Sustained delivery approaches to improving adaptive immune responses.
Advanced drug delivery reviews
The immune system is one of the most important, complex biological networks regulating and protecting human health. Its precise modulation can prevent deadly infections and fight cancer. Accordingly, prophylactic vaccines and cancer immunotherapies are some of the most powerful technologies to protect against potential dangers through training of the immune system. Upon immunization, activation and maturation of B and T cells of the adaptive immune system are necessary for development of proper humoral and cellular protection. Yet, the exquisite organization of the immune system requires spatiotemporal control over the exposure of immunomodulatory signals. For example, while the human immune system has evolved to develop immunity to natural pathogenic infections that often last for weeks, current prophylactic vaccination technologies only expose the immune system to immunomodulatory signals for hours to days. It has become clear that leveraging sustained release technologies to prolong immunogen and adjuvant exposure can increase the potency, durability, and quality of adaptive immune responses. Over the past several years, tremendous breakthroughs have been made in the design of novel biomaterials such as nanoparticles, microparticles, hydrogels, and microneedles that can precisely control and the presentation of immunomodulatory signals to the immune system. In this review, we discuss relevant sustained release strategies and their corresponding benefits to cellular and humoral responses.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.addr.2022.114401
View details for PubMedID 35750115
Gelation and yielding behavior of polymer-nanoparticle hydrogels.
Journal of polymer science (2020)
2021; 59 (22): 2854-2866
Polymer-nanoparticle hydrogels are a unique class of self-assembled, shear-thinning, yield-stress fluids that have demonstrated potential utility in many impactful applications. Here, we present a thorough analysis of the gelation and yielding behavior of these materials with respect to the polymer and nanoparticle component stoichiometry. Through comprehensive rheological and diffusion studies, we reveal insights into the structural dynamics of the polymer nanoparticle network that identify that stoichiometry plays a key role in gelation and yielding, ultimately enabling the development of hydrogel formulations with unique shear-thinning and yield-stress behaviors. Access to these materials opens new doors for interesting applications in a variety of fields including tissue engineering, drug delivery, and controlled solution viscosity.
View details for DOI 10.1002/pol.20210652
View details for PubMedID 35875706
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9298381
- Gelation and yielding behavior of polymer-nanoparticle hydrogels JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE 2021
Modulation of injectable hydrogel properties for slow co-delivery of influenza subunit vaccine components enhance the potency of humoral immunity.
Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
Vaccines are critical for combating infectious diseases across the globe. Influenza, for example, kills roughly 500,000 people annually worldwide, despite annual vaccination campaigns. Efficacious vaccines must elicit a robust and durable antibody response, and poor efficacy often arises from inappropriate temporal control over antigen and adjuvant presentation to the immune system. In this work, we sought to exploit the immune system's natural response to extended pathogen exposure during infection by designing an easily administered slow-delivery influenza vaccine platform. We utilized an injectable and self-healing polymer-nanoparticle (PNP) hydrogel platform to prolong the co-delivery of vaccine components to the immune system. We demonstrated that these hydrogels exhibit unique dynamic physical characteristics whereby physicochemically distinct influenza hemagglutinin antigen and a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist adjuvant could be co-delivered over prolonged timeframes that were tunable through simple alteration of the gel formulation. We show a relationship between hydrogel physical properties and the resulting immune response to immunization. When administered in mice, hydrogel-based vaccines demonstrated enhancements in the magnitude and duration of humoral immune responses compared to alum, a widely used clinical adjuvant system. We found stiffer hydrogel formulations exhibited slower release and resulted in the greatest improvements to the antibody response while also enabling significant adjuvant dose sparing. In summary, this work introduces a simple and effective vaccine delivery platform that increases the potency and durability of influenza subunit vaccines.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.37203
View details for PubMedID 33955657
Prolonged Codelivery of Hemagglutinin and a TLR7/8 Agonist in a Supramolecular Polymer-Nanoparticle Hydrogel Enhances Potency and Breadth of Influenza Vaccination.
ACS biomaterials science & engineering
The sustained release of vaccine cargo has been shown to improve humoral immune responses to challenging pathogens such as influenza. Extended codelivery of antigen and adjuvant prolongs germinal center reactions, thus improving antibody affinity maturation and the ability to neutralize the target pathogen. Here, we develop an injectable, physically cross-linked polymer-nanoparticle (PNP) hydrogel system to prolong the local codelivery of hemagglutinin and a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist (TLR7/8a) adjuvant. By tethering the TLR7/8a to a NP motif within the hydrogels (TLR7/8a-NP), the dynamic mesh of the PNP hydrogels enables codiffusion of the adjuvant and protein antigen (hemagglutinin), therefore enabling sustained codelivery of these two physicochemically distinct molecules. We show that subcutaneous delivery of PNP hydrogels carrying hemagglutinin and TLR7/8a-NP in mice improves the magnitude and duration of antibody titers in response to a single injection vaccination compared to clinically used adjuvants. Furthermore, the PNP gel-based slow delivery of influenza vaccines led to increased breadth of antibody responses against future influenza variants, including a future pandemic variant, compared to clinical adjuvants. In summary, this work introduces a simple and effective vaccine delivery platform that increases the potency and durability of influenza subunit vaccines.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01496
View details for PubMedID 33404236
Quantifying residue-specific conformational dynamics of a highly reactive 29-mer peptide.
2020; 10 (1): 2597
Understanding structural transitions within macromolecules remains an important challenge in biochemistry, with important implications for drug development and medicine. Insight into molecular behavior often requires residue-specific dynamics measurement at micromolar concentrations. We studied MP01-Gen4, a library peptide selected to rapidly undergo bioconjugation, by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to measure conformational dynamics. We mapped the dynamics of MP01-Gen4 with residue-specificity and identified the regions involved in a structural transformation related to the conjugation reaction. Upon reaction, the conformational dynamics of residues near the termini slow significantly more than central residues, indicating that the reaction induces a structural transition far from the reaction site. Arrhenius analysis demonstrates a nearly threefold decrease in the activation energy of conformational diffusion upon reaction (8.0kBT to 3.4kBT), which occurs across the entire peptide, independently of residue position. This novel approach to EPR spectral analysis provides insight into the positional extent of disorder and the nature of the energy landscape of a highly reactive, intrinsically disordered library peptide before and after conjugation.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-59047-7
View details for PubMedID 32054898