Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Hospital Medicine

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospital Medicine (2022)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2009)
  • Medical Education: University of California San Francisco (2006) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases (2013)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellowship (2013) CA
  • Residency: University of Washington Childrens Hospital and Regional Medical Center (2009) WA
  • Internship: University of Washington Childrens Hospital and Regional Medical Center (2009) WA

2021-22 Courses

Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fellowship Program)

All Publications

  • A Multifaceted Intervention to Improve Teamwork on an Inpatient Pediatric Neurosurgery Service. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety Levoy, E., Sperber, A., Poon, D., Casazza, M., Vargas, J., Yang, S., Grant, G., Singer, S., Srinivas, N. 2023


    BACKGROUND: Increased safety reports related to interprofessional teamwork on an acute care unit at a quaternary children's hospital prompted a teamwork-focused improvement effort on the pediatric neurosurgery service.METHODS: An interprofessional workgroup was formed and met twice monthly throughout the project. A survey using modified validated items was disseminated to pediatric neurosurgery nurses, advanced practice providers (APPs), and physicians in March 2021 to identify opportunities for improvement. Structured debriefs on survey results promoted discourse on teamwork. The researchers implemented two interventions: (1) nursing-centered interprofessional education and (2) a rounding checklist before redistributing the survey in December 2021.RESULTS: Baseline and follow-up survey response rates were 84.1% (58/69) and 71.4% (50/70), respectively. Nurses at baseline perceived lower teamwork scores for 12 items compared to physicians and APPs (p < 0.05). Nurse perceptions improved after interventions in: "using 'we' rather than 'they'" (21.3% vs. 51.2% agree, p = 0.003), "I am confident that this team works effectively" (46.8% vs. 80.5%, p = 0.001), "shared understanding of each other's role on the team" (48.9% vs. 73.2% agree, p = 0.02), and "getting others on the team to listen" (46.8% vs. 75.6%, p = 0.004). Mean teamwork effectiveness improved from 4.12 to 5.25 (out of 7; p < 0.0001). Nurses ranked three interventions as most effective: interprofessional training (35/41, 85.4%), educational clinical pearls (14/41, 34.1%), and structured opportunities to discuss teamwork (10/41, 24.4%).CONCLUSION: Interprofessional training, a teamwork survey, and structured debriefing improved nurse perceptions of teamwork. Interventions targeting social components of change can improve teamwork even without process changes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcjq.2023.08.010

    View details for PubMedID 37806797

  • Improving Inpatient Consult Communication Through a Standardized Tool. Pediatrics Pavitt, S., McHugh, A., Chi, K., Hoang, K., Lippner, E., Tsai, J., Goldstein, R., Bassett, H., Srinivas, N. S. 2021


    OBJECTIVES: To increase the number of essential consult elements (ECEs) included in initial inpatient consultation requests between pediatric residents and fellows through implementation of a novel consult communication tool.METHODS: Literature review and previous needs assessment of pediatric residents and fellows were used to identify 4 specific ECEs. From February to June 2018, fellows audited verbal consult requests at a medium-sized, quaternary care children's hospital to determine the baseline percentage of ECE components within consults. A novel consult communication tool containing all ECEs was then developed by using a modified situation-background-assessment-recommendation (SBAR) format. The SBAR tool was implemented over 3 plan-do-study-act cycles. Adherence to SBAR, inclusion of ECEs, and consult question clarity were tracked via audits of consult requests. A pre- and postintervention survey of residents and fellows was used to examine perceived miscommunication and patient care errors and overall satisfaction.RESULTS: The median percentage of consults containing ≥3 ECEs increased from 50% preintervention to 100% postintervention with consult question clarity increasing from 52% to 92% (P < .001). Overall perception of consult miscommunication frequency decreased (52% vs 18%; P < .01), although there was no significant change in resident- or fellow-reported patient errors. SBAR maintained residents' already high consult satisfaction (96% vs 92%; P = .39) and increased fellows' consult satisfaction (51% vs 91%; P < .001).CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a standardized consult communication tool resulted in increased inclusion of ECEs. Use of the tool led to greater consult question clarity, decreased perceived miscommunication, and improved overall consult satisfaction.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2020-0681

    View details for PubMedID 33858984

  • Striking While the Iron Is Hot: Using the Updated PHM Competencies in Time-Variable Training. Journal of hospital medicine Kinnear, B., Srinivas, N., Jerardi, K. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3611

