loss. We determined the efficacy and safety of trans-ophthalmic artery embolization of DAVF.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients with DAVF treated by trans-ophthalmic artery embolization from 2012 to 2020. Primary outcome was angiographic cure of the DAVF. Secondary outcomes included vision loss, visual impairment, orbital cranial nerve injury, stroke, modified Rankin Scale at 90-days, and mortality.RESULTS: 12 patients met inclusion criteria (9 males; 3 females). 10 patients had AC-DAVF. Patient age was 59.7±9.5 (mean±SD) years. Patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage (4 patients), headache (4 patients), amaurosis fugax (1 patients), or were incidentally discovered (2 patients). DAVF Cognard grades were: II (1 patient), III (6 patients), and IV (5 patients). DAVF were embolized with Onyx (10 patients), nBCA glue (1 patient), and a combination of coils and Onyx (1 patient). DAVF cure was achieved in 11 patients (92%). No patients experienced vision loss, death, or permanent disability. One patient experienced a minor complication of blurry vision attributed to posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. 90-day mRS was 0 (10 patients) and 1 (2 patients).CONCLUSIONS: Trans-ophthalmic artery embolization is an effective and safe treatment for DAVF.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1591019920969270

    View details for PubMedID 33106085

  • Tortuosity of Superior Cerebral Veins: Comparative MRI Morphometrics in Normal Subjects and Arteriovenous Malformation Patients. Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.) Telischak, N. A., Yedavalli, V. n., Massoud, T. F. 2020


    Blood vessel tortuosity results from increased diameter and length in response to higher hemodynamic loads. Tortuosity metrics have not been determined for abnormal superior cerebral veins (SCVs) draining cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Draining vein (DV) tortuosity may influence safety and efficacy of retrograde microcatheter navigation during transvenous treatment of pial AVMs. Here we quantify SCV tortuosity in normal subjects and AVM patients using two image segmentation methods. We used contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance images to define the axis of each SCV through a regularly spaced set of 3D points defining its skeleton curve. We then calculated two metrics: the 'sum of angles metric' (SOAM), which adds all angles of curvature along a vessel and normalizes by vessel length, and the 'distance metric' (DM), a tortuosity measure providing a ratio of vessel length to linear distance between vessel endpoints. We analyzed 168 metrics in 43 veins of eight normal subjects and 41 veins of seven AVM patients. In normal subjects, the mean SOAM and DM for SCVs were 21.34±7.49 and 1.42±0.25 degrees/mm, respectively. In AVM patients, DVs had a significantly higher mean SOAM of 30.43±11.38 (P=0.02) and DM of 2.79±1.77 (P=0.01) degrees/mm than normal subjects. In AVM patients, DVs were significantly more tortuous than matched contralateral uninvolved SCVs, which were similar in tortuosity to normal subject SCVs. We thus report normative tortuosity metrics of brain SCVs, and show that AVM cortical DVs are significantly more tortuous than normal SCVs. Knowledge of these comparative tortuosities is valuable in planning endovenous AVM embolotherapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ca.23589

    View details for PubMedID 32196753

  • Dual antiplatelet therapy after carotid artery stenting: trends and outcomes in a large national database. Journal of neurointerventional surgery Sussman, E. S., Jin, M. n., Pendharkar, A. V., Pulli, B. n., Feng, A. n., Heit, J. J., Telischak, N. A. 2020


    While dual antiplatelet therapy (dAPT) is standard of care following carotid artery stenting (CAS), the optimal dAPT regimen and duration has not been established.We canvassed a large national database (IBM MarketScan) to identify patients receiving carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or CAS for treatment of ischemic stroke or carotid artery stenosis from 2007 to 2016. We performed univariable and multivariable regression methods to evaluate the impact of covariates on post-CAS stroke-free survival, including post-discharge antiplatelet therapy.A total of 79 084 patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke or carotid stenosis received CEA (71 178; 90.0%) or CAS (7906; 10.0%). After adjusting for covariates, <180 days prescribed post-CAS P2Y12-inhibition was associated with increased risk for stroke (<90 prescribed days HR=1.421, 95% CI 1.038 to 1.946; 90-179 prescribed days HR=1.484, 95% CI 1.045 to 2.106). The incidence of hemorrhagic complications was higher during the period of prescribed P2Y12-inhibition (1.16% per person-month vs 0.49% per person-month after discontinuation, P<0.001). The rate of extracranial hemorrhage was nearly six-fold higher while on dAPT (6.50% per patient-month vs 1.16% per patient-month, P<0.001), and there was a trend towards higher rate of intracranial hemorrhage that did not reach statistical significance (5.09% per patient-month vs 3.69% per patient-month, P=0.0556). Later hemorrhagic events beyond 30 days post-CAS were significantly more likely to be extracranial (P=0.028).Increased duration of post-CAS dAPT is associated with lower rates of readmissions for stroke, and with increased risk of hemorrhagic complications, particularly extracranial hemorrhage. The potential benefit of prolonging dAPT with regard to ischemic complications must be balanced with the corresponding increased risk of predominantly extracranial hemorrhagic complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016008

