Bio


Nicole Ardoin, Emmett Faculty Scholar, is the Sykes Family Director of the Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER) in the School of Earth, Energy, and Environmental Sciences. She is an Associate Professor in the Graduate School of Education and a Senior Fellow in the Woods Institute for the Environment. Professor Ardoin and her Social Ecology Lab group research motivations for and barriers to environmental behavior at the individual and collective scales. They use mixed-methods approaches--including participant observation, a variety of interview types, surveys, mapping, network analysis, and ethnography, among others--to consider the influence of place-based connections, environmental learning, and social-ecological interactions on participation in a range of environmental and sustainability-related decisionmaking processes. Professor Ardoin and her interdisciplinary group pursue their scholarship with a theoretical grounding and orientation focused on applications for practice; much of her lab's work is co-designed and implemented with community collaborators through a field-based, participatory frame. Professor Ardoin is an associate editor of the journal Environmental Education Research, a trustee of the George B. Storer Foundation, chair of NatureBridge's Education Advisory Council, an advisor to the Student Conservation Association and Teton Science Schools, among other areas of service to the field.

Administrative Appointments


  • Emmett Family Faculty Scholar, School of Earth, Energy, and Environmental Sciences (2018 - Present)
  • Sykes Family E-IPER Faculty Director, Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (2019 - Present)
  • Faculty Director (Acting), Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources, Stanford University (2018 - 2019)

Honors & Awards


  • William C. Everhart Award, Clemson Institute for Parks (2018)
  • Miriam Aaron Roland Volunteer Service Prize, Haas Center for Public Service, Stanford University (2018)
  • Outstanding Contributions to Research in Environmental Education, North American Association for Environmental Education (2016)
  • President's Award, North American Association for Environmental Education (2014)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Trustee, George B. Storer Foundation (2016 - Present)
  • Advisory Board, North American Association for Environmental Education (2015 - Present)
  • Education Advisory Council Member, Teton Science Schools (2015 - Present)
  • Faculty Steering Committee, Haas Center for Public Service (2015 - Present)
  • Programs Committee of the Board of Directors, Monterey Bay Aquarium (2013 - 2018)
  • Advisory Committee, Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (2012 - Present)
  • Education Advisory Council Chair, NatureBridge (2010 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Ph. D., Forestry & Environmental Studies (Social Ecology), Yale University
  • M.Phil., Forestry & Environmental Studies (Social Ecology), Yale University
  • M.S., Natural Resource Management (Environmental Education & Interpretation), University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point
  • B.B.A., International Business & French, James Madison University

Research Interests


  • Civic Education
  • Collaborative Learning
  • Environmental Education
  • Gender Issues
  • Lifelong Learning
  • Psychology
  • Research Methods
  • Science Education
  • Social and Emotional Learning
  • Sociology

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Nicole Ardoin, the Emmett Faculty Scholar, is the Skyes Family Faculty Director of the Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER) in the School of Earth, Energy, and Environmental Sciences (SE3). She is a senior fellow in the Woods Institute for the Environment and an associate professor in the Graduate School of Education.

Professor Ardoin studies motivations for and barriers to environmental behavior among a range of audiences and in varying settings; the use of social strategies by NGOs to engage individuals and communities in decisionmaking related to natural resource management; and the role of place-based connections and environmental learning on engagement in place-protective and stewardship actions over time.

Professor Ardoin's Social Ecology Lab group uses mixed-methods approaches--including participant observation, interviews, surveys, mapping, network analysis, and ethnography, among others--to pursue their interdisciplinary scholarship with community collaborators through a field-based, participatory frame. Professor Ardoin is an associate editor of the journal Environmental Education Research, a trustee of the George B. Storer Foundation, chair of NatureBridge's Education Advisory Council, an advisor to the Student Conservation Association and Teton Science Schools, among other areas of service to the field.