    View details for PubMedID 33734982

  • Management and Outcomes in Children with Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Urinary Tract Infections. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Wang, M. E., Greenhow, T. L., Lee, V., Beck, J., Bendel-Stenzel, M., Hames, N., McDaniel, C. E., King, E. E., Sherry, W., Parmar, D., Patrizi, S. T., Srinivas, N., Schroeder, A. R. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have limited oral antibiotic options with some children receiving prolonged parenteral courses. Our objectives were to determine predictors of long parenteral therapy and the association between parenteral therapy duration and UTI relapse in children with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs.METHODS: We conducted a multisite retrospective cohort study of children <18 years presenting to acute care at 5 children's hospitals and a large managed care organization from 2012 to 2017 with a third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTI from Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. Long parenteral therapy was ≥3 days and short/no parenteral therapy was 0-2 days of concordant parenteral antibiotics. Discordant therapy was antibiotics to which the pathogen was non-susceptible. Relapse was a UTI from the same organism within 30 days.RESULTS: Of the 482 children included, 81% were female and the median age was 3.3 years (interquartile range: 0.8-8). Fifty-four children (11.2%) received long parenteral therapy (median duration: 7 days). Predictors of long parenteral therapy included age <2 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 67.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.4-275.7), limited oral antibiotic options (aOR 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8-12.3), and genitourinary abnormalities (aOR 5.4; 95% CI: 1.8-15.9). UTI relapse occurred in 1 of the 54 (1.9%) children treated with long parenteral therapy and in 6 of the 428 (1.5%) children treated with short/no parenteral therapy (P = .57). Of the 105 children treated exclusively with discordant antibiotics, 3 (2.9%, 95% CI: 0.6%-8.1%) experienced UTI relapse.CONCLUSIONS: Long parenteral therapy was associated with age <2 months, limited oral antibiotic options, and genitourinary abnormalities. UTI relapse was rare and not associated with duration of parenteral therapy. For UTIs with limited oral options, further research is needed on the effectiveness of continued discordant therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jpids/piab003

    View details for PubMedID 33595081

  • Clinical Response to Discordant Therapy in Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant UTIs. Pediatrics Wang, M. E., Lee, V. n., Greenhow, T. L., Beck, J. n., Bendel-Stenzel, M. n., Hames, N. n., McDaniel, C. E., King, E. E., Sherry, W. n., Parmar, D. n., Patrizi, S. T., Srinivas, N. n., Schroeder, A. R. 2020


    To describe the initial clinical response and care escalation needs for children with urinary tract infections (UTIs) resistant to third-generation cephalosporins while on discordant antibiotics.We performed a retrospective study of children <18 years old presenting to an acute care setting of 5 children's hospitals and a large managed care organization from 2012 to 2017 with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs (defined as the growth of ≥50 000 colony-forming units per mL of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. nonsusceptible to ceftriaxone with a positive urinalysis). We included children started on discordant antibiotics who had follow-up when culture susceptibilities resulted. Outcomes were escalation of care (emergency department visit, hospital admission, or ICU transfer while on discordant therapy) and clinical response at follow-up (classified as improved or not improved).Of the 316 children included, 78% were girls and the median age was 2.4 years (interquartile range 0.6-6.5). Children were evaluated in the emergency department (56%) or clinic (43%), and 90% were started on a cephalosporin. A total of 7 of 316 children (2.2%; 95% confidence interval 0.8%-4.5%) experienced escalation of care. For the 230 children (73%) with clinical response recorded, 192 of 230 (83.5%; 95% confidence interval 78.0%-88.0%) experienced clinical improvement. In children with repeat urine testing while on discordant therapy, pyuria improved or resolved in 16 of 19 (84%) and urine cultures sterilized in 11 of 17 (65%).Most children with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs started on discordant antibiotics experienced initial clinical improvement, and few required escalation of care. Our findings suggest that narrow-spectrum empiric therapy is appropriate while awaiting final urine culture results.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-1608

    View details for PubMedID 31953316

  • Clinical Progress Note: Procalcitonin in the Identification of Invasive Bacterial Infections in Febrile Young Infants. Journal of hospital medicine Wang, M. E., Srinivas, N. n., McCulloh, R. J. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3451

    View details for PubMedID 33147137

  • An Improvement Effort to Optimize Electronically Generated Hospital Discharge Instructions. Hospital pediatrics Chadwick, W., Bassett, H., Hendrickson, S., Slonaker, K., Perales, S., Pantaleoni, J., Srinivas, N., Platchek, T., Destino, L. 2019