    View details for PubMedID 32414894

  • Three-Dimensional Angles of Confluence of Cortical Bridging Veins and the Superior Sagittal Sinus on MR Venography: Does Drainage of Adjacent Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Alter this Spatial Configuration? Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.) Yedavalli, V., Telischak, N. A., Jain, M. S., Massoud, T. F. 2019


    Few neuroimaging anatomic studies to date have investigated in detail the point of entry of cortical bridging veins (CBVs) into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Although we know that most CBVs join the SSS at an acute angle opposite to the direction of SSS blood flow, the three-dimensional (3-D) spatial configuration of these venous confluences has not been studied previously. This anatomical information would be pertinent to several clinically applicable scenarios, such as in planning intracranial surgical approaches that preserve bridging veins; studying anatomical factors in the pathophysiology of SSS thrombosis; and when planning endovascular microcatheterization of pial veins to retrogradely embolize brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We used the concept of Euclidean planes in 3-D space to calculate the arccosine of these CBV-SSS angles of confluence. To test the hypothesis that pial AVM draining veins may not be any more acutely angled or difficult to microcatheterize at the SSS than for normal CBVs, we measured 70 angles of confluence on magnetic resonance venography images of 11 normal, and nine AVM patients. There was no statistical difference between normal and AVM patients in the CBV-SSS angles projected in 3-D space (56.2° [SD=22.4°], and 46.2° [SD=22.3°], respectively; P >0.05). Hence, participation of CBVs in drainage of pial AVMs should not confer any added difficulty to their microcatheterization across the SSS, when compared to the acute angles found in normal individuals. This has useful implications for potential choices of strategies requiring endovascular transvenous retrograde approaches to treat AVMs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ca.23521

    View details for PubMedID 31749197

  • Early Cerebral Vein After Endovascular Ischemic Stroke Treatment Predicts Symptomatic Reperfusion Hemorrhage STROKE Cartmell, S. D., Ball, R. L., Kaimal, R., Telischak, N. A., Marks, M. P., Do, H. M., Dodd, R. L., Albers, G. W., Lansberg, M. G., Heit, J. J. 2018; 49 (7): 1741–46
  • Sofia intermediate catheter and the SNAKE technique: safety and efficacy of the Sofia catheter without guidewire or microcatheter construct. Journal of neurointerventional surgery Heit, J. J., Wong, J. H., Mofaff, A. M., Telischak, N. A., Dodd, R. L., Marks, M. P., Do, H. M. 2018; 10 (4): 401–6


    Neurointerventional surgeries (NIS) benefit from supportive endovascular constructs. Sofia is a soft-tipped, flexible, braided single lumen intermediate catheter designed for NIS. Sofia advancement from the cervical to the intracranial circulation without a luminal guidewire or microcatheter construct has not been described.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new Sofia Non-wire Advancement techniKE (SNAKE) for advancement of the Sofia into the cerebral circulation.Consecutive patients who underwent NIS using Sofia were identified. Patient information, SNAKE use, and patient outcome were determined from electronic medical records. Sofia advancement to the cavernous internal carotid artery or the V2/V3 segment junction of the vertebral artery was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included arterial vasospasm and arterial dissection.263 Patients (181 females, 69%) who underwent a total of 305 NIS using Sofia were identified. SNAKE (SNAKE+) was used in 187 procedures (61%). Two hundred and ninety-three procedures (96%) were technically successful, which included 184 SNAKE+ NIS and 109 SNAKE- NIS. Primary outcome was achieved in all SNAKE+ procedures, but not in five SNAKE- procedures (2%). No arterial dissections were identified among 305 interventions. In the intracranial circulation, a single SNAKE+ patient (0.5%) had non-flow limiting arterial vasospasm involving the petrous internal carotid. Three SNAKE+ patients (1.6%) and one SNAKE- patient (0.8%) demonstrated external carotid artery branch artery vasospasm during dural arteriovenous fistula or facial arteriovenous malformation treatment.SNAKE is a safe and effective technique for Sofia advancement. Sofia is a highly effective and safe intermediate catheter for a variety of NIS.

