Academic Appointments


  • Professor, Geophysics

Administrative Appointments


  • Professor of Geophysics, Stanford University (1993 - Present)
  • Professor of Geophysics and Geology, Stanford University (1984 - 1993)
  • Associate Professor of Geophysics and Geology, Stanford University (1979 - 1984)
  • Postdoctoral Research Associate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1973 - 1973)
  • Assistant Professor of Geophysics, Northwestern University (1973 - 1979)

Honors & Awards


  • Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London (2008)
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences (1999)
  • Walter H. Bucher Medal, American Geophysical Union (1998)
  • Wegener Medal, European Union of Geosciences (1997)
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993)
  • George P. Woollard Award, Geological Society of America (1991)
  • Fellow, Geological Society of America (1984)
  • James B. Macelwane Award, American Geophysical Union (1980)
  • Fellow, American Geophysical Union (1980)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Panel member, National Science Foundation (2011 - 2011)
  • Member, Committee on Earth Resources, National Research Council (2009 - Present)
  • Senior editor, Astrobiology (2004 - Present)
  • Chancellor's invited speaker, Louisiana State University (2000 - 2000)
  • Chair of Reading Committees for Ph.D. orals in Engineering, Physics, Linguistics, Education, Geological and Environmental Sciences, and Geophysics, Stanford University (1992 - Present)
  • Outside Reviewer for Proposals from NSF, NASA, USGS, Petroleum Research Fund, and funding agencies in Israel, Australia, Czech Republic, France, Canada and the U.K., NSF, NASA, USGS, Petroleum Research Fund, and others (1992 - Present)
  • Associate editor, Earth and Planetary Science Letters (1989 - Present)
  • Member, Earth Sciences Library Committee, Stanford University (1984 - 2001)
  • Associate Editor, Tectonophysics (1981 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Geophysics (1973)
  • M.S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Geophysics (1969)
  • B.S., Michigan State University, Geology and Mathematics (1967)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Research
I apply heat and mass transfer to physical processes within the Earth. I am currently studying convection at the base of the lithosphere and the interaction of the lithosphere with mantle plume material. Hot plume material locally thins the lithosphere and ponds within preexisting regions of thin lithosphere. I am also investigating the microphysics of friction. I am currently applying the results to nonlinear attenuation and ground damage by strong seismic waves. I am currently considering pre-photosynthetic sources of energy for life (like hydrogen from serpentine and methanogenesis) and the effects of photosynthetic ecology on surface and tectonic processes.

Teaching
I will teach freshman seminar in winter 2015. I am actively involved in the crustal, stress, and earthquake seminars.

Professional Activities
2008 Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London; Election, National Academy of Sciences (1999); Walter H. Bucher Medal, American Geophysical Union (1998); Wegener Medal, European Union of Geosciences (1997); fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993); George P. Woollard Award, Geological Society of America (1991); fellow, Geological Society of America (1984); James B. Macelwane Award (1980); fellow, American Geophysical Union (1980)

2014-15 Courses


Journal Articles


  • Terrestrial aftermath of the Moon-forming impact PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K. J., Lupu, R. E. 2014; 372 (2024)
  • BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE SOURCE OF GEONEUTRINOS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS A Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K., Rosing, M. T. 2013; 28 (30)
  • Self-organization of elastic moduli in the rock above blind faults GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2013; 14 (3): 733-750

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ggge.20073

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317825000014

  • Microscopic elasticity and rate and state friction evolution laws GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2012; 13
  • Life: Asteroid Target, Witness from the Early Earth, and Ubiquitous Effect on Global Geology ASTROBIOLOGY Sleep, N. H. 2012; 12 (12): 1163-1164

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ast.2012.1031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312561600009

    View details for PubMedID 23151301

  • Maintenance of permeable habitable subsurface environments by earthquakes and tidal stresses INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTROBIOLOGY Sleep, N. H. 2012; 11 (4): 257-268
  • Site Resonance from Strong Ground Motions at Lucerne, California, during the 1992 Landers Mainshock BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Sleep, N. H. 2012; 102 (4): 1505-1513

    View details for DOI 10.1785/0120110267

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307277100016

  • Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ogden, D. E., Sleep, N. H. 2012; 109 (1): 59-62

    Abstract

    The end-Permian extinction decimated up to 95% of carbonate shell-bearing marine species and 80% of land animals. Isotopic excursions, dissolution of shallow marine carbonates, and the demise of carbonate shell-bearing organisms suggest global warming and ocean acidification. The temporal association of the extinction with the Siberia flood basalts at approximately 250 Ma is well known, and recent evidence suggests these flood basalts may have mobilized carbon in thick deposits of organic-rich sediments. Large isotopic excursions recorded in this period are potentially explained by rapid venting of coal-derived methane, which has primarily been attributed to metamorphism of coal by basaltic intrusion. However, recently discovered contemporaneous deposits of fly ash in northern Canada suggest large-scale combustion of coal as an additional mechanism for rapid release of carbon. This massive coal combustion may have resulted from explosive interaction with basalt sills of the Siberian Traps. Here we present physical analysis of explosive eruption of coal and basalt, demonstrating that it is a viable mechanism for global extinction. We describe and constrain the physics of this process including necessary magnitudes of basaltic intrusion, mixing and mobilization of coal and basalt, ascent to the surface, explosive combustion, and the atmospheric rise necessary for global distribution.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1118675109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298876500018