    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of hospital discharge instructions (HDIs) is to facilitate safe patient transitions home, but electronic health records can generate lengthy documents filled with irrelevant information. When our institution changed electronic health records, a cumbersome electronic discharge workflow produced low-value HDI and contributed to a spike in discharge delays. Our aim was to decrease these delays while improving family and provider satisfaction with HDI.METHODS: We used quality improvement methodology to redesign the electronic discharge navigator and HDI to address the following issues: (1) difficulty preparing discharge instructions before time of discharge, (2) suboptimal formatting of HDI, (3) lack of standard templates and language within HDI, and (4) difficulties translating HDI into non-English languages. Discharge delays due to HDI were tracked before and after the launch of our new discharge workflow. Parents and providers evaluated HDI and the electronic discharge workflow, respectively, before and after our intervention. Providers audited HDI for content.RESULTS: Discharge delays due to HDI errors decreased from a mean of 3.4 to 0.5 per month after our intervention. Parents' ratings of how understandable our HDIs were improved from 2.35 to 2.74 postintervention (P = .05). Pediatric resident agreement that the electronic discharge process was easy to use increased from 9% to 67% after the intervention (P < .001).CONCLUSIONS: Through multidisciplinary collaboration we facilitated advance preparation of more standardized HDI and decreased related discharge delays from the acute care units at a large tertiary care hospital.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2018-0251

    View details for PubMedID 31243058

  • Central Nervous System Infections Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus: Ventricular Shunt Infection in Two Pediatric Patients and Literature Review PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Lamb, G. S., Mojica, C., Srinivas, N., Starke, J. 2019; 38 (5): E99–E104


    A 4-year-old former 24-week gestation male and an 18-month-old former 26-week gestation female, both with history of intraventricular hemorrhage resulting in hydrocephalus, presented with Mycobacterium abscessus ventricular shunt infections affecting both the shunt track and the ventricular fluid. Both children required prolonged combination antimycobacterial therapy; the 4 years old required more than 2 months of triple intravenous antibiotics and intraventricular amikacin to sterilize the cerebrospinal fluid. Each infection came under control only after removal of all foreign material and multiple and extensive adjunctive surgical procedures to excise infected shunt track tissue. Central nervous system infections caused by M. abscessus are rare, and their management is challenging: prolonged antimicrobial therapy is required, adverse effects from antibiotics are common and rates of mortality and morbidity are high.

    View details for PubMedID 30001229

  • Pneumonia Prevention Strategies for Children With Neurologic Impairment. Pediatrics Lin, J. L., Van Haren, K. n., Rigdon, J. n., Saynina, O. n., Song, H. n., Buu, M. C., Thakur, Y. n., Srinivas, N. n., Asch, S. M., Sanders, L. M. 2019


    Children with neurologic impairment (NI) face high risk of recurrent severe pneumonia, with prevention strategies of unknown effectiveness. We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies for severe pneumonia in children with NI.We included children enrolled in California Children's Services between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2014, with NI and 1 pneumonia hospitalization. We examined associations between subsequent pneumonia hospitalization and expert-recommended prevention strategies: dental care, oral secretion management, gastric acid suppression, gastrostomy tube placement, chest physiotherapy, outpatient antibiotics before index hospitalization, and clinic visit before or after index hospitalization. We used a 1:2 propensity score matched model to adjust for covariates, including sociodemographics, medical complexity, and severity of index hospitalization.Among 3632 children with NI and index pneumonia hospitalization, 1362 (37.5%) had subsequent pneumonia hospitalization. Only dental care was associated with decreased risk of subsequent pneumonia hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.85). Exposures associated with increased risk included gastrostomy tube placement (aOR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.63-2.85), chest physiotherapy (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.29-3.20), outpatient antibiotics before hospitalization (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06-1.92), clinic visit before (aOR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.11-1.52), and after index hospitalization (aOR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.35-2.20).Dental care was associated with decreased recurrence of severe pneumonia. Several strategies, including gastrostomy tube placement, were associated with increased recurrence, possibly due to unresolved confounding by indication. Our results support a clinical trial of dental care to prevent severe pneumonia in children with NI.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-0543

    View details for PubMedID 31537634

  • Shedding of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV) by HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Mothers of OPV-Vaccinated Zimbabwean Infants. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Holubar, M., Troy, S. B., Nathoo, K., Stranix-Chibanda, L., Musingwini, G., Srinivas, N., Huang, C., Junn, A., Halpern, M. S., Maldonado, Y. A. 2016


    Community circulation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) likely begins with household transmission. We analyzed stool collected from Zimbabwean mothers who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and those who were uninfected with HIV 1 to 24 weeks after infant oral poliovirus vaccination. Overall, only 5% of the mothers had detectable OPV (16 of 304) despite high infant shedding rates. OPV shedding was similar between HIV-infected mothers and those who were uninfected (11 [6.4%] of 171 vs 5 [3.8%] of 133, respectively) and between mothers of HIV-infected infants and those of uninfected infants (2 [3.5%] of 57 vs 9 [6.3%] of 144, respectively). Mothers of vaccinated infants are unlikely to shed OPV, even when they are infected with HIV.