CURRENT RESEARCH (Selected):

The Summen Project: Coastal Fog-mediated Interactions Between Climate Change, Upwelling, and Coast Redwood Resilience (2016–2020; funded by NSF Coastal SEES Program, the National Geographic Society, and the TELOS Fund; in partnership with UC Santa Cruz, UC Berkeley, Carnegie, Oregon State University)

Research and Practice: Scholars and Land-Trust Managers Collaborating for Solutions (2017–2020; funded by Realizing Environmental Innovations Projects, Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. Co-PI: Deborah Gordon, Biology, Stanford)

Community Environmental Literacy as a Motivator for Participating in Environmental Stewardship over Time (2019–2021; funded by the Pisces Foundation)

Hybrid Physical and Digital Spaces for Enhanced Sustainability and Wellbeing (2018–2020, funded by Stanford Catalyst for Collaborative Solutions, PI: Sarah Billington, Civil and Environmental Engineering, with co-PIs from Engineering, Computer Science, Psychology)

Blue Habits: Leveraging Behavioral Science to Support Pro-Ocean Behaviors (2018–2019, funded by Booking Cares Fund. In partnership with The Oceanic Society)

Connection to Nature Assessment Project (2018–2020, funded by the Pisces Foundation, in collaboration with University of Florida, NAAEE, and Children & Nature Network)

Connecting Research and Practice: Theoretical, Empirical, and Practical Considerations; ee360 (2017–2021, funded by US EPA, lead partner, North American Association for Environmental Education)

eeWorks: Examining the body of evidence for environmental education with regard to conservation, academic outcomes, civic engagement, and positive youth development (2015–2020, funded by North American Association for Environmental Education, US EPA, Fish and Wildlife Service, and others)

RESEARCH INTERESTS (alphabetically):

Community Involvement and Youth Development
Community-Based Conservation
Connecting Research and Practice
Environmental Behavior and Stewardship
Environmental Education, Learning, and Literacy
Equity and Inclusion in Environment and Conservation
Evaluation and Assessment of Environmental Efforts
Individual and Collective Action
Mixed-methods Research
Qualitative Research

2019-20 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Children's connection to nature as fostered through residential environmental education programs: Key variables explored through surveys and field journals ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Talebpour, L. M., Busk, P. L., Heimlich, J. E., Ardoin, N. M. 2020; 26 (1): 95–114
  • Source reduction with a purpose: Mosquito ecology and community perspectives offer insights for improving household mosquito management in coastal Kenya. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Forsyth, J. E., Mutuku, F. M., Kibe, L., Mwashee, L., Bongo, J., Egemba, C., Ardoin, N. M., LaBeaud, A. D. 2020; 14 (5): e0008239

    Abstract

    Understanding mosquito breeding behavior as well as human perspectives and practices are crucial for designing interventions to control Aedes aegypti mosquito-borne diseases as these mosquitoes primarily breed in water-holding containers around people's homes. The objectives of this study were to identify productive mosquito breeding habitats in coastal Kenya and to understand household mosquito management behaviors and their behavioral determinants. The field team conducted entomological surveys in 444 households and semi-structured interviews with 35 female caregivers and 37 children in Kwale County, coastal Kenya, between May and December 2016. All potential mosquito habitats with or without water were located, abundances of mosquito immatures measured and their characteristics recorded. Interviews explored household mosquito management behaviors and their behavioral determinants. 2,452 container mosquito habitats were counted containing 1,077 larvae and 390 pupae, predominantly Aedes species. More than one-third of the positive containers were found outside houses in 1 of the 10 villages. Containers holding water with no intended purpose contained 55.2% of all immature mosquitoes. Containers filled with rainwater held 95.8% of all immature mosquitoes. Interviews indicated that households prioritize sleeping under bednets as a primary protection against mosquito-borne disease because of concern about night-time biting, malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. Respondents had limited knowledge about the mosquito life cycle, especially with respect to day-time biting, container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes. Therefore, respondents did not prioritize source reduction. Most mosquitoes breed in containers that have no direct or immediate purpose ("no-purpose containers"). These containers may be left unattended for several days allowing rainwater to collect, and creating ideal conditions for mosquito breeding. An intervention that requires little effort and targets only the most productive containers could effectively reduce mosquito indices and, relatedly, mosquito-borne disease risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008239

    View details for PubMedID 32392226

  • Environmental education outcomes for conservation: A systematic review BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Ardoin, N. M., Bowers, A. W., Gaillard, E. 2020; 241
  • Using a Delphi study to clarify the landscape and core outcomes in environmental education ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Clark, C. R., Heimlich, J. E., Ardoin, N. M., Braus, J. 2020: 1-19
  • Actionable knowledge and the art of engagement CURRENT OPINION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Mach, K. J., Lemos, M. C., Meadows, A. M., Wyborn, C., Klenk, N., Arnott, J. C., Ardoin, N. M., Fiesler, C., Moss, R. H., Nichols, L., Stults, M., Vaughn, C., Wong-Parodi, G. 2020; 42: 30-37
  • Fishers' solutions for hammerhead shark conservation in Peru BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Mason, J. G., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Mangel, J. C., Crowder, L. B., Ardoin, N. M. 2020; 243 (108460)
  • Exploring a theoretical model of climate change action for youth INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Busch, K. C., Ardoin, N., Gruehn, D., Stevenson, K. 2019
  • Scale and sense of place among urban dwellers ECOSPHERE Ardoin, N. M., Gould, R. K., Lukacs, H., Sponarski, C. C., Schuh, J. S. 2019; 10 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ecs2.2871