    View details for PubMedID 22184229

  • Constraint on the recurrence of great outer-rise earthquakes from seafloor bathymetry EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE Sleep, N. H. 2012; 64 (12): 1245-1246
  • Paleontology of Earth's Mantle ANNUAL REVIEW OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES, VOL 40 Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K., Pope, E. 2012; 40: 277-300
  • Seismically damaged regolith as self-organized fragile geological feature GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2011; 12
  • Deep-seated downslope slip during strong seismic shaking GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2011; 12
  • Serpentinite and the dawn of life PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K., Pope, E. C. 2011; 366 (1580): 2857-2869

    Abstract

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO(2) atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO(2) dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ? 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9-11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO(2) in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rstb.2011.0129

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294993100002

    View details for PubMedID 21930576

  • Seismically observable features of mature stagnant-lid convection at the base of the lithosphere: Some scaling relationships GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2011; 12
  • Habitable Zone Limits for Dry Planets ASTROBIOLOGY Abe, Y., Abe-Ouchi, A., Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K. J. 2011; 11 (5): 443-460

    Abstract

    Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ast.2010.0545

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292086900005

    View details for PubMedID 21707386

  • Small-scale convection beneath oceans and continents CHINESE SCIENCE BULLETIN Sleep, N. H. 2011; 56 (13): 1292-1317
  • Strong seismic shaking of randomly prestressed brittle rocks, rock damage, and nonlinear attenuation GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2010; 11
  • Sudden and gradual compaction of shallow brittle porous rocks JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 2010; 115
  • The Hadean-Archaean Environment COLD SPRING HARBOR PERSPECTIVES IN BIOLOGY Sleep, N. H. 2010; 2 (6)

    Abstract

    A sparse geological record combined with physics and molecular phylogeny constrains the environmental conditions on the early Earth. The Earth began hot after the moon-forming impact and cooled to the point where liquid water was present in approximately 10 million years. Subsequently, a few asteroid impacts may have briefly heated surface environments, leaving only thermophile survivors in kilometer-deep rocks. A warm 500 K, 100 bar CO(2) greenhouse persisted until subducted oceanic crust sequestered CO(2) into the mantle. It is not known whether the Earth's surface lingered in a approximately 70 degrees C thermophile environment well into the Archaean or cooled to clement or freezing conditions in the Hadean. Recently discovered approximately 4.3 Ga rocks near Hudson Bay may have formed during the warm greenhouse. Alkalic rocks in India indicate carbonate subduction by 4.26 Ga. The presence of 3.8 Ga black shales in Greenland indicates that S-based photosynthesis had evolved in the oceans and likely Fe-based photosynthesis and efficient chemical weathering on land. Overall, mantle derived rocks, especially kimberlites and similar CO(2)-rich magmas, preserve evidence of subducted upper oceanic crust, ancient surface environments, and biosignatures of photosynthesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/cshperspect.a002527

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279882800011

    View details for PubMedID 20516134

  • Application of rate and state friction formalism and flash melting to thin permanent slip zones of major faults GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2010; 11
  • Nonlinear Behavior of Strong Surface Waves Trapped in Sedimentary Basins BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Sleep, N. H. 2010; 100 (2): 826-832

    View details for DOI 10.1785/0120090150

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275597200031

  • No climate paradox under the faint early Sun NATURE Rosing, M. T., Bird, D. K., Sleep, N. H., Bjerrum, C. J. 2010; 464 (7289): 744-U117

    Abstract

    Environmental niches in which life first emerged and later evolved on the Earth have undergone dramatic changes in response to evolving tectonic/geochemical cycles and to biologic interventions, as well as increases in the Sun's luminosity of about 25 to 30 per cent over the Earth's history. It has been inferred that the greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO(2) and/or CH(4) compensated for the lower solar luminosity and dictated an Archaean climate in which liquid water was stable in the hydrosphere. Here we demonstrate, however, that the mineralogy of Archaean sediments, particularly the ubiquitous presence of mixed-valence Fe(II-III) oxides (magnetite) in banded iron formations is inconsistent with such high concentrations of greenhouse gases and the metabolic constraints of extant methanogens. Prompted by this, and the absence of geologic evidence for very high greenhouse-gas concentrations, we hypothesize that a lower albedo on the Earth, owing to considerably less continental area and to the lack of biologically induced cloud condensation nuclei, made an important contribution to moderating surface temperature in the Archaean eon. Our model calculations suggest that the lower albedo of the early Earth provided environmental conditions above the freezing point of water, thus alleviating the need for extreme greenhouse-gas concentrations to satisfy the faint early Sun paradox.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature08955

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276205000042

    View details for PubMedID 20360739

  • The Eons of Chaos and Hades SOLID EARTH Goldblatt, C., Zahnle, K. J., Sleep, N. H., Nisbet, E. G. 2010; 1 (1): 1-3
  • Stagnant lid convection and the thermal subsidence of sedimentary basins with reference to Michigan GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2009; 10
  • Stagnant lid convection and carbonate metasomatism of the deep continental lithosphere GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2009; 10
  • Depth of Rock Damage from Strong Seismic Ground Motions near the 2004 Parkfield Mainshock BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Sleep, N. H. 2009; 99 (5): 3067-3076

    View details for DOI 10.1785/0120090065

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270857800030

  • The Bent Hawaiian-Emperor Hotspot Track: Inheriting the Mantle Wind SCIENCE Tarduno, J., Bunge, H., Sleep, N., Hansen, U. 2009; 324 (5923): 50-53

