Fibrinogen Induces Microglia-Mediated Spine Elimination and Cognitive Impairment in an Alzheimer's Disease Model.
Cerebrovascular alterations are a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, whether vascular damage contributes to synaptic dysfunction and how it synergizes with amyloid pathology to cause neuroinflammation and cognitive decline remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the blood protein fibrinogen induces spine elimination and promotes cognitive deficits mediated by CD11b-CD18 microglia activation. 3D molecular labeling in cleared mouse and human AD brains combined with repetitive in vivo two-photon imaging showed focal fibrinogen deposits associated with loss of dendritic spines independent of amyloid plaques. Fibrinogen-induced spine elimination was prevented by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation or genetic ablation of CD11b. Genetic elimination of the fibrinogen binding motif to CD11b reduced neuroinflammation, synaptic deficits, and cognitive decline in the 5XFAD mouse model of AD. Thus, fibrinogen-induced spine elimination and cognitive decline via CD11b link cerebrovascular damage with immune-mediated neurodegeneration and may have important implications in AD and related conditions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.014
View details for PubMedID 30737131
Nanomedicine Approaches Against Parasitic Worm Infections.
Advanced healthcare materials
Nanomedicine approaches have the potential to transform the battle against parasitic worm (helminth) infections, a major global health scourge from which billions are currently suffering. It is anticipated that the intersection of two currently disparate fields, nanomedicine and helminth biology, will constitute a new frontier in science and technology. This progress report surveys current innovations in these research fields and discusses research opportunities. In particular, the focus is on: (1) major challenges that helminth infections impose on mankind; (2) key aspects of helminth biology that inform future research directions; (3) efforts to construct nanodelivery platforms to target drugs and genes to helminths hidden in their hosts; (4) attempts in applying nanotechnology to enable vaccination against helminth infections; (5) outlooks in utilizing nanoparticles to enhance immunomodulatory activities of worm-derived factors to cure allergy and autoimmune diseases. In each section, achievements are summarized, limitations are explored, and future directions are assessed.
View details for PubMedID 29602254
Fibrin-targeting immunotherapy protects against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
2018; 19 (11): 1212–23
Activation of innate immunity and deposition of blood-derived fibrin in the central nervous system (CNS) occur in autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms that link disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to neurodegeneration are poorly understood, and exploration of fibrin as a therapeutic target has been limited by its beneficial clotting functions. Here we report the generation of monoclonal antibody 5B8, targeted against the cryptic fibrin epitope γ377-395, to selectively inhibit fibrin-induced inflammation and oxidative stress without interfering with clotting. 5B8 suppressed fibrin-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation and the expression of proinflammatory genes. In animal models of MS and AD, 5B8 entered the CNS and bound to parenchymal fibrin, and its therapeutic administration reduced the activation of innate immunity and neurodegeneration. Thus, fibrin-targeting immunotherapy inhibited autoimmunity- and amyloid-driven neurotoxicity and might have clinical benefit without globally suppressing innate immunity or interfering with coagulation in diverse neurological diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41590-018-0232-x
View details for PubMedID 30323343
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6317891
Fibrinogen Activates BMP Signaling in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells and Inhibits Remyelination after Vascular Damage
2017; 96 (5): 1003-+
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption alters the composition of the brain microenvironment by allowing blood proteins into the CNS. However, whether blood-derived molecules serve as extrinsic inhibitors of remyelination is unknown. Here we show that the coagulation factor fibrinogen activates the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and suppresses remyelination. Fibrinogen induces phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8 and inhibits OPC differentiation into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) while promoting an astrocytic fate in vitro. Fibrinogen effects are rescued by BMP type I receptor inhibition using dorsomorphin homolog 1 (DMH1) or CRISPR/Cas9 activin A receptor type I (ACVR1) knockout in OPCs. Fibrinogen and the BMP target Id2 are increased in demyelinated multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Therapeutic depletion of fibrinogen decreases BMP signaling and enhances remyelination in vivo. Targeting fibrinogen may be an upstream therapeutic strategy to promote the regenerative potential of CNS progenitors in diseases with remyelination failure.
View details for PubMedID 29103804
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5851281
Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation
2015; 6: 8164
Autoimmunity and macrophage recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) are critical determinants of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms that drive immunological responses targeted to the CNS remain largely unknown. Here we show that fibrinogen, a central blood coagulation protein deposited in the CNS after blood-brain barrier disruption, induces encephalitogenic adaptive immune responses and peripheral macrophage recruitment into the CNS leading to demyelination. Fibrinogen stimulates a unique transcriptional signature in CD11b(+) antigen-presenting cells inducing the recruitment and local CNS activation of myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells. Fibrinogen depletion reduces Th1 cells in the multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent antigen presentation, CXCL10- and CCL2-mediated recruitment of T cells and macrophages, respectively, are required for fibrinogen-induced encephalomyelitis. Inhibition of the fibrinogen receptor CD11b/CD18 protects from all immune and neuropathologic effects. Our results show that the final product of the coagulation cascade is a key determinant of CNS autoimmunity.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms9164
View details for Web of Science ID 000363016800002
View details for PubMedID 26353940
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4579523
- Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 alpha in Astrocytes and/or Myeloid Cells Is Not Required for the Development of Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease ENEURO 2015; 2 (2)