Clinical Focus


  • Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • Neonatology

Honors & Awards


  • MAVENS Early Career Award, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute (CVI) (2022)
  • Elected Member, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society (2021)
  • Master's Tuition Program (MTP) Award, Stanford Maternal & Child Health Research Institute (MCHRI) (2019-2021)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, Neonatal Hemodynamics Research Centre (2021 - Present)
  • Member, American Society of Echocardiology (2021 - Present)
  • Junior Member, Newborn Brain Society (2020 - Present)
  • Junior Member, Society for Pediatric Research (2020 - Present)
  • Trainee Member, Western Society of Pediatric Research (2020 - Present)
  • Member, California Association of Neonatologists (2020 - Present)
  • Fellow, American Academy of Pediatrics (2018 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification, American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2018)
  • Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (2021)
  • Residency, University of Florida College of Medicine, Pediatrics (2018)
  • MS Epi, Stanford University School of Medicine, Epidemiology and Clinical Research (2021)
  • MD, Ajou University School of Medicine, Medicine (2012)

All Publications


  • Image-based prenatal predictors of postnatal survival, extracorporeal life support, and defect size in right congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association Danzer, E., Chock, V. Y., Chung, S., Noh, C. Y., Lally, P. A., Harting, M. T., Lally, K. P., Perrone, E. E., Ebanks, A. H., van Meurs, K. P. 2022

    Abstract

    To determine the association between prenatal ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in right congenital diaphragmatic hernia (RCDH) with postnatal outcome.CDH Study Group data were reviewed for all RCDH infants (n = 156) born between 2015 and 2019. Prenatal US and MRI lung size measurements were correlated with survival, extracorporeal life support (ECLS), and defect size.Overall survival was 64.1%. ECLS was required in 40.4%. US and MRI-based prenatal assessment of pulmonary hypoplasia does not predict survival. Prenatal measurement of lung size using either US or MRI correlates with ECLS use. Only MRI-based measures of lung size are associated with defect size.Image-based prenatal predictors of survival, ECLS, and defect size are of limited value in RCDH. Extrapolation of prenatal survival and morbidity indicators from left to right-sided CDH is not appropriate. There is an urgent need to develop RCDH prenatal prediction models.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41372-022-01470-x

    View details for PubMedID 35922665

  • Implementation of a Bedside Point-of-Care Ultrasound Program in a Large Academic Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. American journal of perinatology Pai, V. V., Noh, C. Y., Dasani, R., Vallandingham, S., Manipon, C., Haileselassie, B., Profit, J., Balasundaram, M., Davis, A. S., Bhombal, S. 2022

    Abstract

     In the adult and pediatric critical care population, point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) can aid in diagnosis, patient management, and procedural accuracy. For neonatal providers, training in ultrasound and the use of ultrasound for diagnosis and management is increasing, but use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is still uncommon compared with other critical care fields. Our objective was to describe the process of implementing a POCUS program in a large academic NICU and evaluate the role of ultrasound in neonatal care during early adaption of this program. A POCUS program established in December 2018 included regular bedside scanning, educational sessions, and quality assurance, in collaboration with members of the cardiology, radiology, and pediatric critical care divisions. Core applications were determined, and protocols outlined guidelines for image acquisition. An online database included images and descriptive logs for each ultrasound. A total of 508 bedside ultrasounds (76.8% diagnostic and 23.2% procedural) were performed by 23 providers from December 2018 to December 2020 in five core diagnostic applications: umbilical line visualization, cardiac, lung, abdomen (including bladder), and cranial as well as procedural applications. POCUS guided therapy and influenced clinical management in all applications: umbilical line assessment (26%), cardiac (33%), lung (14%), abdomen (53%), and cranial (43%). With regard to procedural ultrasound, 74% of ultrasound-guided arterial access and 89% of ultrasound-guided lumbar punctures were successful. Implementation of a POCUS program is feasible in a large academic NICU and can benefit from a team approach. Establishing a program in any NICU requires didactic opportunities, a defined scope of practice, and imaging review with quality assurance. Bedside clinician performed ultrasound findings can provide valuable information in the NICU and impact clinical management.· Use of point-of-care ultrasound is increasing in neonatology and has been shown to improve patient care.. · Implementation of a point-of-care ultrasound program requires the definition of scope of practice and can benefit from the support of other critical care and imaging departments and providers.. · Opportunities for point-of-care ultrasound didactics, imaging review, and quality assurance can enhance the utilization of bedside ultrasound..

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0042-1750118

    View details for PubMedID 35691294

  • Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Hemodynamic Monitoring Tool during Neonatal Extracorporeal Life Support Journal of Extra-Corporeal Technology Noh, C. Y., Van Meurs, K. P., Danzer, E., Chock, V. Y. 2022; 54 (1): 61-6
  • Real-Time Ultrasound Guidance for Umbilical Venous Cannulation in Neonates With Congenital Heart Disease. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Kozyak, B. W., Fraga, M. V., Juliano, C. E., Bhombal, S., Munson, D. A., Brandsma, E., Stoller, J. Z., Jain, A., Kesman, R., Meshkati, M., Noh, C. Y., Dewitt, A. G., Costarino, A. T., Hehir, D. A., Groves, A. M. 2022