    View details for PubMedID 28768818

  • Early Cerebral Vein After Endovascular Ischemic Stroke Treatment Predicts Symptomatic Reperfusion Hemorrhage. Stroke Cartmell, S. C., Ball, R. L., Kaimal, R. n., Telischak, N. A., Marks, M. P., Do, H. M., Dodd, R. L., Albers, G. W., Lansberg, M. G., Heit, J. J. 2018


    Parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke leads to worse outcomes. Better clinical and imaging biomarkers of symptomatic reperfusion PH are needed to identify patients at risk. We identified clinical and imaging predictors of reperfusion PH after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with attention to early cerebral veins (ECVs) on postreperfusion digital subtraction angiography.We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular mechanical thrombectomy at our neurovascular referral center. Clinical and imaging characteristics were collected from patient health records, and random forest variable importance measures were used to identify predictors of symptomatic PH. Predictors of secondary outcomes, including 90-day mortality, functional dependence (modified Rankin Scale score, >2), and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale shift, were also determined. Diagnostic test characteristics of ECV for symptomatic PH were determined using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. Differences between patients with and without symptomatic PH were assessed with Fisher exact test and the Wilcoxon rank sum (Mann-Whitney U test) test at the 0.05 significance level.Of 64 patients with anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion identified, 6 (9.4%) developed symptomatic PH. ECV was the strongest predictor of symptomatic PH with more than twice the importance of the next best predictor, male sex. Although ECV was also predictive of 90-day mortality and functional dependence, other characteristics were more important than ECV for these outcomes. The sensitivity and specificity of ECV alone for subsequent hemorrhage were both 0.83, with an area under the curve of 0.83 and 95% confidence interval of 0.66 to 1.00.ECV on postendovascular mechanical thrombectomy digital subtraction angiography is highly diagnostic of subsequent symptomatic reperfusion hemorrhage in this data set. This finding has important implications for post-treatment management of blood pressure and anticoagulation.

    View details for PubMedID 29739912

  • Fluoroscopic C-Arm and CT-Guided Selective Radiofrequency Ablation for Trigeminal and Glossopharyngeal Facial Pain Syndromes. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) Telischak, N. A., Heit, J. J., Campos, L. W., Choudhri, O. A., Do, H. M., Qian, X. 2017


     Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the gasserian ganglion through the foramen ovale and the glossopharyngeal nerve at the jugular foramen is a classical approach to treating trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN), respectively. However, it can be technically challenging with serious complications. We have thus developed a novel technique utilizing C-arm and computerized tomography (CT) guidance to block TN and GPN. Our goals were to describe a three-dimensional image-based technique to improve patient comfort and to decrease procedural time associated with needle guidance.Consecutive procedures were reviewed. Academic hospital.Three patients with classical TN and GPN and 15 patients with atypical facial pain (AFP) were treated. Numeric rating scale (NRS) scores for pain at pretreatment and at one, three, and 12 months post-treatment were recorded. The primary clinical outcome (50% or more reduction in NRS) and secondary adverse clinical outcome (hematoma, facial numbness, etc.) were monitored. We had a 100% technical success with respect to appropriate needle positioning. All three classical TN/GPN patients had both immediate and sustained pain relief. Complications were minimal. The 15 AFP patients, however, showed more variable results, with only five (33%) having sustained pain relief, while in the other 10 (67%) patients, we observed suboptimal response. We present a novel method and single-center experience with C-arm and CT-guided RFA of facial pain. Quick and accurate needle placement will help future advancements in the RFA algorithm so that more durable and consistent effects can be attained, reducing uncertainty with respect to needle placement as a confounder. The RFA procedure in our study had a satisfying effect for classical TN/GPN patients but was less successful for AFP patients, though it did mirror the results from previous studies.This study is limited by its small sample size and nonrandomized design.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/pm/pnx088

    View details for PubMedID 28472393

  • Pipeline embolization device retraction and foreshortening after internal carotid artery blister aneurysm treatment. Interventional neuroradiology : journal of peritherapeutic neuroradiology, surgical procedures and related neurosciences Heit, J. J., Telischak, N. A., Do, H. M., Dodd, R. L., Steinberg, G. K., Marks, M. P. 2017; 23 (6): 614–19


    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to rupture of a blister aneurysm (BA) results in high morbidity and mortality. Endovascular treatment with the pipeline embolization device (PED) has been described as a new treatment strategy for these lesions. We present the first reported case of PED retraction and foreshortening after treatment of a ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) BA. Case description A middle-aged patient presented with SAH secondary to ICA BA rupture. The patient was treated with telescoping PED placement across the BA. After 5 days from treatment, the patient developed a new SAH due to re-rupture of the BA. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an increase in caliber of the supraclinoid ICA with associated retraction and foreshortening of the PED that resulted in aneurysm uncovering and growth. Conclusions PED should be oversized during ruptured BA treatment to prevent device retraction and aneurysm regrowth. Frequent imaging follow up after BA treatment with PED is warranted to ensure aneurysm occlusion.