    View details for Web of Science ID 000490766500014

  • Motivating landowners to recruit neighbors for private land conservation CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Niemiec, R. M., Willer, R., Ardoin, N. M., Brewer, F. K. 2019; 33 (4): 930–41

    Abstract

    Encouraging motivated landowners to not only engage in conservation action on their own property but also to recruit others may enhance effectiveness of conservation on private lands. Landowners may only engage in such recruitment if they believe their neighbors care about the conservation issue, will positively respond to their conservation efforts, and are likely to take action for the conservation cause. We designed a series of microinterventions that can be added to community meetings to change these beliefs to encourage landowner engagement in recruitment of others. The microinterventions included neighbor discussion, public commitment making, collective goal setting, and increased observability of contributions to the conservation cause. In a field experiment, we tested whether adding microinterventions to traditional knowledge-transfer outreach meetings changed those beliefs so as to encourage landowners in Hawaii to recruit their neighbors for private lands conservation. We delivered a traditional outreach meeting about managing the invasive little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) to 5 communities and a traditional outreach approach with added microinterventions to 5 other communities. Analysis of pre- and post-surveys of residents showed that compared with the traditional conservation outreach approach, the microinterventions altered a subset of beliefs that landowners had about others. These microinterventions motivated reputationally minded landowners to recruit and coordinate with other residents to control the invasive fire ant across property boundaries. Our results suggest integration of these microinterventions into existing outreach approaches will encourage some landowners to facilitate collective conservation action across property boundaries.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cobi.13294

    View details for Web of Science ID 000474668700022

    View details for PubMedID 30698291

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6850448

  • Exploring connections between environmental learning and behavior through four everyday-life case studies ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Gould, R. K., Ardoin, N. M., Thomsen, J. M., Roth, N. 2019
  • Turmeric means "yellow" in Bengali: Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh. Environmental research Forsyth, J. E., Nurunnahar, S., Islam, S. S., Baker, M., Yeasmin, D., Islam, M. S., Rahman, M., Fendorf, S., Ardoin, N. M., Winch, P. J., Luby, S. P. 2019; 179 (Pt A): 108722

    Abstract

    Adulteration is a growing food safety concern worldwide. Previous studies have implicated turmeric as a source of lead (Pb) exposure due to the addition of lead chromate (PbCrO4), a yellow pigment used to enhance brightness. We aimed to assess the practice of adding yellow pigments to turmeric and producer- consumer- and regulatory-factors affecting this practice across the supply chain in Bangladesh. We identified and visited the nine major turmeric-producing districts of Bangladesh as well as two districts with minimal turmeric production. In each district, we conducted semi-structured interviews and informal observations with individuals involved in the production, consumption, and regulation of turmeric. We explored perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. We collected samples of yellow pigments and turmeric from the most-frequented wholesale and retail markets. We collected samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil from turmeric polishing mills to assess evidence of adulteration. Interviews were analyzed through an inductive, thematic coding process, with attention focused on perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. Samples were analyzed for Pb and chromium (Cr) concentrations via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence. In total, we interviewed 152 individuals from across the supply chain and collected 524 samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil (Table S3, Table S4). Turmeric Pb and Cr concentrations were highest in Dhaka and Munshiganj districts, with maximum turmeric powder Pb concentrations of 1152 μg/g, compared to 690 μg/g in the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. We found evidence of PbCrO4-based yellow pigment adulteration in 7 of the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. Soil samples from polishing mills contained a maximum of 4257 μg/g Pb and yellow pigments contained 2-10% Pb by weight with an average Pb:Cr molar ratio of 1.3. Turmeric wholesalers reported that the practice of adding yellow pigments to dried turmeric root during polishing began more than 30 years ago and continues today, primarily driven by consumer preferences for colorful yellow curries. Farmers stated that merchants are able to sell otherwise poor-quality roots and increase their profits by asking polishers to adulterate with yellow pigments. Adulterating turmeric with lead chromate poses significant risks to human health and development. The results from this study indicate that PbCrO4 is being added to turmeric by polishers, who are unaware of its neurotoxic effects, in order to satisfy wholesalers who are driven by consumer demand for yellow roots. We recommend immediate intervention that engages turmeric producers and consumers to address this public health crisis and ensure a future with Pb-free turmeric.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108722