    Abstract

    Bends in volcanic hotspot lineaments, best represented by the large elbow in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, were thought to directly record changes in plate motion. Several lines of geophysical inquiry now suggest that a change in the locus of upwelling in the mantle induced by mantle dynamics causes bends in hotspot tracks. Inverse modeling suggests that although deep flow near the core-mantle boundary may have played a role in the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, capture of a plume by a ridge, followed by changes in sub-Pacific mantle flow, can better explain the observations. Thus, hotspot tracks can reveal patterns of past mantle circulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1161256

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264802100027

    View details for PubMedID 19342579

  • Anthropic Knots and the Rise of Life ASTROBIOLOGY Sleep, N. H. 2009; 9 (2): 251-252

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ast.2008.0927

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265707200009

    View details for PubMedID 19371164

  • Scaling relationships for chemical lid convection with applications to cratonal lithosphere GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H., Jellinek, A. M. 2008; 9
  • Nonlinear attenuation and rock damage during strong seismic ground motions GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H., Hagin, P. 2008; 9
  • Evolutionary ecology during the rise of dioxygen in the Earth's atmosphere PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K. 2008; 363 (1504): 2651-2664

    Abstract

    Pre-photosynthetic niches were meagre with a productivity of much less than 10(-4) of modern photosynthesis. Serpentinization, arc volcanism and ridge-axis volcanism reliably provided H(2). Methanogens and acetogens reacted CO(2) with H(2) to obtain energy and make organic matter. These skills pre-adapted a bacterium for anoxygenic photosynthesis, probably starting with H(2) in lieu of an oxygen 'acceptor'. Use of ferrous iron and sulphide followed as abundant oxygen acceptors, allowing productivity to approach modern levels. The 'photobacterium' proliferated rooting much of the bacterial tree. Land photosynthetic microbes faced a dearth of oxygen acceptors and nutrients. A consortium of photosynthetic and soil bacteria aided weathering and access to ferrous iron. Biologically enhanced weathering led to the formation of shales and, ultimately, to granitic rocks. Already oxidized iron-poor sedimentary rocks and low-iron granites provided scant oxygen acceptors, as did freshwater in their drainages. Cyanobacteria evolved dioxygen production that relieved them of these vicissitudes. They did not immediately dominate the planet. Eventually, anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis oxidized much of the Earth's crust and supplied sulphate to the ocean. Anoxygenic photosynthesis remained important until there was enough O(2) in downwelling seawater to quantitatively oxidize massive sulphides at mid-ocean ridge axes.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rstb.2008.0018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257571100004

    View details for PubMedID 18468980

  • Channeling at the base of the lithosphere during the lateral flow of plume material beneath flow line hot spots GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2008; 9
  • Production of brief extreme ground acceleration pulses by nonlinear mechanisms in the shallow subsurface GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H., Ma, S. 2008; 9
  • Edge-modulated stagnant-lid convection and volcanic passive margins GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2007; 8
  • Did earthquakes keep the early crust habitable? ASTROBIOLOGY Sleep, N. H., Zoback, M. D. 2007; 7 (6): 1023-1032

    Abstract

    The shallow habitable region of cratonal crust deforms with a strain rate on the order of approximately 10(19) s(1). This is rapid enough that small seismic events are expected on one-kilometer spatial scales and one-million-year timescales. Rock faulting has the potential to release batches of biological substrate, such as dissolved H(2), permitting transient blooms. In addition, the steady-state deformation of the brittle crust causes numerous small faults to be permeable enough (on the order of approximately 10(15) m(2)) for water to flow on a kilometer scale over relatively short geological times ( approximately 10(5) yr). Hence, active faults act as concentrated niches capable of episodically tapping resources in the bulk volume of the rock. Radiolysis and ferrous iron are potentially bases of sustainable hard-rock niches.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ast.2006.0091

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252268300013

    View details for PubMedID 18163876

  • Weak thermal convection within tilted plume conduits GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2007; 8
  • Niches of the pre-photosynthetic biosphere and geologic preservation of Earth's earliest ecology GEOBIOLOGY Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K. 2007; 5 (2): 101-117
  • Application of rate-and-state friction laws to creep compaction of unconsolidated sand under hydrostatic loading conditions JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Hagin, P., Sleep, N. H., Zoback, M. D. 2007; 112 (B5)
  • Reply to a comment by D. R. Lowe on "Weathering of quartz as an archean climatic indicator" by N. H. Sleep and A. M. Hessler EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Hessler, A. M., Sleep, N. H. 2007; 253 (3-4): 534-535
  • Emergence of a Habitable Planet GEOLOGY AND HABITABILITY OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS Zahnle, K., Arndt, N., Cockell, C., Halliday, A., Nisbet, E., Selsis, F., Sleep, N. H. 2007; 24: 35-78
  • Frictional dilatancy GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2006; 7
  • The astrobiology primer: An outline of general knowledge - Version 1, 2006 ASTROBIOLOGY Mix, L. J., Armstrong, J. C., Mandell, A. M., Mosier, A. C., Raymond, J., Raymond, S. N., Stewart, F. J., von Braun, K., Zhaxybayeva, O., Billings, L., Cameron, V., Claire, M., Dick, G. J., Domagal-Goldman, S. D., Javaux, E. J., Johnson, O. J., Laws, C., Race, M. S., Rask, J., Rummel, J. D., Schelble, R. T., Vance, S., Adam, Z., Backus, P., Beegle, L., Bishop, J., Boering, K., Briley, M., Calvin, W., Catling, D., Cleland, C., Dodson, K. E., Fletcher, J., de la Fuente Acosta, E., de Zwart, I., Eigenbrode, J., Farmer, J., Frank, S., Gogarten, P., Goolish, E., Grymes, R., Haghighipour, N., Hudson, T., Ivkovic, V., Jahangeer, M., Jakosky, B., Kenyon, S., Kilston, S., Knoll, A., Korpela, E., Lamb, D., Lazio, J., Lenski, R., Link, L., Lloyd, K., Lunine, J., Manga, M., McCoy, T., Meech, K., Mello, G., Mojzsis, S., Morrison, D., Morton, O., Moser, D., Nealson, K., Nimno, F., Norris, R., Offerdahl, E., Olien, T., Pace, N., Pfiffner, S., Philips, C., Rao, S., Rodriquez, D., Rummel, J., Schopf, B., Seager, S., Sleep, N., Sogin, M., Solovaya, N., Sullivan, W., Thomas, B., Thorsteinsson, T., Tomow, C., Wevrick, M., Woolf, N., Yamaguchi, K., Zerella, M. 2006; 6 (5): 735-813