    View details for PubMedID 28758549

  • Clinical and Arterial Spin Labeling Brain MRI Features of Transitional Venous Anomalies. Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging Zhang, M. n., Telischak, N. A., Fischbein, N. J., Steinberg, G. K., Marks, M. n., Zaharchuk, G. n., Heit, J. J., Iv, M. n. 2017


    Transitional venous anomalies (TVAs) are rare cerebrovascular lesions that resemble developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), but demonstrate early arteriovenous shunting on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) without the parenchymal nidus of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We investigate whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can distinguish brain TVAs from DVAs and guide their clinical management.We conducted a single-center retrospective review of patients with brain parenchymal DVA-like lesions with increased ASL signal on MRI. Clinical histories and follow-up information were obtained. Two readers assessed ASL signal location relative to the vascular lesion on MRI and, if available, the presence of arteriovenous shunting on DSA.Thirty patients with DVA-like lesions with increased ASL signal were identified. Clinical symptoms prompted MRI evaluation in 83%. Symptoms did not localize to the venous anomaly in 90%. Ten percent presented with acute symptoms, only one of whom presented with hemorrhage. ASL signal in relation to the venous anomaly was identified in: 50% in the adjacent parenchyma, 33% in the lesion, 7% in a distal draining vein/sinus, and 10% in at least two of these sites. Follow-up DSA confirmed arteriovenous shunting in 71% of ASL-positive venous anomalies. Interrater agreement was very good (κ = .81-1.0, P < .001).A DVA-like lesion with increased ASL signal likely represents a TVA with arteriovenous shunting. Our study indicates that these lesions are usually incidentally detected and have a lower risk of hemorrhage than AVMs. ASL-MRI may be a useful tool to identify TVAs and guide further management of patients with TVAs.

    View details for PubMedID 29205641

  • Headway Duo microcatheter for cerebral arteriovenous malformation embolization with n-BCA. Journal of neurointerventional surgery Heit, J. J., Faisal, A. G., Telischak, N. A., Choudhri, O., Do, H. M. 2016; 8 (11): 1181-1185


    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon vascular lesions, and hemorrhage secondary to AVM rupture results in significant morbidity and mortality. AVMs may be treated by endovascular embolization, and technical advances in microcatheter design are likely to improve the success and safety of endovascular embolization of cerebral AVMs.To describe our early experience with the Headway Duo microcatheter for embolization of cerebral AVMs with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (n-BCA).Consecutive patients treated by endovascular embolization of a cerebral AVM with n-BCA delivered intra-arterially through the Headway Duo microcatheter (167 cm length) were identified. Patient demographic information, procedural details, and patient outcome were determined from electronic medical records.Ten consecutive patients undergoing cerebral AVM embolization using n-BCA injected through the Headway Duo microcatheter were identified. Presenting symptoms included headache, hemorrhage, seizures, and weakness. Spetzler Martin grades ranged from 1 to 5, and AVMs were located in the basal ganglia (2 patients), parietal lobe (4 patients), frontal lobe (1 patient), temporal lobe (1 patient), an entire hemisphere (1 patient), and posterior fossa (1 patient). 50 arterial pedicles were embolized, and all procedures were technically successful. There was one post-procedural hemorrhage that was well tolerated by the patient, and no other complications occurred. Additional AVM treatment was performed by surgery and radiation therapy.The Headway Duo microcatheter is safe and effective for embolization of cerebral AVMs using n-BCA. The trackability and high burst pressure of the Headway Duo make it an important and useful tool for the neurointerventionalist during cerebral AVM embolization.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-012094

    View details for PubMedID 26603031

  • Initial experience with SOFIA as an intermediate catheter in mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. Journal of neurointerventional surgery Wong, J. H., Do, H. M., Telischak, N. A., Moraff, A. M., Dodd, R. L., Marks, M. P., Ingle, S. M., Heit, J. J. 2016