    View details for PubMedID 31550596

  • To co-produce or not to co-produce NATURE SUSTAINABILITY Lemos, M., Arnott, J. C., Ardoin, N. M., Baja, K., Bednarek, A. T., Dewulf, A., Fieseler, C., Goodrich, K. A., Jagannathan, K., Klenk, N., Mach, K. J., Meadow, A. M., Meyer, R., Moss, R., Nichols, L., Sjostrom, K., Stults, M., Turnhout, E., Vaughan, C., Wong-Parodi, G., Wyborn, C. 2018; 1 (12): 722–24
  • The importance of culture in predicting environmental behavior in middle school students on Hawai'i Island PLOS ONE Gould, R. K., Krymkowski, D. H., Ardoin, N. M. 2018; 13 (11)
  • Seizing opportunities to diversify conservation CONSERVATION LETTERS Gould, R. K., Phukan, I., Mendoza, M. E., Ardoin, N. M., Panikkar, B. 2018; 11 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1111/conl.12431

    View details for Web of Science ID 000441238500003

  • Sustainable tourism and the management of nearshore coastal places: place attachment and disruption to surf-spots JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Reineman, D. R., Ardoin, N. M. 2018; 26 (2): 325–40
  • Scale-dependence of environmental and socioeconomic drivers of albizia invasion in Hawaii LANDSCAPE AND URBAN PLANNING Niemiec, R. M., Asner, G. P., Brodrick, P. G., Gaertner, J. A., Ardoin, N. M. 2018; 169: 70–80
  • Increased Neighbor Interaction and Fear of Social Sanctions: Associations with Resident Action to Control the Invasive Little Fire Ant SOCIETY & NATURAL RESOURCES Niemiec, R. M., Ardoin, N. M., Brewer, F. K., Kung, S., Lopez, K. 2018; 31 (10): 1149–68
  • Increased Neighbor Interaction and Fear of Social Sanctions: Associations with Resident Action to Control the Invasive Little Fire Ant Society & Natural Resources Niemiec, R., Ardoin, N., Brewer, F., Kung, S., Lopez, K. 2018: 1-20
  • Scale-dependence of environmental and socioeconomic drivers of albizia invasion in Hawaii Landscape and Urban Planning Niemiec, R., Asner, G., Brodrick, P., Gaertner, J., Ardoin, N. 2018; 169: 70-80
  • The importance of culture in predicting environmental behavior in middle school students on Hawai'i Island. PloS one Gould, R. K., Krymkowski, D. H., Ardoin, N. M. 2018; 13 (11): e0207087

    Abstract

    Researchers have investigated the factors that influence environmental behavior for decades. Two often-investigated phenomena, connectedness to nature and self-efficacy, often correlate with environmental behavior, yet researchers rarely analyze those correlations along with underlying cultural factors. We suggest that this is a substantial oversight and hypothesize that cultural factors affect environmental behavior, particularly through an interplay with the connectedness to nature and self-efficacy constructs. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed eighth-grade students on the island of Hawai'i. The instrument included items to assess connectedness to nature and self-efficacy (both frequently measured in environmental behavior studies) and multiple measures of behavior. Most of the behavior measures are commonly used in studies of environmental behavior, and one was developed in collaboration with local partners to reflect more culturally specific modes of environmental behavior. With those partners, we also developed a construct reflecting the relevance of local culture. We explored the relative influence of the more commonly investigated constructs (connectedness to nature, behavioral variables) along with the newer construct (cultural relevance). We found that, when we took those considerations into account, cultural relevance significantly predicted connectedness to nature, self-efficacy, and a commonly used behavioral measure. Our results thus suggest that many models of environmental behavior may be misspecified when they omit critical culture- and ethnicity-related factors. This may be particularly important in contexts with high cultural, racial, and ethnic diversity or in contexts where mainstream Western environmental approaches are non-dominant. Our results emphasize the importance of addressing ethnicity and culture in environmental thought and action.