    Abstract

    The Astrobiology Primer has been created as a reference tool for those who are interested in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology. The field incorporates many diverse research endeavors, but it is our hope that this slim volume will present the reader with all he or she needs to know to become involved and to understand, at least at a fundamental level, the state of the art. Each section includes a brief overview of a topic and a short list of readable and important literature for those interested in deeper knowledge. Because of the great diversity of material, each section was written by a different author with a different expertise. Contributors, authors, and editors are listed at the beginning, along with a list of those chapters and sections for which they were responsible. We are deeply indebted to the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), in particular to Estelle Dodson, David Morrison, Ed Goolish, Krisstina Wilmoth, and Rose Grymes for their continued enthusiasm and support. The Primer came about in large part because of NAI support for graduate student research, collaboration, and inclusion as well as direct funding. We have entitled the Primer version 1 in hope that it will be only the first in a series, whose future volumes will be produced every 3-5 years. This way we can insure that the Primer keeps up with the current state of research. We hope that it will be a great resource for anyone trying to stay abreast of an ever-changing field.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241636900003

    View details for PubMedID 17067259

  • Real contacts and evolution laws for rate and state friction GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2006; 7
  • Mantle plumes from top to bottom EARTH-SCIENCE REVIEWS Sleep, N. H. 2006; 77 (4): 231-271
  • The rise of continents - An essay on the geologic consequences of photosynthesis PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY Rosing, M. T., Bird, D. K., Sleep, N. H., Glassley, W., Albarede, F. 2006; 232 (2-4): 99-113
  • Weathering of quartz as an Archean climatic indicator EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Sleep, N. H., Hessler, A. M. 2006; 241 (3-4): 594-602
  • Physical basis of evolution laws for rate and state friction GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2005; 6
  • Cutting anthropic knots and the rise of O-2 ASTROBIOLOGY Sleep, N. H. 2005; 5 (3): 331-332

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229789000001

    View details for PubMedID 15941379

  • Evolution of the continental lithosphere ANNUAL REVIEW OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Sleep, N. H. 2005; 33: 369-393
  • Evolution of continental lithosphere Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences Sleep, N. H. 2005; 33: 369-393
  • Palaeoclimatology - Archaean palaeosols and Archaean air NATURE Sleep, N. H. 2004; 432 (7016)

    Abstract

    Ferrous carbonate, as the mineral siderite, occurs in Archaean palaeosols (ancient soils). Ohmoto et al. contend that siderite was not in equilibrium with the oxygen in Archaean air and that its presence in palaeosols provides little constraint on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in Archaean air. But their argument is invalid because it fails to distinguish the different behaviours of the trivial component oxygen and the significant component carbon dioxide in the partly closed system of soil waters. The presence or absence of siderite in ancient soils is a valid constraint on the carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in ancient atmospheres.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature03167

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225322100034

    View details for PubMedID 15584096

  • H-2-rich fluids from serpentinization: Geochemical and biotic implications PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sleep, N. H., Meibom, A., Fridriksson, T., Coleman, R. G., Bird, D. K. 2004; 101 (35): 12818-12823

    Abstract

    Metamorphic hydration and oxidation of ultramafic rocks produces serpentinites, composed of serpentine group minerals and varying amounts of brucite, magnetite, and/or FeNi alloys. These minerals buffer metamorphic fluids to extremely reducing conditions that are capable of producing hydrogen gas. Awaruite, FeNi3, forms early in this process when the serpentinite minerals are Fe-rich. Olivine with the current mantle Fe/Mg ratio was oxidized during serpentinization after the Moon-forming impact. This process formed some of the ferric iron in the Earth's mantle. For the rest of Earth's history, serpentinites covered only a small fraction of the Earth's surface but were an important prebiotic and biotic environment. Extant methanogens react H2 with CO2 to form methane. This is a likely habitable environment on large silicate planets. The catalytic properties of FeNi3 allow complex organic compounds to form within serpentinite and, when mixed with atmospherically produced complex organic matter and waters that circulated through basalts, constitutes an attractive prebiotic substrate. Conversely, inorganic catalysis of methane by FeNi3 competes with nascent and extant life.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0405289101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223694700010

    View details for PubMedID 15326313

  • Earth science - Kinks and circuits NATURE Sleep, N. H. 2004; 430 (6996): 151-153

    View details for DOI 10.1038/430151a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222470600026