    Abstract

    Umbilical venous cannulation is the favored approach to perinatal central access worldwide but has a failure rate of 25-50% and the insertion technique has not evolved in decades. Improving the success of this procedure would have broad implications, particularly where peripherally inserted central catheters are not easily obtained and in neonates with congenital heart disease, in whom umbilical access facilitates administration of inotropes and blood products while sparing vessels essential for later cardiac interventions. We sought to use real-time, point-of-care ultrasound to achieve central umbilical venous access in patients for whom conventional, blind placement techniques had failed.Multicenter case series, March 2019-May 2021.Cardiac and neonatal ICUs at three tertiary care children's hospitals.We identified 32 neonates with congenital heart disease, who had failed umbilical venous cannulation using traditional, blind techniques.Real-time ultrasound guidance and liver pressure were used to replace malpositioned catheters and achieve successful placement at the inferior cavoatrial junction.In 32 patients with failed prior umbilical venous catheter placement, real-time ultrasound guidance was used to successfully "rescue" the line and achieve central position in 23 (72%). Twenty of 25 attempts (80%) performed in the first 48 hours of life were successful, and three of seven attempts (43%) performed later. Twenty-four patients (75%) were on prostaglandin infusion at the time of the procedure. We did not identify an association between patient weight or gestational age and successful placement.Ultrasound guidance has become standard of care for percutaneous central venous access but is a new and emerging technique for umbilical vessel catheterization. In this early experience, we report that point-of-care ultrasound, together with liver pressure, can be used to markedly improve success of placement. This represents a significant advance in this core neonatal procedure.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002919

    View details for PubMedID 35250003

  • In-Hospital Morbidities for Neonates With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: The Impact of Defect Size and Laterality. The Journal of pediatrics Chock, V. Y., Danzer, E., Chung, S., Noh, C. Y., Ebanks, A. H., Harting, M. T., Lally, K. P., Van Meurs, K. P., Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group 2021

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To determine in-hospital morbidities for neonates with right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (R-CDH) compared with those with left-sided defects (L-CDH) and to examine the differential effect of laterality and defect size on morbidities.STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective, multicenter, cohort study from the international Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group (CDHSG) registry collected data from neonates with CDH surviving until hospital discharge from 90 neonatal intensive care units between 1/1/2007 and 7/31/2020. Major pulmonary, cardiac, neurologic, and gastrointestinal morbidities were compared between neonates with L-CDH and R-CDH, adjusted for prenatal and postnatal factors using logistic regression.RESULTS: Of 4123 survivors with CDH, those with R-CDH (n=598, 15%) compared with those with L-CDH (n=3525, 85%) had increased odds of pulmonary (1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2, P < .0001), cardiac (1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8, p=0.01), gastrointestinal (1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6, p=0.01), and multiple (1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0, p<0.001) in-hospital morbidities, with greater likelihood of morbidity with increasing defect size. There was no difference in neurologic morbidities between groups.CONCLUSION: Neonates with R-CDH and larger defect size are at increased risk for in-hospital morbidities. Counseling and clinical strategies should incorporate knowledge of these risks, and approach to neonatal R-CDH should be distinct from current practices targeted to L-CDH.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.09.001

    View details for PubMedID 34506854

  • Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis using MTB12 and 38-kDa antigens RESPIROLOGY Lee, J., Jo, E., Noh, Y., Shin, A., Shin, D., Son, J., Kim, H., Song, C. 2008; 13 (3): 432-437

    Abstract

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTB12 protein plays an essential role in pro-inflammatory responses during the early stages of human pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), even though the T-cell immunoreactivity of MTB12 is weaker than that of the 30-kDa antigen (Ag). The objective of this study was to evaluate the humoral immune responses induced by MTB12 Ag during human TB.Using an ELISA, anti-MTB12 IgG levels in the sera of TB patients and healthy controls were compared with those induced by the 30-kDa Ag and 38-kDa Ag, or both.In TB patients, the sensitivity and specificity of MTB12 Ag were similar to those of other antigens at 53.0% and 95.4%, respectively. However, the sensitivity increased to 73.0% when the combination of MTB12 and 38-kDa Ag was measured. Specificity remained high when a combination of the individual antigens was used. ELISA results showed that after anti-tuberculosis treatment, the mean IgG levels against MTB12 alone or MTB12 plus 38-kDa Ag were significantly increased in the TB patients, while those against MTB12 plus 30-kDa Ag were not (P < 0.05).Collectively, these data suggest that MTB12, in combination with 38-kDa Ag, can be used to increase the accuracy of pulmonary TB diagnosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2008.01243.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254792200017

    View details for PubMedID 18399868

  • Polymorphisms of interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha genes are associated with newly diagnosed and recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis RESPIROLOGY Oh, J., Yang, C., Noh, Y., Kweon, Y., Jung, S., Son, J., Kong, S., Yoon, J., Lee, J., Kim, H., Park, J., Jo, E., Song, C. 2007; 12 (4): 594-598

    Abstract

    The genetic determinants for developing TB or having recurrent TB are unknown. The present study investigated the relationship between susceptibility to tuberculosis and human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 genes (IL-10).A case-control study was conducted using two groups of cases--newly diagnosed TB (N-TB) and recurrent TB (R-TB)--and a control group.One hundred and seventeen healthy controls, 80 newly diagnosed TB patients and 65 patients with recurrent TB were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the TNF-alpha-308 G/A genotype between the TB patient groups and the controls. The IL-10 -1082A alleles were markedly over-represented among the TB patient groups compared with the control subjects, however, there was no significant difference in the IL-10 genotype frequency between the N-TB and R-TB patient groups.The -1082A allele of the IL-10 gene may be important in determining susceptibility to TB, however, the -308 allele of the TNF-alpha gene does not affect differential TB susceptibility.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2007.01108.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247440300020

    View details for PubMedID 17587429