    View details for PubMedID 30419055

  • What difference do role models make? Investigating outcomes at a residential environmental education center ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Stern, M. J., Frensley, B., Powell, R. B., Ardoin, N. M. 2018; 24 (6): 818–30
  • Factors that contribute to community members' support of local nature centers ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Browning, M. M., Stern, M. J., Ardoin, N. M., Heimlich, J. E. 2018; 24 (3): 326–42
  • Environmental education and K-12 student outcomes: A review and analysis of research JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Ardoin, N. M., Bowers, A. W., Roth, N., Holthuis, N. 2018; 49 (1): 1–17
  • Civic and natural place attachment as correlates of resident invasive species control behavior in Hawaii BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Niemiec, R. M., Ardoin, N. M., Wharton, C. B., Brewer, F. 2017; 209: 415–22
  • Social learning within a community of practice: Investigating interactions about evaluation among zoo education professionals. Evaluation and program planning Khalil, K., Ardoin, N. M., Wojcik, D. 2017; 61: 45-54

    Abstract

    The accessibility and ubiquity of zoos and aquariums-which reach over 700 million people worldwide annually-make them critical sites for science and environmental learning. Through educational offerings, these sites can generate excitement and curiosity about nature and motivate stewardship behavior, but only if their programs are high quality and meet the needs of their audiences. Evaluation is, therefore, critical: knowing what works, for whom, and under what conditions must be central to these organizations. Yet, many zoo and aquarium educators find evaluation to be daunting, and they are challenged to implement evaluations and/or use the findings iteratively in program development and improvement. This article examines how zoo education professionals engage with one another in a learning community related to evaluation. We use a communities of practice lens and social network analysis to understand the structure of this networked learning community, considering changes over time. Our findings suggest that individuals' roles in a networked learning community are influenced by factors such as communicative convenience and one's perceptions of others' evaluation expertise, which also contribute to forming and sustaining professional relationships. This study illuminates how project-based professional networks can become communities of practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.12.001

    View details for PubMedID 27940342

  • Community context, human needs, and transportation choices: A view across San Francisco Bay Area communities JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY Biggar, M., Ardoin, N. M. 2017; 60: 189–99
  • Investigating the sets of values that community members hold toward local nature centers Environmental Education Research Browning, M. H., Stern, M. J., Ardoin, N. M., Heimlich, J. E., Petty, R., Charles, C. 2017; 23 (9): 1291-1306
  • More than good intentions: the role of conditions in personal transportation behaviour LOCAL ENVIRONMENT Biggar, M., Ardoin, N. M. 2017; 22 (2): 141–55
  • Investigating the sets of values that community members hold toward local nature centers ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Browning, M. M., Stern, M. J., Ardoin, N. M., Heimlich, J. E., Petty, R., Charles, C. 2017; 23 (9): 1291–1306
  • The development of trust in residential environmental education programs ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Ardoin, N. M., DiGiano, M. L., O'Connor, K., Podkul, T. E. 2017; 23 (9): 1335–55
  • More than good intentions: the role of conditions in personal transportation behaviour Local Environment Biggar, M., Ardoin, N. M. 2017; 22 (2): 141-155
  • Community context, human needs, and transportation choices: a view across San Francisco Bay Area communities Journal of transport geography Biggar, M., Ardoin, N. M. 2017; 60: 189-199
  • Civic and natural place attachment as correlates of resident invasive species control behavior in Hawaii Biological Conservation Niemiec, R. M., Ardoin, N. M., Wharton, C. B., Brewer, F. K. 2017; 209: 415-422
  • UNDERSTANDING THE COMMUNITY CONTEXT OF AEDES AEGYPTI MOSQUITO BREEDING IN COASTAL KENYA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROL Forsyth, J., Mutuku, F., Kibe, L., Kamoni, J., Mwashee, L., Ardoin, N., LaBeaud, D. AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE. 2017: 56
  • Exploring the Effectiveness of Outreach Strategies in Conservation Projects: The Case of the Audubon Toyota TogetherGreen Program SOCIETY & NATURAL RESOURCES Stern, M. J., Ardoin, N. M., Powell, R. B. 2017; 30 (1): 95-111
  • The development of trust in residential environmental education programs Environmental Education Research Ardoin, N. M., DiGiano, M. L., O’Connor, K., Podkul, T. E. 2017; 23 (9): 1335-1355
  • The company you keep: Networks in a community of informal education evaluators STUDIES IN EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION Khalil, K. A., Ardoin, N. M., Wojcik, D. J. 2016; 51: 7-16
  • Farmer Typology in South Kona, Hawai'i: Who's Farming, How, and Why? FOOD CULTURE & SOCIETY Lincoln, N. K., Ardoin, N. 2016; 19 (3): 563-585
  • Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Gould, R. K., Ardoin, N. M., Biggar, M., Cravens, A. E., Wojcik, D. 2016; 58 (2): 268-282