    View details for PubMedID 15241397

  • Osmium isotopic compositions of Os-rich platinum group element alloys from the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Meibom, A., Frei, R., Sleep, N. H. 2004; 109 (B2)
  • Thermal haloes around plume tails GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL Sleep, N. H. 2004; 156 (2): 359-362
  • Long lasting epeirogenic uplift from mantle plumes and the origin of the Southern African Plateau GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Nyblade, A. A., Sleep, N. H. 2003; 4
  • Geodynamic implications of xenolith geotherms GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2003; 4
  • Fate of mantle plume material trapped within a lithospheric catchment with reference to Brazil GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2003; 4
  • Survival of Archean cratonal lithosphere JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 2003; 108 (B6)
  • Are high He-3/He-4 ratios in oceanic basalts an indicator of deep-mantle plume components? EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Meibom, A., Anderson, D. L., Sleep, N. H., Frei, R., CHAMBERLAIN, C. P., Hren, M. T., Wooden, J. L. 2003; 208 (3-4): 197-204
  • Mantle plumes? ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS Sleep, N. H. 2003; 44 (1): 11-U3
  • Simple features of mantle-wide convection and the interpretation of lower-mantle tomograms COMPTES RENDUS GEOSCIENCE Sleep, N. H. 2003; 335 (1): 9-22
  • Local lithospheric relief associated with fracture zones and ponded plume material GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2002; 3
  • Ridge-crossing mantle plumes and gaps in tracks GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS Sleep, N. H. 2002; 3
  • Re-Os isotopic evidence for long-lived heterogeneity and equilibration processes in the Earth's upper mantle NATURE Meibom, A., Sleep, N. H., CHAMBERLAIN, C. P., Coleman, R. G., Frei, R., Hren, M. T., Wooden, J. L. 2002; 419 (6908): 705-708

    Abstract

    The geochemical composition of the Earth's upper mantle is thought to reflect 4.5 billion years of melt extraction, as well as the recycling of crustal materials. The fractionation of rhenium and osmium during partial melting in the upper mantle makes the Re-Os isotopic system well suited for tracing the extraction of melt and recycling of the resulting mid-ocean-ridge basalt. Here we report osmium isotope compositions of more than 700 osmium-rich platinum-group element alloys derived from the upper mantle. The osmium isotopic data form a wide, essentially gaussian distribution, demonstrating that, with respect to Re-Os isotope systematics, the upper mantle is extremely heterogeneous. As depleted and enriched domains can apparently remain unequilibrated on a timescale of billions of years, effective equilibration seems to require high degrees of partial melting, such as occur under mid-ocean ridges or in back-arc settings, where percolating melts enhance the mobility of both osmium and rhenium. We infer that the gaussian shape of the osmium isotope distribution is the signature of a random mixing process between depleted and enriched domains, resulting from a 'plum pudding' distribution in the upper mantle, rather than from individual melt depletion events.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature01067

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178615200036

    View details for PubMedID 12384694

  • Self-organization of crustal faulting and tectonics INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGY REVIEW Sleep, N. H. 2002; 44 (1): 83-96
  • Initiation of clement surface conditions on the earliest Earth PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K., Neuhoff, P. S. 2001; 98 (7): 3666-3672

    Abstract

    In the beginning the surface of the Earth was extremely hot, because the Earth as we know it is the product of a collision between two planets, a collision that also created the Moon. Most of the heat within the very young Earth was lost quickly to space while the surface was still quite hot. As it cooled, the Earth's surface passed monotonically through every temperature regime between silicate vapor to liquid water and perhaps even to ice, eventually reaching an equilibrium with sunlight. Inevitably the surface passed through a time when the temperature was around 100 degrees C at which modern thermophile organisms live. How long this warm epoch lasted depends on how long a thick greenhouse atmosphere can be maintained by heat flow from the Earth's interior, either directly as a supplement to insolation, or indirectly through its influence on the nascent carbonate cycle. In both cases, the duration of the warm epoch would have been controlled by processes within the Earth's interior where buffering by surface conditions played little part. A potentially evolutionarily significant warm period of between 10(5) and 10(7) years seems likely, which nonetheless was brief compared to the vast expanse of geological time.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167833700012

    View details for PubMedID 11259665

  • Biogeochemistry - Oxygenating the atmosphere NATURE Sleep, N. H. 2001; 410 (6826): 317-319

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167464100028

    View details for PubMedID 11268188

  • The habitat and nature of early life NATURE Nisbet, E. G., Sleep, N. H. 2001; 409 (6823): 1083-1091

    Abstract

    Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 degrees C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years ago, and is likely to have gone through one or more hot-ocean 'bottlenecks'. Only hyperthermophiles (organisms optimally living in water at 80-110 degrees C) would have survived. It is possible that early life diversified near hydrothermal vents, but hypotheses that life first occupied other pre-bottleneck habitats are tenable (including transfer from Mars on ejecta from impacts there). Early hyperthermophile life, probably near hydrothermal systems, may have been non-photosynthetic, and many housekeeping proteins and biochemical processes may have an original hydrothermal heritage. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting. By about 3,500 million years ago, most of the principal biochemical pathways that sustain the modern biosphere had evolved, and were global in scope.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167148800056