    The benefits of mechanical thrombectomy for emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) have been established. Combined mechanical/aspiration (Solumbra) and a direct aspiration as a first pass technique (ADAPT) are valid procedures requiring an intermediate catheter for clot suction. Recently, SOFIA (Soft torqueable catheter Optimized For Intracranial Access) was developed as a single lumen flexible catheter with coil and braid reinforcement, but its suitability for mechanical thrombectomy had not been evaluated.To describe our initial experience with SOFIA in acute stroke intervention and evaluate its efficacy and safety.All patients with ELVO undergoing endovascular stroke intervention with SOFIA were identified. Demographic, presentation, treatment, and complication data were recorded. Primary outcome was Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b/3 revascularization rate and the number of passes required. Secondary outcomes included complication rates and discharge National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score.33 patients with a mean age of 72 years were treated for ELVO with SOFIA and IV tissue plasminogen activator was administered in 67%. Vessel occlusion involved the internal carotid artery (15.2%), M1 (48.5%), and M2 (24.2%) segments, and posterior circulation (12.1%). Median presentation NIHSS score was 14 (IQR 11-19) and discharge NIHSS 4 (IQR 2-14). The Solumbra technique represented 94% of treatments and ADAPT 3%. The TICI 2b/3 revascularization rate was 94%, including 48.5% TICI 3 with an average of 1.6 passes. The symptomatic reperfusion hemorrhage rate was 6%. Procedural complications occurred in four patients, but were unrelated to SOFIA. Mortality was 21%, secondary to failed revascularization, hemorrhagic transformation, and baseline medical condition.Mechanical and aspiration thrombectomy with SOFIA is safe and effective with high revascularization rates. Its trackability, stability, and luminal size make SOFIA suitable for stroke intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/neurintsurg-2016-012750

    View details for PubMedID 27789787

  • Cerebral vascular findings in PAPA syndrome: cerebral arterial vasculopathy or vasculitis and a posterior cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm. Journal of neurointerventional surgery Khatibi, K., Heit, J. J., Telischak, N. A., Elbers, J. M., Do, H. M. 2016; 8 (8)


    A young patient with PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome developed an unusual cerebral arterial vasculopathy/vasculitis (CAV) that resulted in subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dissecting posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular coil sacrifice of the affected segment of the PCA. The patient made an excellent recovery with no significant residual neurologic deficit.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-011753.rep

    View details for PubMedID 26122324

  • Arterial Spin Labeling MRI: Clinical Applications in the Brain JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Telischak, N. A., Detre, J. A., Zaharchuk, G. 2015; 41 (5): 1165-1180


    Visualization of cerebral blood flow (CBF) has become an important part of neuroimaging for a wide range of diseases. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are increasingly being used to provide MR-based CBF quantification without the need for contrast administration, and can be obtained in conjunction with a structural MRI study. ASL MRI is useful for evaluating cerebrovascular disease including arterio-occlusive disease, vascular shunts, for assessing primary and secondary malignancy, and as a biomarker for neuronal metabolism in other disorders such as seizures and neurodegeneration. In this review we briefly outline the various ASL techniques including advantages and disadvantages of each, methodology for clinical interpretation, and clinical applications with specific examples.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24751

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353641600003

    View details for PubMedID 25236477

  • Clinical applications of iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of brain tumors NANOMEDICINE Iv, M., Telischak, N., Feng, D., Holdsworth, S. J., Yeom, K. W., Daldrup-Link, H. E. 2015; 10 (6): 993-1018


    Current neuroimaging provides detailed anatomic and functional evaluation of brain tumors, allowing for improved diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. Some challenges persist even with today's advanced imaging techniques, including accurate delineation of tumor margins and distinguishing treatment effects from residual or recurrent tumor. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are an emerging tool that can add clinically useful information due to their distinct physiochemical features and biodistribution, while having a good safety profile. Nanoparticles can be used as a platform for theranostic drugs, which have shown great promise for the treatment of CNS malignancies. This review will provide an overview of clinical ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides and how they can be applied to the diagnostic and therapeutic neuro-oncologic setting.

    View details for DOI 10.2217/NNM.14.203

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352806000009

    View details for PubMedID 25867862

  • Cerebral vascular findings in PAPA syndrome: cerebral arterial vasculopathy or vasculitis and a posterior cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm. BMJ case reports Khatibi, K., Heit, J. J., Telischak, N. A., Elbers, J. M., Do, H. M. 2015; 2015


    A young patient with PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome developed an unusual cerebral arterial vasculopathy/vasculitis (CAV) that resulted in subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dissecting posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular coil sacrifice of the affected segment of the PCA. The patient made an excellent recovery with no significant residual neurologic deficit.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bcr-2015-011753

    View details for PubMedID 26109622