    Abstract

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00267-016-0710-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379159200007

    View details for PubMedID 27234803

  • Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours NATURE ENERGY Boudet, H., Ardoin, N. M., Flora, J., Armel, K. C., Desai, M., Robinson, T. N. 2016; 1
  • Cultivating values: environmental values and sense of place as correlates of sustainable agricultural practices AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN VALUES Lincoln, N. K., Ardoin, N. M. 2016; 33 (2): 389-401
  • Using online narratives to explore participant experiences in a residential environmental education program CHILDRENS GEOGRAPHIES Ardoin, N. M., DiGiano, M., O'Connor, K., Holthuis, N. 2016; 14 (3): 263-281
  • Environmental Behavior of Visitors to a Science Museum VISITOR STUDIES Ardoin, N. M., Schuh, J. S., Khalil, K. A. 2016; 19 (1): 77–95
  • Motivating residents to combat invasive species on private lands: social norms and community reciprocity ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Niemiec, R. M., Ardoin, N. M., Wharton, C. B., Asner, G. P. 2016; 21 (2)
  • Post-trip philanthropic intentions of nature-based tourists in Galapagos Journal of Ecotourism Ardoin, N. M., Wheaton, M., Hunt, C. A., Schuh, J. S., Durham, W. H. 2016; 15 (1): 21-35
  • Looking toward the blue sky: Environmental education researchers' experience, influences, and aspirations Applied Environmental Education & Communication Ardoin, N. M., Clark, C. R., Wojcik, D. J. 2016; 15 (1): 75-89
  • Negotiating credibility and legitimacy in the shadow of an authoritative data source ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Cravens, A. E., Ardoin, N. M. 2016; 21 (4)
  • Beyond formal groups: neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE COMMONS Lukacs, H., Ardoin, N. M., Grubert, E. 2016; 10 (2): 878-901

    View details for DOI 10.18352/ijc.578

    View details for Web of Science ID 000388648200020

  • "I know, therefore I adapt?" Complexities of individual adaptation to climate-induced forest dieback in Alaska ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Oakes, L. E., Ardoin, N. M., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 21 (2)
  • Using web and mobile technology to motivate pro-environmental action after a nature-based tourism experience JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Wheaton, M., Ardoin, N. M., Hunt, C., Schuh, J. S., Kresse, M., Menke, C., Durham, W. 2016; 24 (4): 594-615
  • Conservation in a social-ecological system experiencing climate-induced tree mortality BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Oakes, L. E., Hennon, P. E., Ardoin, N. M., D'Amore, D. V., Ferguson, A. J., Steel, E. A., Wittwer, D. T., Lambin, E. F. 2015; 192: 276-285
  • Nature-based tourism's impact on environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior: a review and analysis of the literature and potential future research JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Ardoin, N. M., Wheaton, M., Bowers, A. W., Hunt, C. A., Durham, W. H. 2015; 23 (6): 838-858
  • Collaborative and Transformational Leadership in the Environmental Realm JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY & PLANNING Ardoin, N. M., Gould, R. K., Kelsey, E., Fielding-Singh, P. 2015; 17 (3): 360-380
  • A Protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Gould, R. K., Klain, S. C., Ardoin, N. M., Satterfield, T., Woodside, U., Hannahs, N., Daily, G. C., Chan, K. M. 2015; 29 (2): 575-586