    View details for PubMedID 26759497

  • Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus (iVDPV) cases: A systematic review and implications for polio eradication VACCINE Guo, J., Bolivar-Wagers, S., Srinivas, N., Holubar, M., Maldonado, Y. 2015; 33 (10): 1235-1242


    Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), strains of poliovirus mutated from the oral polio vaccine, pose a challenge to global polio eradication. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) are a type of VDPV which may serve as sources of poliovirus reintroduction after the eradication of wild-type poliovirus. This review is a comprehensive update of confirmed iVDPV cases published in the scientific literature from 1962 to 2012, and describes clinically relevant trends in reported iVDPV cases worldwide.We conducted a systematic review of published iVDPV case reports from January 1960 to November 2012 from four databases. We included cases in which the patient had a primary immunodeficiency, and the vaccine virus isolated from the patient either met the sequencing definition of VDPV (>1% divergence for serotypes 1 and 3 and >0.6% for serotype 2) and/or was previously reported as an iVDPV by the World Health Organization.We identified 68 iVDPV cases in 49 manuscripts reported from 25 countries and the Palestinian territories. 62% of case patients were male, 78% presented clinically with acute flaccid paralysis, and 65% were iVDPV2. 57% of cases occurred in patients with predominantly antibody immunodeficiencies, and the overall all-cause mortality rate was greater than 60%. The median age at case detection was 1.4 years [IQR: 0.8, 4.5] and the median duration of shedding was 1.3 years [IQR: 0.7, 2.2]. We identified a poliovirus genome VP1 region mutation rate of 0.72% per year and a higher median percent divergence for iVDPV1 cases. More cases were reported from high income countries, which also had a larger age variation and different distribution of immunodeficiencies compared to upper and lower middle-income countries.Our study describes the incidence and characteristics of global iVDPV cases reported in the literature in the past five decades. It also highlights the regional and economic disparities of reported iVDPV cases.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.018

    View details for PubMedID 25600519

  • Evaluation of serial urine viral cultures for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in neonates and infants. Pediatric and developmental pathology Chisholm, K. M., Aziz, N., McDowell, M., Guo, F. P., Srinivas, N., Benitz, W. E., Norton, M. E., Gutierrez, K., Folkins, A. K., Pinsky, B. A. 2014; 17 (3): 176-180


    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection worldwide. Urine viral culture is the standard for CMV diagnosis in neonates and infants. The objectives of this study were to compare the performance of serial paired rapid shell vial cultures (SVC) and routine viral cultures (RVC), and to determine the optimal number of cultures needed to detect positive cases. From 2001 to 2011, all paired CMV SVC and RVC performed on neonates and infants less than 100 days of age were recorded. Testing episodes were defined as sets of cultures performed within 7 days of one another. A total of 1264 neonates and infants underwent 1478 testing episodes; 68 (5.4%) had at least one episode with a positive CMV culture. In episodes where CMV was detected before day 21 of life, the first specimen was positive in 100% (16/16) of cases. When testing occurred after 21 days of life, the first specimen was positive in 82.7% (43/52) of cases, requiring three cultures to reach 100% detection. The SVC was more prone to assay failure than RVC. Overall, when RVC was compared to SVC, there was 86.0% positive agreement and 99.9% negative agreement. In conclusion, three serial urine samples are necessary for detection of CMV in specimens collected between day of life 22 and 99, while one sample may be sufficient on or before day of life 21. Though SVC was more sensitive than RVC, the risk of SVC failure supports the use of multimodality testing to optimize detection.

    View details for DOI 10.2350/14-01-1432-OA.1

    View details for PubMedID 24617645

  • A Pediatric Case of New Delhi Metallo-ß-Lactamase-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in The United States. Pediatric infectious disease journal Green, D. A., Srinivas, N., Watz, N., Tenover, F. C., Amieva, M., Banaei, N. 2013; 32 (11): 1291-1294


    We report the second pediatric case of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the United States in a girl from India who presented to a teaching hospital in Northern California with cystitis due to NDM-1-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Laboratory methods included various phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing assays, as well as PCR assays for carbapenemase-encoding genes. Laboratory challenges included a false negative modified Hodge test and reversion of carbapenem resistance in the E. coli strain. The limited number of effective antimicrobial agents and the lack of pediatric-specific safety and efficacy data for these drugs presented significant therapeutic challenges.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0b013e31829eca34

    View details for PubMedID 23743543