    View details for PubMedID 11234022

  • Carbon dioxide cycling and implications for climate on ancient Earth JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K. 2001; 106 (E1): 1373-1399
  • Physics of friction and strain rate localization in synthetic fault gouge JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H., Richardson, E., Marone, C. 2000; 105 (B11): 25875-25890
  • Evolution of the mode of convection within terrestrial planets JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS Sleep, N. H. 2000; 105 (E7): 17563-17578
  • Effects of the extrusion of fault gouge on frictional sliding JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1999; 104 (B10): 23023-23032
  • Rate- and state-dependent friction of intact rock and gouge JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1999; 104 (B8): 17847-17855
  • Refugia from asteroid impacts on early Mars and the early Earth JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K. 1998; 103 (E12): 28529-28544
  • Cenozoic magmatism throughout east Africa resulting from impact of a single plume NATURE Ebinger, C. J., Sleep, N. H. 1998; 395 (6704): 788-791
  • Rake dependent rate and state friction JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1998; 103 (B4): 7111-7119
  • Earth science - The puzzle of the South Pacific NATURE Sleep, N. 1997; 389 (6650): 439-440
  • Who needs astronauts? ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS Sleep, N. 1997; 38 (5): 5-5
  • The nature of oceanic lower crust and shallow mantle emplaced at low spreading rates TECTONOPHYSICS Sleep, N. H., Barth, G. A. 1997; 279 (1-4): 181-191
  • Lateral flow and ponding of starting plume material JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1997; 102 (B5): 10001-10012
  • Application of a unified rate and state friction theory to the mechanics of fault zones with strain localization JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1997; 102 (B2): 2875-2895
  • Lateral flow of hot plume material ponded at sublithospheric depths JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1996; 101 (B12): 28065-28083
  • GEOPHYSICS - A WAYWARD PLUME NATURE Sleep, N. H. 1995; 378 (6552): 19-20
  • FRICTIONAL HEATING AND THE STABILITY OF RATE AND STATE-DEPENDENT FRICTIONAL SLIDING GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Sleep, N. H. 1995; 22 (20): 2785-2788
  • DUCTILE CREEP, COMPACTION, AND RATE AND STATE-DEPENDENT FRICTION WITHIN MAJOR FAULT ZONES JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1995; 100 (B7): 13065-13080
  • PLATE-TECTONICS AND THE EVOLUTION OF CLIMATE REVIEWS OF GEOPHYSICS Sleep, N. H. 1995; 33: 199-203
  • LITHOSPHERIC THINNING BY MIDPLATE MANTLE PLUMES AND THE THERMAL HISTORY OF HOT PLUME MATERIAL PONDED AT SUBLITHOSPHERIC DEPTHS JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1994; 99 (B5): 9327-9343
  • MARTIAN PLATE-TECTONICS JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS Sleep, N. H. 1994; 99 (E3): 5639-5655
  • MANTLE PLUME INFLUENCE ON THE NEOGENE UPLIFT AND EXTENSION OF THE UNITED-STATES WESTERN CORDILLERA GEOLOGY Parsons, T., Thompson, G. A., Sleep, N. H. 1994; 22 (1): 83-86
  • GRAIN-SIZE AND CHEMICAL CONTROLS ON THE DUCTILE PROPERTIES OF MOSTLY FRICTIONAL FAULTS AT LOW-TEMPERATURE HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS PURE AND APPLIED GEOPHYSICS Sleep, N. H. 1994; 143 (1-3): 41-60
  • DUCTILE CREEP AND COMPACTION - A MECHANISM FOR TRANSIENTLY INCREASING FLUID PRESSURE IN MOSTLY SEALED FAULT ZONES PURE AND APPLIED GEOPHYSICS Sleep, N. H., Blanpied, M. L. 1994; 143 (1-3): 9-40
  • TECTONICS - UPWELLING BENEATH OCEAN RIDGES NATURE Sleep, N. H. 1993; 366 (6456): 635-636
  • PLANETARY SCIENCE - TOP-DOWN CONVECTION NATURE Sleep, N. H. 1993; 366 (6454): 410-411
  • TIME-DEPENDENCE OF MANTLE PLUMES - SOME SIMPLE THEORY JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Sleep, N. H. 1992; 97 (B13): 20007-20019
  • HOST ROCK RHEOLOGY CONTROLS ON THE EMPLACEMENT OF TABULAR INTRUSIONS - IMPLICATIONS FOR UNDERPLATING OF EXTENDING CRUST TECTONICS Parsons, T., Sleep, N. H., Thompson, G. A. 1992; 11 (6): 1348-1356
  • CREEP, COMPACTION AND THE WEAK RHEOLOGY OF MAJOR FAULTS NATURE Sleep, N. H., Blanpied, M. L. 1992; 359 (6397): 687-692
  • MAGMATISM AND EXTENSION - THE THERMAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF THE YELLOWSTONE HOTSPOT JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH Anders, M. H., Sleep, N. H. 1992; 97 (B11): 15379-15393
  • ALVIN INVESTIGATION OF AN ACTIVE PROPAGATING RIFT SYSTEM, GALAPAGOS 95.5-DEGREES-W MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCHES HEY, R. N., Sinton, J. M., KLEINROCK, M. C., Yonover, R. N., Macdonald, K. C., Miller, S. P., Searle, R. C., Christie, D. M., ATWATER, T. M., Sleep, N. H., Johnson, H. P., Neal, C. A. 1992; 14 (3): 207-226
  • HOTSPOT VOLCANISM AND MANTLE PLUMES ANNUAL REVIEW OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Sleep, N. H. 1992; 20: 19-43
  • HYDROTHERMAL CIRCULATION, ANHYDRITE PRECIPITATION, AND THERMAL STRUCTURE AT RIDGE AXES JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Sleep, N. H. 1991; 96 (B2): 2375-2387
  • A REEXAMINATION OF THE SEISMICITY OF MICHIGAN TECTONOPHYSICS Fujita, K., Sleep, N. H. 1991; 186 (1-2): 75-106
  • HIGH-MG, LOW-AL BULK COMPOSITION OF THE TALKEETNA ISLAND-ARC, ALASKA - IMPLICATIONS FOR PRIMARY MAGMAS AND THE NATURE OF ARC CRUST GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA BULLETIN DeBari, S. M., Sleep, N. H. 1991; 103 (1): 37-47
  • MONTEREGIAN HOTSPOT TRACK - A LONG-LIVED MANTLE PLUME JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Sleep, N. H. 1990; 95 (B13): 21983-21990
  • GEOLOGY - A REPRIEVE FOR OCEAN CRUST NATURE Sleep, N. H. 1990; 347 (6293): 518-519
  • FAST INSTANTANEOUS OCEANIC PLATE VELOCITIES RECORDED BY THE CRETACEOUS LAYTONVILLE LIMESTONE - PALEOMAGNETIC ANALYSIS AND KINEMATIC IMPLICATIONS JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Tarduno, J. A., MCWILLAMS, M., Sleep, N. 1990; 95 (B10): 15503-15527
  • HOTSPOTS AND MANTLE PLUMES - SOME PHENOMENOLOGY JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Sleep, N. H. 1990; 95 (B5): 6715-6736
  • PERMANENT UPLIFT IN MAGMATIC SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATION TO THE THARSIS REGION OF MARS JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Phillips, R. J., Sleep, N. H., Banerdt, W. B. 1990; 95 (B4): 5089-5100
  • MASS BALANCE CALCULATIONS FOR 2 SECTIONS OF ISLAND-ARC CRUST AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF CONTINENTS EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS PEARCY, L. G., DeBari, S. M., Sleep, N. H. 1990; 96 (3-4): 427-442
  • ANNIHILATION OF ECOSYSTEMS BY LARGE ASTEROID IMPACTS ON THE EARLY EARTH NATURE Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K. J., Kasting, J. F., Morowitz, H. J. 1989; 342 (6246): 139-142