    Abstract

    Stakeholders' nonmaterial desires, needs, and values often critically influence the success of conservation projects. These considerations are challenging to articulate and characterize, resulting in their limited uptake in management and policy. We devised an interview protocol designed to enhance understanding of cultural ecosystem services (CES). The protocol begins with discussion of ecosystem-related activities (e.g., recreation, hunting) and management and then addresses CES, prompting for values encompassing concepts identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and explored in other CES research. We piloted the protocol in Hawaii and British Columbia. In each location, we interviewed 30 individuals from diverse backgrounds. We analyzed results from the 2 locations to determine the effectiveness of the interview protocol in elucidating nonmaterial values. The qualitative and spatial components of the protocol helped characterize cultural, social, and ethical values associated with ecosystems in multiple ways. Maps and situational, or vignette-like, questions helped respondents articulate difficult-to-discuss values. Open-ended prompts allowed respondents to express a diversity of ecosystem-related values and proved sufficiently flexible for interviewees to communicate values for which the protocol did not explicitly probe. Finally, the results suggest that certain values, those mentioned frequently throughout the interview, are particularly salient for particular populations. The protocol can provide efficient, contextual, and place-based data on the importance of particular ecosystem attributes for human well-being. Qualitative data are complementary to quantitative and spatial assessments in the comprehensive representation of people's values pertaining to ecosystems, and this protocol may assist in incorporating values frequently overlooked in decision making processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cobi.12407

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351353400028

    View details for PubMedID 25354730

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4407917

  • Evaluation in residential environmental education: An applied literature review of intermediary outcomes Applied Environmental Education & Communication Ardoin, N. M., Biedenweg, K., O’Connor, K. 2015; 14 (1): 43-56
  • Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families ENERGY POLICY Boudet, H., Ardoin, N. M., Flora, J., Armel, K. C., Desai, M., Robinson, T. N. 2014; 73: 439-449
  • Exploring Sense of Place and Environmental Behavior at an Ecoregional Scale in Three Sites HUMAN ECOLOGY Ardoin, N. M. 2014; 42 (3): 425-441
  • Using digital photography and journaling in evaluation of field-based environmental education programs STUDIES IN EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION Ardoin, N. M., DiGiano, M., Bundy, J., Chang, S., Holthuis, N., O'Connor, K. 2014; 41: 68-76
  • The Relationship of Place Re-Making and Watershed Group Participation in Appalachia SOCIETY & NATURAL RESOURCES Lukacs, H. A., Ardoin, N. M. 2014; 27 (1): 55-69
  • The forest has a story: cultural ecosystem services in Kona, Hawai'i ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Gould, R. K., Ardoin, N. M., Woodside, U., Satterfield, T., Hannahs, N., Daily, G. C. 2014; 19 (3)
  • Youth-community-university partnerships and sense of place: two case studies of youth participatory action research CHILDRENS GEOGRAPHIES Ardoin, N. M., Castrechini, S., Hofstedt, M. K. 2014; 12 (4): 479-496
  • The implications of differing tourist/resident perceptions for community-based resource management: a Hawaiian coastal resource area study JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Vaughan, M. B., Ardoin, N. M. 2014; 22 (1): 50-68
  • An exploration of future trends in environmental education research ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Ardoin, N. M., Clark, C., Kelsey, E. 2013; 19 (4): 499-520
  • Views From the Field: Conservation Educators' and Practitioners' Perceptions of Education as a Strategy for Achieving Conservation Outcomes JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Ardoin, N. M., Heimlich, J. E. 2013; 44 (2): 97-115
  • Exploring the dimensions of place: a confirmatory factor analysis of data from three ecoregional sites ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Ardoin, N. M., Schuh, J. S., Gould, R. K. 2012; 18 (5): 583-607
  • Trends in Philanthropic Support: Foundation Giving in Environmental Education JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Ardoin, N. M., Bowers, A. W. 2012; 43 (4): 259-273
  • Evaluating a Constructivist and Culturally Responsive Approach to Environmental Education for Diverse Audiences JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Stern, M. J., Powell, R. B., Ardoin, N. M. 2011; 42 (2): 109-122
  • Development and validation of scales to measure environmental responsibility, character development, and attitudes toward school ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Powell, R. B., Stern, M. J., Krohn, B. D., Ardoin, N. 2011; 17 (1): 91-111
  • 'Malama the 'aina, Malama the people on the 'aina': The Reaction to Avatar in Hawai'i JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF RELIGION NATURE AND CULTURE Gould, R. K., Ardoin, N. M., Hashimoto, J. 2010; 4 (4): 425–56
  • What Difference Does It Make? Assessing Outcomes From Participation in a Residential Environmental Education Program JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Stern, M. J., Powell, R. B., Ardoin, N. M. 2008; 39 (4): 31-43
  • Understanding behavior to understand behavior change: a literature review ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Heimlich, J. E., Ardoin, N. M. 2008; 14 (3): 215-237