    Abstract

    Large asteroid impacts produced globally lethal conditions by evaporating large volumes of ocean water on the early Earth. The Earth may have been continuously habitable by ecosystems that did not depend on photosynthesis as early as 4.44 Gyr BP (before present). Only a brief interval after 3.8 Gyr exists between the time when obligate photosynthetic organisms could continuously evolve and the time when the palaeontological record indicates highly evolved photosynthetic ecosystems.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AY73900055

    View details for PubMedID 11536616

  • MORE ABOUT THE MOMENT OF INERTIA OF MARS GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Kaula, W. M., Sleep, N. H., Phillips, R. J. 1989; 16 (11): 1333-1336
  • GRADUAL ENTRAINMENT OF A CHEMICAL LAYER AT THE BASE OF THE MANTLE BY OVERLYING CONVECTION GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL-OXFORD Sleep, N. H. 1988; 95 (3): 437-447
  • IMPLICATIONS OF MAGMA CONVECTION FOR THE SIZE AND TEMPERATURE OF MAGMA CHAMBERS AT FAST SPREADING RIDGES JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Wilson, D. S., CLAGUE, D. A., Sleep, N. H., Morton, J. L. 1988; 93 (B10): 11974-11984
  • TAPPING OF MELT BY VEINS AND DIKES JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Sleep, N. H. 1988; 93 (B9): 10255-10272
  • RELIC MAGMA CHAMBER STRUCTURES PRESERVED WITHIN THE MESOZOIC NORTH-ATLANTIC CRUST GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA BULLETIN McCarthy, J., Mutter, J. C., Morton, J. L., Sleep, N. H., Thompson, G. A. 1988; 100 (9): 1423-1436
  • DYNAMICALLY SUPPORTED GEOID HIGHS OVER HOTSPOTS - OBSERVATION AND THEORY JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Richards, M. A., Hager, B. H., Sleep, N. H. 1988; 93 (B7): 7690-7708
  • ONSET OF MANTLE PLUMES IN THE PRESENCE OF PREEXISTING CONVECTION JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Sleep, N. H., Richards, M. A., Hager, B. H. 1988; 93 (B7): 7672-7689
  • STRUCTURE OF THE SOUTHERN JUAN-DE-FUCA RIDGE FROM SEISMIC-REFLECTION RECORDS JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Morton, J. L., Sleep, N. H., Normark, W. R., TOMPKINS, D. H. 1987; 92 (B11): 11315-11326
  • LITHOSPHERIC HEATING BY MANTLE PLUMES GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY Sleep, N. H. 1987; 91 (1): 1-11
  • AN ANALYTIC MODEL FOR A MANTLE PLUME FED BY A BOUNDARY-LAYER GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY Sleep, N. H. 1987; 90 (1): 119-128
  • GRAVITY AND LITHOSPHERIC STRESS ON THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS WITH REFERENCE TO THE THARSIS REGION OF MARS JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Sleep, N. H., Phillips, R. J. 1985; 90 (NB6): 4469-4489
  • A MID-OCEAN RIDGE THERMAL-MODEL - CONSTRAINTS ON THE VOLUME OF AXIAL HYDROTHERMAL HEAT-FLUX JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Morton, J. L., Sleep, N. H. 1985; 90 (NB13): 1345-1353
  • THERMAL SUBSIDENCE AND GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN MICHIGAN BASIN - REPLY AAPG BULLETIN Nunn, J. A., Sleep, N. H., Moore, W. E. 1985; 69 (9): 1404-1404
  • THERMAL CONTRACTION AND FLEXURE OF INTRACRATONAL BASINS - A 3-DIMENSIONAL STUDY OF THE MICHIGAN BASIN GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY Nunn, J. A., Sleep, N. H. 1984; 76 (3): 587-635
  • THERMAL SUBSIDENCE AND GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN MICHIGAN BASIN AAPG BULLETIN-AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS Nunn, J. A., Sleep, N. H., Moore, W. E. 1984; 68 (3): 296-315
  • CONTRACTION AND STRETCHING IN BASIN FORMATION NATURE Sleep, N. H. 1984; 308 (5962): 771-771
  • TAPPING OF MAGMAS FROM UBIQUITOUS MANTLE HETEROGENEITIES - AN ALTERNATIVE TO MANTLE PLUMES JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH Sleep, N. H. 1984; 89 (NB12): 29-41
  • ARCHEAN PLATE-TECTONICS - CONSTRAINTS AND INFERENCES JOURNAL OF GEOLOGY Sleep, N. H., Windley, B. F. 1982; 90 (4): 363-379
  • REINTERPRETATION OF SEISMIC-REFLECTION DATA OVER THE EAST PACIFIC RISE JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH HALE, L. D., Morton, C. J., Sleep, N. H. 1982; 87 (NB9): 7707-7717
  • A KINEMATIC THERMAL HISTORY OF THE EARTHS MANTLE JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH Langan, R. T., Sleep, N. H. 1982; 87 (NB11): 9225-9235
  • THICK SHELL TECTONICS ON ONE-PLATE PLANETS - APPLICATIONS TO MARS JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH Banerdt, W. B., Phillips, R. J., Sleep, N. H., SAUNDERS, R. S. 1982; 87 (NB12): 9723-9733
  • ANTLER OROGENY AND FORELAND BASIN - A MODEL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA BULLETIN Speed, R. C., Sleep, N. H. 1982; 93 (9): 815-828
  • A CONSTRAINT ON THE EARTHS LATERAL HETEROGENEITY FROM THE SCATTERING OF SPHEROIDAL MODE Q-1 MEASUREMENTS BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Sleep, N. H., Geller, R. J., Stein, S. 1981; 71 (1): 183-197
  • THERMAL EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH - SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ADVANCES IN GEOPHYSICS Sleep, N. H., Langan, R. T. 1981; 23: 1-23
  • PLATFORM BASINS ANNUAL REVIEW OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Sleep, N. H., Nunn, J. A., Chou, L. 1980; 8: 17-34
  • USE OF THE MINIMUM-DISSIPATION PRINCIPLE IN TECTONOPHYSICS - COMMENT EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Sleep, N. H., Stein, S., Geller, R. J., Gordon, R. G. 1979; 45 (1): 218-220
  • EARTHQUAKES ALONG THE PASSIVE MARGIN OF EASTERN CANADA GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Stein, S., Sleep, N. H., Geller, R. J., Wang, S. C., KROEGER, G. C. 1979; 6 (7): 537-540

Books and Book Chapters


  • Origins of the plume hypothesis and some of its implications Geological Society of America Special Paper Sleep, N. edited by Foulger, G. R., Jurdy, D. M. Geological Society of America. 2007: 29-45
  • Plate tectonics through time Treatise on Geophysics, Volume 9 Sleep, N. H. edited by Schubert, G. Elsevier, Oxford. 2007: 101-117
  • Impacts and the early evolution of life Comets and the Origin and Evolution of Life Zahnle, K. J., Sleep, N. H. edited by Thomas, P. J., Hicks, R. D., Chyba, C. F., McKay, C. P. Springer, New York. 2006; 2nd: 207-251
  • Dioxygen over geological time Biogeochemical Cycles of Elements Sleep, N. H. edited by Sigel, A., Sigel, H., Sigel, R. O. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL. 2005: 49-73
  • Integrated laboratory compaction data with numerical fault models: a Beyesian framework Baynesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering Fitzenz, D. D., Jalobeanu, A., Hickman, S. H., Sleep, N. H. edited by Knuth, K. H., Abbas, A. E., Morris, R. D., Castle, J. P. American Institute of Physics. 2005: 483-490
  • Models for noble gases in mantle geochemistry: Some observations and alternatives Plates, plumes, and paradigms Meibom, A., Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K., Anderson, D. L., Anderson, D. L. edited by Foulger, G. R., Natland, J. H., Presnall, D. C. 2005: 347-363
  • Dioxygen over geological time Biogeochemical Cycles of Elements Sleep, N. H. edited by Sigel, A., Sigel, H., Sigel, R. O. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL. 2005: 49-73
  • The Physical Setting for Early Life Evolution on Planet Earth Nisbet, E. G., Sleep, N. H. edited by Rothschild, L. J., Lister, A. M. Academic Press, Amsterdam. 2003: 3-34
  • Defection of mantle plume material by cratonic keels The Early Earth: Physical, Chemical and Biological Development Sleep, N. H., Ebinger, C. J., Kendall, J. edited by Fowler et al. Geological Society, London. 2002: 135-150
  • Carbon dioxide cycling through the mantle and implications for the climate of ancient Earth The Early Earth: Physical, Chemical and Biological Development Zahnle, K., Sleep, N. H. edited by Fowler et al. Geological Society of London. 2002: 231-258

Conference Proceedings


Presentations


  • 1985 Atlantis II cruise to the Galapagos propagating rift.

    Location

    Galapagos

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  • 1983. Roots of exhumed oceanic island arc. Nelchina glacier, Alaska.

    Location

    Nelchina Glacier, Alaska

    For More Information:

  • Geophysics 150

    Location

    stanford, ca

    For More Information: